Conus  abbai  Poppe  & Tagaro,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Original Description

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 83
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Solor Island, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.5 x 16.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-nobilis abbai forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shells average in size or the group of Conus to which they belong (sensu Tucker & Tenorio 2009 Eugeniconus). The types measure between 33.7 and 52.1 mm in length. Last whorl.conical in shape, almost conoid-cylindrical. Shoulder carinate. Spire low, outline slightly concave. The apex projects from an almost flat spire. Larval shell of about two whorls, tilted. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, slightly concave in the later whorls, with pronounced axial threads. The last whorl with weak spira1 grooves near the siphonal canal. Base color of the shell is white, covered with a brown pattem that only leaves small tents white and with either a dark brown or purple fleck near the siphonal canal, well visible on the ventral side. The white tents are dispersed all over the shell but flock together in three denser zones, forming spiral bands of white dots, one below the shoulder, one at mid-whorl and near the siphonal canal. All shells have a dark brown zone on the shoulder and on top of the last whorllarge white flecks. In some specimens, bands with the typical victor pattern appear but not in black, only in dark brown. The upper teleoconch whorls are more pale than the rest of the shells. Inside of the aperture white.
Discussion:-According to the description the new subspecies can be distinguished at once from all other subspecies of C. nobilis by the sparse and very small white tents on the brown background. In my opinion it is a mere form of the latter.

 

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Conus  abbas  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 750
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Grandes Indes
Type Data: Neotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 60.5 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-abbas
Synonyms:-
grisea Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-S. India and Sri Lanka to Indonesia (Java, Bali)
Habitat:-Shallow water to about 50 m; on coral reefs, often beneath coral boulders.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid; relative weight of similarly sized specimens may vary by 40 %. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate or slightly pyriform; outline convex at adapical third, less so below, and straight to slightly concave at base. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to nearly straight. Larval shell with a maximum diameter of 0.8-0.9 mm. First 3-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 6-12 (or more) weak spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably prominent spiral ribs near base; sometimes additional spiral striae from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white to bluish grey, with axial blue streaks or flames on last whorl. Last whorl with a fine brown to violet- brown reticulate pattern, forming many small rhomboid and tentlike ground colour markings and sparse larger tents. Yellowish brown to brown blotches usually grouped in 2 or occasionally 3-4 spiral bands, interspersed with broad dark brown axial lines and sometimes also with finer spiral lines. Apex pinkish orange. Postnuclear sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern; pattern often only of marginal dots in early whorls. Aperture white, occasionally bluish-white or cream deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-84 mm
RW 0.16-0.50 g/mm (L 40-76 mm)
RD 0.56-0.68
PMD 0.72-0.85
RSH 0.11-0.15
Discussion:-C. abbas resembles C. canonicus,
C. textile and C. dalli. C. canonicus can be distinguished by its more straight-sided and usually conoid-cylindrical last whorl, its pink aperture, and by the small round instead of rhomboid markings of the last whorl pattern. In addition, C. canonicus lacks prominent marginal dots in its early postnuclear whorls.

 

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Conus  abbotti  Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Alan Kohn

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 6. pl. 4, f. 2 & 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Arthurstown, Cat Is., Bahamas
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  jucundus Sowerby iii, 1887
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-jucundus abbotti forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas Platform
Habitat:-Shallow reefs
Description:-Source Cone Shells Walls 1979 C.  jucundus
Moderate weight, thick, with good gloss in fresh specimens; pyriform or low conical, shoulder wide tapering strongly to base; broad spiral ridges basally sometimes granulose and extending posteriorly; spire low, sides straight, sometimes weakly stepped; spire whorls with large low indistinct coronations; body whorl red pink or pale red brown, occasionly olive dark brown; white spiral bands at base midbody shoulder, usually comprising white blotches containing brown spots and streaks; occasionally larger brown spots and axial flammules; spire with alternating blotches of white aand red brown suffused pink; aperture moderate uniform; outer lip convex, fragile; mouth fades violet to pinkish rose; columella not visible.
C .j. fm. abbotti is largely white/pink with red brown dots forming axial flammules; has granulose ridges demarked with distinct spiral lines of brown dots.
Discussion:-The shell somewhat resembles C. inconstans but the brown flecked white mid-body band is broader, the spire more concave and the body whorl more triangular in shape. (The body whorl of C. inconstans is often more turnip-shaped, the sides tapering to a narrow base).

 

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Conus  abbreviatus  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.,  i.,  Conus,  pl. 16, sp. 86
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Wahoo, Sandwich Islands, (Oahu, Hawaii)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-abbreviatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Hawaiian Archipelago; probably Fanning Is. and Enewetak, Marshall Islands.
Habitat:-Abundant on intertidal benches and common on subtidal reef platforms, where size is larger; occurring mainly to 15 m, a few specimens have been dredged in 100 m (Kohn & Weaver, 1962). C. abbreviatus inhabits mainly sand and algal turf on reef limestone (Kohn, 1959 b). C. abbreviatus feeds exclusively on polychaetes, mainly Eunicidae and Nereidae.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually broadly conical, outline variably convex. Shoulder angulate to rounded, tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Larval shell of about 4 whorls. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 2 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak to obsolete spiral ribs on basal third; in smaller specimens, followed by spaced punctate grooves up to shoulder.
Ground colour bluish grey. Last whorl with 2-3 paler spiral bands, at shoulder, below centre and often within adapical third. Very fine brown or olive axial lines usually forming spiral bands above base, centrally and below pale subshoulder band. Variably spaced spiral rows of dark brown dots extending from base to shoulder. Teleoconch sutural ramps with inconspicuous brown dots or fine axial lines between tubercles. Aperture brownish violet, with pale bands below shoulder and at centre.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-58 mm
RW 0.10-0.50 g/mm (L 18-45 mm)
RD 0.70-0.83
PMD 0.83-0.92
RSH 0.09-0.22
Periostracum yellow, thin, and translucent.
Foot pale brown; siphon pale brown, tinged with pink (Kohn, 1959a).
Radular teeth with an adapical barb opposite a long narrow blade extending halfway down the shaft; serration occurs on the inner margin close to the apex; base with a spur (James, 1980).
Discussion:-The endemic Hawaiian species C. abbreviatus is closely related to C. miliaris, which is not known from Hawaii and differs in its smaller maximum size (ca. 40 mm), variously granulose surface and intermittent white dashes usually present within the dotted brown lines around the last whorl, and in the colour pattern of its animal. In spite of a 30-day pelagic period observed both in C. miliaris and C. abbreviatus, and occasional dispersal of C. abbreviatus to the Marshall and Line Is., no intermediates between these two species are known.

 

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Conus  abrolhosensis  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn
 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 142, pl. 28,  f. 7 & 8.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Parcel das Paredes, Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil; 20 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym of  Conus brasiliensis Clench, 1942
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name abrolhosensis

 

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Conus  achatinus  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of  Lectotype

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed., Vol. 1,  pt,  p. 3386
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: American Ocean, (erroneous), corrected (C, M & W) Java, (Indonesia).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1788: Pl.142 fig.1317)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-achatinus
Synonyms:-
achatinus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; ranunculus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792;
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean: Mozambique and Tanzania to W. Australia (absent from the Red Sea); W. Pacific: Philippines to Melanesia and N. and N.E. Australia.
Habitat:-Intertidal and uppermost subtidal; inhabiting sand under rocks, coral rubble and crevices beneath corals. Reported to occur in mixed colonies with C. monachus in E. New Britain (Richards, 1989). C. achatinus is known to prey on small fishes (Kohn & Nybakken, 1975). Egg capsules (N. Australia) within the same cluster vary from 10 x7 mm to 12-13x6-7 mm; capsules of larger females measure 17x13 mm or 19x10 mm. Capsules attached individually to hard substrate.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large (usually larger in India than in the Pacific), moderately solid to solid (lightest specimens from N. Australia). Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; outline slightly to distinctly convex. Specimens from N. Australia with narrowest last whorls, specimens from Oman broadest. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls. About first 5-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably spaced smooth to granulose spiral ribs at base, occasionally to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with large axial clouds of olive or orangish tan to blackish brown. Surface pattern emphasized by bordering blue-grey background clouds. In some subadult specimens, ground orange to red; reddish colouration may persist to the adult stage. Spiral rows of alternating dark and light coloured dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, on spiral ribs where these occur, producing a pronounced lineate pattern. Some specimens highly speckled by scattered white flecks. Larval shell white in E. Africa and Oman, grey to pale brown in India and W. Thailand, grey to red or orange in the Philippines, translucent grey in W. Australia, grey to orange in N. Australia and pale reddish brown in the Solomon Islands. Teleoconch spire with radial markings, matching surface and background clouds of last whorl in colour; on early postnuclear sutural ramps, maculation often reduced to regularly set dots at outer margin. Aperture white to bluish grey.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-82 mm
RW 0.13-0.52 g/mm
RD 0.54-0.69
(N. Australia 0.54-0.59, Oman 0.62-0.69, other localities 0.56-0.65)
PMD 0.73-0.86
RSH 0.11-0.19
Discussion:-

The achatinus-complex has been revised by Monnier, Limpalaër & Robin in Xenophora Taxonomy 1, 2013.

Pioconus arafurensis, Pioconus rouxi and Pioconus koukae are described as valid species; Pioconus Barbara and Pioconus vinctus were re-established as valid species; see there.

 

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Conus  aculeiformis  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 44, sp. 240
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cagayan, Philippines.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:-aculeiformis
Synonyms:-
delicatus Schepman, 1913
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, SE India, S Indonesia
Habitat:-Offshore. In 50-100 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Description: Moderately small to medium-sized, light. Last whorl narrowly conical, outline almost straight. Shoulder angulate to carinate, with a deep exhalent notch. Spire of moderate height, outline variably concave. Larval Shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1 mm. Early postnuclear whorls often stepped. Teleoconch sutural ramps tlat to slightly concave, with 1-3 increasing to 2-5 partly fine spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, axially striate spiral grooves separating very flat ribbons and extending from base to shoulder.
Ground colour cream or beige. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown squarish to rectangular spots on ribbons, often fused into an interrupted spiral band on each side of center. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in pattern. larval whorls grey to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps with connected brown radial blotches. Aperture pale brown, sometimes darker deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-38 mm
RW 0.03-0.05 g/mm
RD 0.40-0.47
PMD 0.86-0.95
RSH 0.17-0.22
Discussion:

 

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Conus  acuminatus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1788, pl. 140,  fig. 1297)

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 688
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Red Sea Indian Ocean, mainly Amboina and the Moluccas, (Indonesia), (erroneous), corrected (C, M & W) Red Sea coast of North Yemen.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1788: Pl. 140 fig. 1297)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus locumtenens Blumenbach, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name acuminatus

 

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Conus  acutangulus  Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in MNHN Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 286
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mers des Grandes Indes
Type Data: Neotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27 x 12.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Turriconus Species:-acutangulus
Synonyms:-
turriculatus Sowerby ii, 1866; gemmulatus Sowerby, 1870
Geographic Range:-Indo-W Pacific
Habitat:-Usually in 3-100 m, adults sometimes in 0.5-5 m, juveniles sometimes as deep as 180 m. On coral or shell sand often mixed with coral rubble, on muddy sand and on fine shell rubble with seaweed .
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium-sized, light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to broadly conical or slightly pyriform; outline nearly straight to slightly sigmoid. Shoulder angulate to carinate, smooth to tuberculate, with a deep exhalent notch. Spire usually high, outline variably concave. Larval shell of 3.5-4 whorls, maximum diameter of 0.8-0.9 mm. First 8-10 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, following whorls undulate to smooth. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0 increasing to 3-6 spiral grooves crossed by arcuate radial threads. Last whorl with strong spiral ribbons or ribs, separated by narrow to occasionally broad spiral grooves with strong axial threads.
Ground colour white. Last whorl variably patterned with light to dark brown: Largely brown except for small scattered ground-colour blotches at shoulder and centre, or white flecked with brown, or white spirally spotted with brown, or all white. Larval whorls white. Spire variably streaked with brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 22-38 mm
RW 0.04-0.13 g/mm
RD 0.65-0.75
PMD 0.80-0.93
RSH 0.23-0.37
Discussion:-C. acutangulus resembles C. milesi, C. praecellens, C. tuberculosus, and C. helgae. C. milesi is smaller (to 27 mm) and has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.49-0.59) and a paucispiral larval shell (1.75-2 whorls). C. praecellens is larger (to 63 mm) and differs in the absence of tubercles on its late postnuclear whorls, the greater number of spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps, and in the lower number of whorls of its larval shell (about 2.5 whorls).

 

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Conus  acutimarginatus  Sowerby ii, 1866

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 328,  pl. 27 (288),  f. 640 & 641
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Florida, Mrs Tombe Taylor from type label. Subsequently designated Islas Chimanas, Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.5 x 10.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-acutimarginatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil, Venezuela.Probably restricted to the beaches of eastern Venezuela and nearby archipelago.
Habitat:-Found on muddy or sandy bottom at depths of 0 to 10 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A small shell, 15 to 20 mm, with a slightly convex body whorl and a not very high rather straight-sided spire. Tops of the whorls flat to slightly concave, shoulder of body whorl sharply angled. The outer lip widens anteriorly and is often slightly curved in the middle. Body whorl with regularly spaced grooves which in most specimens extended from the base to the shoulder. Very rarely some granulation can be noticed on the ridges between the grooves.
Colour greyish white to purplish white with irregular axial patches of dark brown, also brown maculations on the spire. In some specimens narrow spiral lines of very faint white dashes can be distinguished.
Discussion:-C. acutimarginatus could be confused with C. mindanus and C. pusio (which have a different coloration and only regularly spaced grooves near the base of the body whorl), C. pealii (which has a slightly higher, more stepped spire and an outer lip which does not widen anteriorly) and C. nodiferus (which often has distinct brown spots at the shoulder and a more narrow base). The relationship between C. acutimarginatus and C. nodiferus must be further investigated.

 

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Conus adami  Wils, 1988

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris xxvii,  p. 83,  illus., figs. 1-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cape York, Northern Australia
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 71.7 x 49.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus trigonus Reeve, 1848
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-trigonus adami forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Arafura Sea; Gulf of Carpentaria
Habitat:-Deep water 80-150m.Intertidal to about 150 m; typical form to about 60 m, on muddy sand in intertidal habitats and on sand mixed with coral rubble in subtidal habitats.; form adami in 80-150 m in the Gulf of Carpentaria and in the Arafura Sea.
Description:-Source Living Conidae.
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid: form adami lighter than typical form. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical third to two-thirds, straight below. Basal part of columella with waist and weak plait posteriorly. Shoulder angulate; in form adami, shoulder carinate and outwardly curved. Spire low, particularly so in form adami; outline slightly concave to slightly convex or apex protruding from an otherwise flat spire. Larval shell of about 1.5 whorls, maximum diameter 1.6- 1.8 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls smooth, with a broadly carinate inner margin in form adami. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 5-12 spiral grooves that are separated by narrow but pronounced ribs. Last whorl usually with a few weak or strong ribs or ribbons at base; additional ribs may be present below shoulder and in some specimens these are followed by ribbons to base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2 continuous or interrupted yellowish to dark brown spiral bands, usually leaving ground-colour zones of varying width below shoulder, at centre and at base. Dotted or coarse solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder, usually sparse or absent within white zones. Posterior white bands may be interspersed with brown axial markings. White shells intergrade with largely brown shells. In form adami, dark areas variably reduced, central ground-colour band often edged with brown flecks adapically. Larval whorls white or brownish orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial markings, ranging from completely white to nearly solid brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry

RD 0.65-0.76
(-form adami 0.65-0.79)
PMD 0.80-0.93
(- form adami 0.90-0.97)
RSH 0.03-0.12
(- form adami 000-0.05)
Discussion:- All characters of trigonus intergrade between the typical form and form adami; intermediate shells occur at various localities.

 

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Conorbis  adamii  Bozzetti, 1994

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: World Shells 9, 60
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Camotes, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.5 x 8.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Conorbis Species:-adamii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
A biconical shell which is relatively high(40% of length), orthoconic at top and cyrtoconic anteriorly, the protoconch mammillate and smooth, of 2.25 whorls, teleconch of six whorls, the first with rounded profile, the others carinate just above suture. Sculpture of slanting angled ribs and spiral cording, plus in addition there is beaded microsculpture. Protoconch and early whorls white, later whorls straw yellow with reddish brown crescent shaped flammules. On body whorl there are three continuous bands of articulated reddish brown stripes, plus vertical streaks at growth lines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  adamsonii  Broderip, 1836

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 44
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None; Type locality not known, designated (C, M &W) American Samoa.
Type Data: Lectotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-adamsonii
Synonyms:-
cingulatus Sowerby i, 1825; adamsoni Reeve, 1843;
Geographic Range:-C & SW Pacific Coral Sea to French Polynesia
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m, on seaward sides of coral reefs and in lagoons, on large stretches or small pockets of sand (Hart, 1992).
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized, moderately solid to solid; Size varies with location. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conoid- cylindrical to ovate; outline variably convex adapically, less so (right side) or slightly concave (left side) toward base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire low, outline straight to concave. First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with a prominent subsutural ridge and 1 increasing to 3-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with 7-13 well separated punctate spiral grooves on abapical third and 4-9 grooves below shoulder; ribbons between grade to ribs basally and sometimes at shoulder.
Ground colour white, partially suffused with pink to purple. Last whorl with 3 rather broad spiral bands of confluent violet or brown nebulous flecks and tent-like spots, below shoulder, just above centre, and within abapical third, alternating with 3-4 rather narrow spiral zones of very small brown to dark reddish or purplish brown triangular spots. Colour bands contain prominent to obsolete spiral rows of irregularly alternating white and brown dots and dashes. Larval whorls purple. Later postnuclear sutural ramps with purple or brown radial streaks and blotches, and with brown dots on subsutural ridge. Aperture yellow to orange within.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-56 mm
RW 0.22-0.50 g/mm (L 35-44 mm)
(L 35-44 mm)
RD 0.58-0.68
PMD 0.72-0.83
RSH 0.03-0.08
Discussion:-C. adamsonii is so distinctive that it cannot be confused with any of its congeners.

 

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Conus  adansonii  Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Adanson 1757,  pl 6,  fig 6

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 424
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Senegal
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Adanson 1757,  pl. 6,  fig. 6
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus guinaicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name adansonii

 

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Conus  adenensis  Smith, 1891

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 401,  pl. 33, f. 1

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aden
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48 x 21.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus inscriptus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus adenensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal, Somalia, Aden
Habitat:-In 5-85 m, most frequently reported from 40-80 m, sometimes as deep as 150 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. inscriptus
Medium-sized to moderately large, usually moderately solid to solid; shells from Mascarenes, Aden and Red Sea smaller than those from other areas. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to half, usually straight below; left side sometimes concave near base and convex at adapical two-thirds. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, highest in shells from Somalia to Mozambique; outline concave to straight, most frequently straight and sometimes with stepped whorls in E. African shells. In specimens from Mozambique, larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7- 0.8 mm; in specimens from W. Thailand, larval shell of about 1.75 whorls, maximum diameter also 0.7-0.8 mm. First 2-4 postriuclear whorls weakly to distinctly tuberculate, sometimes only first whorl with obsolete tuberculation. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to moderately concave, with 1 increasing to 3-8 spiral grooves, often additional spiral striae in latest whorls; on shoulder ramp, spiral sculpture sometimes consists of 13-15 fine and nearly equal spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, weak to pronounced spiral grooves separated by ribbons on basal third to two-thirds; anteriorly, grooves are wide, often contain spiral threads or fine ribs, and are separated by narrow ribbons or ribs; in E. African specimens, ribbons may have fine to coarse granules at adapical edge.
Ground colour white to beige or pale orange. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown or orange dots, spots, bars or axial streaks, fusing into axial flames and blotches and forming interrupted spiral bands below shoulder and within adapical and abapical thirds. Subshoulder band usually less prominent than anterior bands, sometimes absent. Larval whorls white to beige, adjacent 2 postnuclear sutural ramps of same colour. Following sutural ramps with radial lines to blotches, usually extending over outer margins, matching last whorl pattern in colour. White shells without any pattern remnants occur in the eastern part of the range. Aperture white, beige to orange, pinkish or bluish violet, or pink; in E. African shells, coloured area often with a darker collabral band.
C. adenensis refers to E. African C. inscriptus, ranging from Natal as far north as Somalia. It is characterized by a somewhat higher spire (RSH 0.13- 0.23), a comparatively narrow last whorl (RD 0.52-0.59), and a pink or orange aperture that grades to violet toward southern E. Africa. Richard (1990) considered C. adenensis a valid species. In our opinion, the differences are not sufficient to merit distinction at the species level, and RKK provisionally consider C. i. adenensis a subspecies occurring along the East African coast.
C. i. adenensis East Africa; Narrow more elongate, shoulder roundly angled; spire higher; pale tan to yellowish tan markings leaving large white areas; mouth white with pink orange grading to violet in south
Discussion:-No Data


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Conus  admirationis   Poppe & Tagaro, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype  Guido Poppe

Published in: Visaya, Vol., 4  No. 4 – November, 2015
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines, Sulu Island
Type Data: Holotype will be given to a Philippine institution in due time
Type Size: 59.6 x 25.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species, only known from the holotype
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-admirationis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sulu, Philippines
Habitat:-Only known from the type locality; probable depth about 15 to 30 m
Description:-Original description
Moderately large, moderately solid. The shape is narrowly conoid-cylindrical. The outline of the last whorl slightly convex. The shape of aperture is wider at the base than near the shoulder. The shoulder is is angulate and smooth. The outline of the spire is concave. The protoconch shows 10 whorls. The teleoconch whorls have well defined teleoconch sutural ramps with spiral groves of different width. The spiral grooves are alternating deep and shallow, resulting in a strange sculpture in which one sees 18 strong grooves with each time a deep groove in between.

Protoconch and top whorls are white with a pastel shine of orange and pink. The colors become more pronounced near the shoulder. The base color of the body whorl is white and this covered with irregular pale orange and pink flecks. There are two pale bands on the lower half of the body whorl, separated by a quite narrow darker band. The inside of the aperture is white.
Shell Morphometry
L 59.6
RD 0.49
PMD 0.86
RSH 0.12
Discussion:-C. admirationisis similar to C. oishii shape. The latter species differs in size and has a less angulated shoulder.

 

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Conus  advertex  Garrard, 1961

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust., no. 5,  p. 30,  pl. 1,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Moreton Is., Queensland, Australia; 80 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Now regarded as a valid species;  seen as asynonym form of Conus angasi Tryon, 1884 for a long time.
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-angasi advertex forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Queensland, Australia; New South Wales
Habitat:-Deep Water. Form advertex is reported from sand bottom and seems to have a more limited bathymetric range (120-200 m).
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. angasi
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid; form advertex (Pl. 60, Figs. 19, 20) of smaller maximum size than typical form (Pl. 60, Figs. 16-18). Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical or broadly and ventricosely conical, form advertex often broader than typical form; outline convex at adapical third, straight below. Basal part of columella with a strong dentiform plait at its posterior end. Shoulder angulate, subangulate in large specimens. Spire low and usually with concave outline in form advertex, of low to moderate height and usually with slightly sigmoid outline in typical form. Larval shell of 1.75-2 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1-1.3 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-8 spiral grooves, with additional spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with rather closely spaced spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with pinkish to light brown spiral bands below shoulder, above centre and within basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots, dashes, spots and bars extending from base to shoulder, usually concentrated and partially fused near and within the spiral colour bands. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial streaks usually extending beyond outer margins. Aperture white, tinged with cream and pink deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-46 mm
(form advertex 27 - 37 mm)
RW 0.08-0.20 g/mm (L 27-46 mm)
(L 27-46 mm)
RD 0.65-0.71
(form advertex 0.66 - 0.75)
PMD 0.77-0.89
(form advertex 0.81 - 0.90)
RSH 0.08-0.19
(form advertex 0.01 - 0.09)
Discussion:-The conchological differences between C. angasi and C. advertex do not justify separation at the species level. Because they occur sympatrically, C. advertex should be provisionally considered a form of C. angasi (see Walls, [1979]; Coomans et al., 1979b;  Richard, 1990).

 

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Conus  aegrotus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  Suppl., pl. v, sp. 250
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) West Negros, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.5 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus aegrotus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sulu Sea, Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. furvus
-C. aegrotus : With dotted spiral lines on white ground.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  aemulus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 46,  f. 256
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Mussulo Bay, Angola
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-aemulus
Synonyms:-
tamsianus Dunker, 1855
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source:Walls
Light in weight, with a low gloss; conical with a moderate spire and narrow body whorl with straight sides; a few weak ridges basally; shoulder rounded ;spire bluntly pointed, early whorls eroded, sides straight; body whorl bluish white to pale grey with spiral lines of alternating white and brown spots separated by bluish background; white spots fuse to triangles sometimes; often interrupted brown bands form ;basal area usually heavy pattern of brown spiral dashes and axial blotches; shoulder with bluish white elongate blotches running onto spire; spire marked as shoulder, often eroded; aperture moderately wide basally, narrow posteriorly; outer lip thin curved; mouth white then brown band then deep brown violet;
Lots of variation in pattern, at one extreme bluish shells covered with numerous brown and white spiral dashes and some brown blotches; blotches fuse spiral or axially
Source Iconography:
Shell of medium size, moderately light, the last whorl broadly and ventricosely conical, shoulder subangulated. Outline convex at adapical half and straight below. Spire moderately high. Sutural ramps flat to slightly concave with fine axial growth lines. Last whorl smooth and dull with a few grooves at base.
Ground colour of the shell bluish white, with brown bands of different width at shoulder, above center and at base and with numerous spiral rows of brown dots, often alternating with white dashes or dots; some specimens are uniformly brown and even bluish specimens occur. Aperture white to light violet.
Discussion:-Similar to C. guinaicus but C. aemulus has a smooth spire, straight shell profile and colour pattern including white spiral lines with brown dots.
C. hybridus is a narrower, lighter shell from Senegal.

 

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Conus  aequipunctatus  Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii, fasc. 18,  p. 31,  pl. I, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) Red Sea coast at Jeddah, (Saudi Arabia)
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53.3 x 29.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Puncticulis Species:-arenatus aequipunctata forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea, Gulf Aden
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 30 m, living almost exclusively in sand. Mainly on wide stretches of sand on intertidal to shallow-subtidal reef flats; occasionally also in rubble mixed with sand, in mud among mangroves or on heterogeneous reef substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae C. arenatus.
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy; maximum size smaller in eastern populations. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical in eastern populations, conical to sometimes broadly conical in the W. Indian Ocean; outline convex, sometimes straight centrally. Siphonal fasciole distinct, occasionally separated from basal zone by an incision. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, weakly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to moderately convex. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base; in subadults and small adults, ribs may be granulose and extend to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown or black dots, clustered in 2-3 interrupted spiral bands or in axial zigzag flames; dotted areas often with underlying grey shadows, most conspicuous within spiral bands. Opaque white dashes often irregularly alternating with dark dots. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably maculated with axial clusters of brown and black dots. Aperture white, brown or pinkish orange deeper within.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-67 mm
(eastern populations; 35-90 mm W. Indian Ocean populations)
RW 0.20-1.10 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.72
PMD 0.75-0.85
(eastern populations; 0.84 - 0.89 W. Indian Ocean populations)
RSH 0.08-0.19
Discussion:-Coomans et al. recognize 3 geographical subspecies: C. a. arenatus (Indonesia and Pacific); C. a. aequipunctatus (Red Sea; Gulf of Aden) and C. a. bizona (Kenya to Thailand). However, the pattern differences between the two western subspecies are not constant. Although C. a. bizona was described as having two bands and C. a. aequipunctatus as having three, the third band is incomplete or lacking in some specimens from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and it is present in some specimens from Sri Lanka. As noted above, W. Indian Ocean shells differ in size and shape from those farther east.

 

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Conus  africanus  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. pl. 104,  f. 2

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.  2,  p. 260, pl. 104, f. 2
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Coast of Guinea
Type Data: There is a cited figure : Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. pl. 104,  f. 2
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-africanus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Sand near rocks
Description:-Source Rolán and Röckel, 2000
Small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl broadly and ventricosely conical to broadly ovate, outline convex at adapical third, slightly concave; near base. Aperture moderate. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl almost smooth and dull, with about 10 weak spiral grooves near base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl and spire with dark brown blotches and streaks turning into bands and dashes. Aperture white, occasionally with a brown fleck deep inside.
Shell morphometry:
L 17-25 mm (holotype: 30 mm)
RD 0.65-0.72
RSH 0.0.11-0.18
PMD 0.70-0.75
Source Iconography
The shell is small, moderately high and moderately solid, the last whorl is broadly and ventricosely conical to ovate, shoulder rounded. Outline convex at adapical third, near base. Spire low to moderately high, straight to slightly convex. Sutural ramps flat to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with about 10 spiral grooves at base.
Ground colour of the shell is white, with dark brown blotches and streaks turning into bars and dashes. Aperture white.
Discussion:-Similar in shape, size to C. bulbus but that has a pattern of axial streaks without any spiral bands. The colour pattern and white aperture separate it from C. variegatus.

 

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Conus  agassizii  Dall, 1886

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xii,  no. 6,  pl. 9, f. 8 & 8a
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off St. Croix, Virgin Is.
Type Data: Lectotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.4 x 11. 3mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus agassizii subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-A deepwater species occurring in the Eastern Caribbean and off Brazil with records from off  St. Croix, off Barbados and off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Habitat:-Dredged from sand and shell gravel-rubble bottoms at depths of 50 to 250 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 25 to 35 mm (up to 55 mm in specimens from Bermuda) with slightly convex sides of the body whorl and a typical outline of the spire, i.e. strongly concave whorls, while the spire itself is rather straight and producing an angle of 80 to 90deg. Shoulder angled, usually concave above, body whorl with about 10 rather deeply incised spiral lines near the base. In juvenile specimens the grooves may extend to the shoulder. Aperture widened anteriorly. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, mamillate, early whorls less concave than later whorls, smooth. There are pustulouse forms of C. mindanus which usually have a nodulous shoulder of the body whorl and of one or two penultimate whorls. Also in smooth specimens the shoulder of the body whorl may be somewhat undulate or close to coronate.
C. mindanus agassizii differs from typical C. mindanus in being a less heavy, somewhat larger, and more slender shell.  The outer lip is often slightly concave at midbody. Typical specimens from Barbados have a beautiful pink background with darker pink and yellow maculations and with spiral rows of predominantly milk-white dashes. Dead collected specimens from Mustique are white with spiral rows of milk-white dashes. Specimens from Brazil are larger (up to 50 mm) with often brownish maculations and more prominent reddish brown dashes.
Discussion:-The shells that are commonly offered as this subspecies are wrongly identified. The real agassizii is a Caribbean shell; the shells from Brazil that are on the market as such are different. Some authors believe they deserve a new name.

See here: link

 

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Conus  agulhasi  Coomans,  Moolenbeek  &  Wils,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Naturalis, Leiden  Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Basteria 44,  p. 20, f. 68 a-b
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Cape Agulhas, South Africa; under rocks and mud at 60 m
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.4 x 11.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis agulhasi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Agulhas, South Africa
Habitat:-Under rocks and mud
Description:-Source Iconograhy

Small to moderately small-sized shell (15-30 mm). ). Very similar to C. a. algoensis Ground colour of the shell is white, with a bluish or pinkish shade. Pattern reduced to a broad spiral brown band below the shoulder. Basal region stained with brown, occasionally in form of diffuse axial flecks. Spire white, patternless but sometimes with traces of a brown colour immediately above the suture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  aito   Rabiller & Richard, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Michael Rabiller

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 5; P. 37–38, Pl. 5, fig. 1-4 & 7-12
Ocean geography: French Polynesia
Type Locality: Niau Atoll
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57,5 x 22,4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-
Asprella Species:-aito
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Society Archipelago (Island of Tahiti) and Tuamotu Archipelago

( Kaukura, Tikehau & Niau atolls)
Habitat:-Collected dead in depths going from 300 down to 600 m
Description:-Original Description

A medium sized to moderately large and solid shell, with anarrowly conoid-cylindrical shape topped by a straight sided spire of moderate to elevated height. Although being the best preserved, the holotype’s protoconch is too much damaged to determine with certainty whether or not development is multi-spiral or paucispiral. Based on the aspect of the damaged earlier whorl being flatter along a light, disjunct axis, it appears to us the protoconch is probably paucispiral. Base of the protoconch appears smooth and a white to grayish-white color. The seven post-nuclear whorls are strongly tuberculate, with a flat sutural ramp bearing four spiral grooves. Its color is white with thin, axial yellow strips. The straight-sided spire, of relatively elevated height, on the holotype has 12 whorls. Along each of its whorls, the spire shows a deep and wide suture with a flat to slightly concave sutural ramp ornamented with four spiral grooves, accentuated with a kind of sub-sutural ride along their base. Strongly tuberculate towards the protoconch, the late teleoconch becomes increasingly smooth. If tubercles don’t disappear on the late whorls, yellow strips become increasingly visible. The shoulder is angulate and weakly nodulose. The body whorl shows a narrowly conoid-cylindrical shape. It presents straight edges from the anterior end to shoulder. Spiral grooves on the entire body whorl are very thin. Encircling spaced-out lines are more and more frequent and visible toward the base of the shell. The basic tint of the body whorl is a glossy ivory. It is ornamented with numerous interrupted, dark-yellow axial lines. The highest density of coloured axial lines makes up two spiral bands, situated on each side of the body whorl center. The pale lilac aperture is slightly wider at base. The anal canal is quite large, channeled and lightly separated from the glacis of the sutural ramp.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  akabensis  Sowerby iii,  1887

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. V, 2nd suppl.,  p. 273,  pl. 36 (512*),  f. 75
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Akaba, Red Sea.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus quercinus [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-quercinus akabensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea
Habitat:-Subtidal, to more than 70 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. q. akabensis from Red Sea, retain high spire and slender body and are completely white without pattern
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  alabaster  Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl., pl. 5,  sp. 257
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China Seas
Type Data: Neotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27 x 13.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-alabaster
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W Indonesia; S Sulu Sea
Habitat:-Offshore 20-50 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, usually moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline variably convex adapically, less so to straight below; left side constricted at base or concave basally. Siphonal fasciole may be prominent and basal part of columella deflected to left. Shoulder sharply angulate to slightly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height; outline deeply concave, rather flat in late whorls. Larval shell of 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.9 mm. First 3- 6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with rather widely spaced, narrow and sometimes finely granulose major spiral ribs; interspaces with axial threads crossing spiral threads and sometimes 1-2 additional minor spiral ribs.
Ground colour white. Last whorl immaculate, sometimes with sparse light brown axial lines or streaks adapically. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch spire immaculate, sometimes with small light brown radial markings. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-41 mm
RW 0.09-0.15 g/mm
RD 0.52-0.58
PMD 0.82-0.87
RSH 0.10-0.14
Discussion:-C. alabaster is similar to C. mucronatus, C. asiaticus, and C. sculpturatus
C. alabaster differs from C. mucronatus in having a lower spire (RSH 0.10-0.14) that is rather flat in the latest whorls, and in more prominent spiral sculpture on the last whorl, consisting of narrow ribs rather than broad ribbons: its surface is usually immaculate white. Sometimes with small radial marking.
C. alabaster has a lower spire (RSH 0.10-0.14) than C. asiaticus with a more concave outline that is rather flat in the late whorls; the spiral elevations on the last whorl are narrower and the color pattern lacks the brown axial streaks.

 

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Conus  alainallaryi  Bozzetti  &  Monnier,  2009

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Malacologica 65, 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Isla Tortuguilla, Colombia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-alainallaryi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Colombia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Profile conical, spire low with straight outline, shoulder subangulate, body whorl straight on right side of apertural view, slightly sigmoid at left side. Background colour deep orange with a wide, light grey/withish spiral band in the central area, irregularly bordered by brown flammulae/blotches: 2 similar, spiral lines of brownish dots concentrated on the central band and oddly on the remainder of body whorl walls. Apex and first teleoconch ramp whitish, following ones with articulate pattern of white and orange or brown blotches. Inside of outer lip light orange, inside of aperture lilac-violet with lighter spiral bands corresponding to external ones.
Discussion:-The spire of C. kulkulcan is smaller , thicker and lighter. Its spire is more convex and has 11-14 knobs per whorl with an strongly coronate shoulder.It has aless glossy surface and much more variable colour pattern.
C. rosalindensis is smaller, thicker and less elongate, with lower spire and coronate shoulder.

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Conus  albellus  Röckel  & Korn, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum Nr. 2, p. 11,  pl. 3,  f. 1-5,  pl. 4, f. 1-7,  pl. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: SE Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.6 x 22.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus limpusi Röckel & Korn, 1990
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-limpusi albellus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Queensland
Habitat:-form albellus was dredged from blue-grey mud and shell substrate.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical, outline convex adapically and less so to straight toward base; left side constricted just above base. In form albellus (Pl. 58, Figs. 13-15), last whorl generally less ventricose and more straight-sided than in typical form. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate in large specimens. Spire of low to moderate height, generally higher in typical form than in form albellus; outline concave to almost straight. Larval shell of 1.75-2 whorls, maximum diameter 1.2-1.3 mm. First 2-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; in similarly sized specimens, typical form with slightly more postnuclear whorls than form albellus (L 45 mm: ca. 9.25 vs. ca. 8.5 whorls). Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with spiral ribs, ribbons and threads extending from base to shoulder in variable sequence; grooves between axially striate, wider towards base.
In form albellus, sculpture of last whorl usually less prominent, with ribs concentrated near base and below shoulder and ribbons between; large specimens sometimes nearly smooth adapically.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with brown spots, streaks, flames and blotches fusing into 3 interrupted to solid spiral bands, just below shoulder and above as well as below centre; specimens of typical form may have additional spiral rows of small brown spots and narrow bars. Shells nearly without any pattern elements intergrade with shells that have almost solid brown last whorls. In form albellus, pattern elements usually sparse and less prominent than in typical form, white shells more frequent. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial markings partially extending beyond outer margins and matching last whorl pattern in prominence. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-55 mm
RW 0.11-0.37 g/mm
RD  0.55 - 0.66 form albellus
PMD 0.80-0.88
RSH 0.07 - 0.16 form albellus
Form C. l. albellus higher spire, body sculpture less prominent; some flat areas; pattern less prominent, some white shells


Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  albicans  Sowerby ii, 1857

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. Iii, p. 3,  pl. 5 (191), f. 98
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus albicans forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. furvus
-C. albicans : Last whorl conical. Shoulder often distinctly tuberculate. Colour white, except for violet base; with sparse remnants of spirally aligned dots on last whorl. According to RKK form albicans may be considered a subspecies from N. Indonesia and Palawan, S.W. Philippines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  albonerosa  Garrard, 1966

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

 

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust. no. 10,  p. 11,  pl. 1,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Wide Bay, Queensland, Australia; 35 fathoms.
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 110 x 62 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  quercinus [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-quercinus albonerosa forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Australia, Philippines
Habitat:-Subtidal, to more than 70 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C.  albonerosa white shells from Queensland, Solomons, New Guinea missing spiral grooves on whorls.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  albuquerquei  Trovao,  1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CPAS A. Monteiro

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Bol. Cent. Port. Activ. Subaq. ser. IV-N-4,  p. 11,  pl. I,  f. 1-1b,  pl. II,  f. 2-2a,  pl.
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Angola (between 13deg 26' S. 12deg 30' S); 4-10 m
Type Data: Holotype in CPAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12.7 x 7.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-albuquerquei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola, only found in Santa Maria
Habitat:-On stones, between 4-10 m, on sandy bottom; buried in sand intertidal to as deep as 3 m, under large rocks.
Description:-Source Rolán & Röckel, 2000
Shell description: Very small to small, light to moderately light. Last whorl ovate to ventricosely conical, outline convex at ad apical third, almost straight or slightly sigmoid below. Left side concave at base. Shoulder rounded, spire low to moderate, outline straight, convex or sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps
Colour dark to blackish brown, with axial white bars and streaks, sometimes with short spiral dashes, usually forming a broad spiral band at centre. Bars and streaks may change into rl)ore numerous axial white streaks. Irregular white spots at shoulder and base. Periostracum smooth and translucent
Shell morphometry:
L 12-17 mm
RD 0.68.0.74
RSH 0.10.-0.16
PMD 0.71-0.77
RW 0.04-0.06 g/mm
Discussion:-C. albuquerquei is similar to C. nobrei. The shell morphometry is identical, and also the radula teeth are not significantly different. Most different is the shell-pattern, but the population of Canoco seems to be an intergradation of both patterns. Therefore we can only provisionally accept separation of these species.

 

----------

 

Conus  albus  Sowerby iii,  1887

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. v 2nd suppl., p. 274, pl. 36 (512*), f. 76
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 48 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus albus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. furvus
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  alconnelli  da Motta, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 7,  p. 5, f. 2 a. & b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Richard Bay to Park Rynie, South Africa; dredged in 55 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 61.5 x 29.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-alconnelli
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Africa - Oman; Mascarenes
Habitat:-Inhabits zone of sand and sponges along the inner continental shelf.
Description:-Shell medium-sized to moderately large ( 40-90 mm). Conical shape with an angulate shoulder and a spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to sigmoid or concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 5-6 spiral grooves. The last whorl has a distinct yellow or pale cream colour, sometimes with brown axial dashes on the shoulder, which has a distinctly lighter colour. The spire is patternless, mostly white, eventually suffused with yellow. Aperture white to pale yellow.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  alexandrei  Limpalaër  &  Monnier, 2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (5),  21
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, North of Mindanao, Philippines, (50 - 250 mtrs)
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.4 x 17.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-alexandrei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Fiji, Vanuatu
Habitat:-Found at depths of 50-250 m
Description:-Source Original Description
The ground color of the shell is pinkish with a white band in the middle of the last whorl and at the base. There are also axial orange blurred flammules on the last whorl leaving a paler zone in the middle. The pattern is made of fifteen to eighteen orange brown spiral lines of dashes as wide as the low ribbons. Some of these contain white dots. This last character is more often seen in bigger shells. The spire is white with orange brown blotches irregularly scattered.
Discussion:-

----------

 

Conus  alexandremonteiroi  Cossignani,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia, p. 9
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality:
Cayos Miskitos, arcipelago in prossimitŕ della

costa nord-orientale del Nicaragua
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 18,09 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym (juvenile specimen) of  Conus cerutttii  Cargile, 1997
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-ceruttii f. alexandremonteiroi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Nicaragua, Honduras
Habitat:-
Description:-Source Original description  Malacologia
Elongated shell small, covertly cylindrical mandrel, smooth, almost marble,

with a ten spiral grooves in the anterior end. The first laps are nodulose, but there is a gentle stair stepping, anterior notch absent, the protoconch

is paucispirale.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  alfi  Thach, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Naturalis Center of Biodiversity, Leiden  Dr. Thach

Published in: Vietnamese New Mollusks. No. 13 & 236 to 238
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: off Phan Rang area, Ninh Thuận Province, Central Vietnam
Type Data: Lectotype in NCBL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 70.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available Name
Taxonomy: A synonym of Conus planorbis vitulinus Hwass, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-planorbis vitulinus f. alfi
Synonyms:

Geographic Range:-Vietnam
Habitat:-
Sand near rocks
Description:-Original Description
Shell large for the genus robust and moderately heavy with ventricosely conical body whorl. Spire low with slightly concave outline. Shoulder angulate. Teleconch sutural ramp concave with  four spiral grooves crossing fine oblique radial riblets (grooves are obsolete at last spire whorl). Body whorl elongate occupying 95.7% of shell length with largest diameter 40.2mm and outline straight at left side, slightly concave at right side of aperture. Outer surface ornamented with dark brown radial stripes at spire and many brown dots arranged into spiral band at anterior 1/3 of body whorl. Sculpture consists of fine axial grooves crossing spiral riblets, forming weak reticulate appearance that is well visible at left dorsum of body whorl. Strong raised granulose spiral ribs present at Ľ anterior body whorl.  Base sculptured with three prominent spiral ribs. Aperture elongate and widening anteriorly, outer lip thick. Color orange brown with white wavy axial stripes at purple base, a white spiral band below shoulder and another narrower white spiral band at Ľ anterior body whorl.

Discussion:-A gerontic specimen of  Conus planorbis vitulinus Hwass, 1792

 

----------

 

Conus  algoensis  Sowerby ii,  1834

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Illus., pt. 54, f. 66
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Table Bay, S. Africa (Kilburn, 1971)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis
Synonyms:-
scitulus Reeve, 1849; simplex Sowerby ii, 1858; agulhasi Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils, 1980
Geographic Range:-Saldanha - Cape Peninsula, RSA
Habitat:-Intertidal to over 50 m depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Moderately small to medium-sized (20-45 mm) shell. Last whorl ventricosely conical, with a subangulate shoulder. Spire moderate to high, often stepped, with a straight or slightly sigmoid profile and a prominent white protoconch. Slightly concave teleoconch sutural ramps with radial arcuate threads, and also with 3-5 very faint, obsolete spiral striae often present. Last whorl with spiral ribs on basal third, stronger towards the base. Ground colour of the shell white, slightly yellowish towards the base. Aperture mostly white, often with a diffuse orange-brown colour in the upper part of the interior. The pattern of the last whorl consists of large brown or orange-brown blotches arranged in the form of three irregular spiral bands: one wider and more uniform below the shoulder, the other narrower , often interrupted, above the mid-portion of the body, and a third one quite irregular, interrupted with white flecks or streaks, covering most of the basal third. White color predominates around the central region, usually covered with axial brown streaks. Spiral rows of brown dots are also present in some specimens. The brown colour may eventually cover most of the last whorl leaving only one central irregular white band. In some populations the brown colour may be almost completely absent, the result entirely white. The spire is predominantly white, covered by thin axial flecks. In specimens with high stepped spires the sutural ramps may show brown colour in the region immediately above the suture.
Discussion:-C. algoensis algoensis: body whorl mostly brown except for white shoulder blotches and broken white band at midbody;base whitish with broad brown band above 25-35 mm from western side of Cape.
C.  algoensis scitulus: body whorl mostly whitish with broad and distinct shoulder band (orange fading brown) basal band weak; irregular spiral bands of square brown spots occasionally an orange midbody band; 25-40 mm Hermanus to Cape Agulhas;
C.  algoensis simplex: basal band absent; shoulder to base axial bands of orange or brown; spiral rows of brown spots absent; Eastern Cape.

 

 

Conus  algoensis  f. agulhasi  Coomans,  Moolenbeek  &  Wils, 1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Basteria 44,  p. 20, f. 68a-b
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Cape Agulhas, South Africa; under rocks and mud at 60 m.
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.4 x 11.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis agulhasi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Agulhas, South Africa
Habitat:-Under rocks and mud
Description:-Source Iconograhy. Small to moderately small-sized shell (15-30 mm). ). Very similar to C. a. algoensis Ground colour of the shell is white, with a bluish or pinkish shade. Pattern reduced to a broad spiral brown band below the shoulder. Basal region stained with brown, occasionally in form of diffuse axial flecks. Spire white, patternless but sometimes with traces of a brown colour immediately above the suture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus algoensis  norpothi   Lorenz, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in  MNHN  Felix Lorenz

Picture Link: Feliz Lorenz

 

Published in: Conchylia 45 (1-2), p. 51 - 54
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: On a “solid reef” near Dyer Island, Cape Agulhas
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35,3
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A subspecies of Conus  algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis norpothi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Atlantic side of the Cape Peninsula to Cape Agulhas, RSA
Habitat:-At 23 -   3332 mtrs
Description:-Source original description
Medium sized shell. Last whorl is narrow conical, with straight sides. The aperture is moderately wide, especially anteriorly. The spire is pointed, slightly stepped, the outline straight. The suture is narrow and shallow. The smooth protoconch is large and inflated, paucispiral, concisting of two whorls without transitional line to the postnuclear whorls, of which there are six. Five postnuclear show indistinct, yet discernible tubercles. The body whorl has a smooth, acutely angled shoulder. The postnuclear sutural ramps are concave, with faint radial threads. The body whorl is smooth, with several irregular shallow longitudinal bulges and growth-lines basally. There are fine indistinct spiral ribs towards the anterior canal.

The ground color of the teleoconch is gray-white. There are three dark brown zones covering the dorsum. They are interrupted by paler bands of white blotches of irregular shape. The shoulders of the teleoconch whorls are ornamented with regular white and dark brown radial blotches. The interior of the shell is purplish brow.
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  algoensis  f. scitulus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus. Suppl.,  pl. ix,  sp. 283
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 9 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis scitulus forma
Synonyms:-
danieli Crosse, 1858
Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:-Intertidal to over 50 m depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Small to medium-sized shell (15-40mm). Looks a lot like C. a. algoensis but usually with a lower spire and a more rounded shoulder. The ground colour of the shell is white with a bluish shade. The pattern consists of a broad brown band (occasionally red-brown or even blood-red) below the shoulder, and many spiral lines of alternating white bars and brown dots on the last whorl. Axial brown streaks often present in variable numbers, especially around the basal region. Spire colour and pattern as in C. a. algoensis.
Discussion:-No Data

 

Conus algoensis  f. simplex  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 31, pl. 9 (195),  f. 199
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: East Indies; Corrected to Simonstown, False Bay, SA
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis simplex forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. False Bay, RSA
Habitat:-Intertidal to over 50 m depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Moderately small (25-35 mm), but specimens from the population of Simons Harbour and Windmill Beach are unusually large, attaining more than 70 mm in length. Last whorl conical, with a subangulate to rounded shoulder and straight sides. Spire of moderate height, with a straight profile, occasionally stepped. Sutural ramps slightly concave. Spiral ribs present around the basal region. Ground colour of the shell white. Aperture wider than in C. a. algoensis, often with adapically flaring lip. The aperture is white, with a diffuse orange-brown axial blotch in the upper part of the inner region. The pattern of the last whorl consists of interrupted brown axial streaks, and an interrupted spiral broad band below the shoulder, absent in certain specimens. Scattered brown dots and dashes are often present. The spire is patterned with thin brown axial flecks or streaks.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  alisi  Moolenbeek,  Röckel  &  Richard,  1995

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. clxvii,  p. 559,  figs. 2, 4, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Norfolk Ridge New Caledonia (23 deg 18 min S. 168 deg 05 min E); 330-367 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.2 x 12.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-alisi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-300 metres
Description:-Source Original description
Small shell, low biconic, slightly pyriform, fragile. Colour of protoconch opaque white.Teleoconch consists of 6.0 whorls, spire slightly stepped. First teleoconch whorl with two spiral grooves gradually increasing to 3 on the last whorl; grooves rather strong. Whorls slightly stepped with a strong, smooth adapical rim above suture. Outline of the spire slightly convex. Body whorl slightly pyriform with about 11 spiral grooves at the base. Sculpture smooth with very fine hardly visible spiral striae. Aperture straight , rather wide, outer lip thin. Colour light violet-grey, with about 18 spiral rows of very fine brown spots; paratypes are often pure white but sometimes light orange with irregular and cloudy white and brown spots; often also with spiral lines of brown dots.in the middle an irregular band of white and brown cloudy blotches. Smaller white blotches are situated on the upper part. Shoulder rim white, with 12 brown spots. These spots are also visible on the earlier whorls.
Discussion:-C. alisi is very similar to C. dayriti and can be distinguished mainly by its larger and different coloured (white with a brown blotch vs light brown) protoconch, slightly stepped spire whorls, stronger spiral grooves on spire whorls, and its often pure white colouration.

 

----------

 

Conus  allamandi  Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH  D. Sargent
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 221-222; p. 111, fig. 7.11, f
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic
Type Locality: Sandy Bay, northwestern coast of Roatan Island, Honduras
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.2 x 7.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-JASPIDICONUS
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-allamandi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Honduras
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-: Shell elongated and cylindrical, with slightly convex sides; shoulder angled, edged with strong rounded cord; subtural area sharply sloping to edge of shoulder; spire high, pyramidal, with slightly convex whorls; shell sculptured with 15-16 large rounded spiral cords, each pair separated by deep spiral groove, giving shell rough appearance; spiral cords on anterior half of shell ornamented with small beads; spire whorls and subsutural area with single low, broad cord; aperture narrow, flaring slightly at anterior end; shell color deep chocolate-brown or blackish-brown, overlaid with variable amounts of pale blue or bluish-white spotting and small amorphous flammules; spiral cords often with alternating pale blue and chocolate-brown spots; interior of aperture dark purple-brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  allaryi  Bozzetti,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Original Description
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mostra Mondiale Malacologia 61
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: San Antonio Bay, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.95 x 14.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-allaryi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-:A broadly ventricosely conical shell, sometimes approaching broadly ovate, spire of moderate height with moderately sigmoid outline, shoulder subangulate, body whorl straight on right side of apertural view, concave 1/3 anterior and convex superiorly on left side; protoconch dome shaped; aperture narrow, slightly expanded at the anterior sinus, suture incised, subsutural ramp sculptured by 6-8 spiral grooves and thick radial growth striae; surface of the body whorl covered by spiral cordlets and thick axial growth striae; background color white with a light grey spiral band in the central area, body whorl covered by axially elongated brown flammules, irregularly joined and alternately forming discontinuous spiral bands under the shoulder and rthe central position; color uniformly brown with scarce white blotches on the base; first teleoconch ramps lilac-grey following ones white with radial evenly spaced blotches; protoconch white; inside of the aperture lilac-grey with white spiral bands at the posterior end and under the central area.
Discussion:-No Data

 

-----------

 

Conus  alrobini  Thach, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Naturalis Biodiversity Centrum, Leiden  Dr. Thach

Published in:  Vietnamese New mollusks. Nş 9 & 221
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Southeast of Nha Trang area, Khánh Hňa Province (Central Vietnam)

Type Data: Holotype in NBCL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 106.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of Conus tribblei  Walls, 1977
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-tribblei f. alrobini
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:- Vietnam
Habitat:-
Deep sea (about 180m depth)
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell large for the genus and solid with broadly conical body whorl. Spire moderately tall and dome-shaped with pointed apex, sutures deep. Shoulder sharply angulate with concave area below, teleconch sutural ramps slightly concave with about three spiral grooves crossed by oblique radial riblets. Body whorl elongate occupying 93% of shell length with largest diameter 53.7mm and outline strongly concave at anterior left side of aperture and at the middle of right side of aperture. Sculpture consists of fine closely-spaced axial riblets crossing weak and widely-spaced spiral ribs. Base with a prominent ridge crossed by strong and elevated spiral ribs. Aperture elongate and widening anteriorly, outer lip moderately thick. Color white with yellow brown  axial stripes.

Discussion:-A gerontic specimen of Conus tribblei  Walls, 1977

 

----------

 

Conus  altispiratus  Sowerby iii, 1873

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Naturalis, Leiden  Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 146,  pl. 15,  f. 4
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Agulhas Bank
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN/ Naturalis deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus mozambicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-mozambicus altispiratus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Africa
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell thin and light-weight, moderately small to large (normal size between 30 and 80 mm, but specimens of 100 mm are known). Last whorl conoid-cylindrical, with convex sides and a rounded shoulder (subangulate in young specimens). Spire of moderate height, with a straight to convex profile, occasionally sigmoid, with a mammillated protoconch. Sutural ramps convex or flat, with 3 to 6 spiral grooves. Strong ribs present in the basal portion of last whorl.
Ground color variable, from pure white to bright orange, pinkish or dark brown. The pattern is also very variable, usually in the form of dark brown spiral broad bands, interrupted spiral lines of alternating brown and white bars, and irregular axial streaks. Very often the pattern becomes less dense around the mid-body region, forming an irregular band. Completely white patternless shells or exhibiting a vivid orange color, are not uncommon. The pattern of the spire is also variable, depending upon de pattern exhibited on the last whorl, most often composed of either more or less dense dark brown axial streaks. In other cases, the spire pattem consists of diffuse axial brown flecks, and it can also be patternless. Aperture color variable, from pale violet to white, again depending very much on the pattern present on the last whorl.
C. altispiratus is a narrow white form with pinkish apex.
Discussion:-. The holotype of C. altispiratus most likely corresponds to a specimen of the white variety of C. mozambicus with a somewhat freakish, elevated spire. Hence altispiratus becomes a synonym of C. mozambicus, with no relation at all with C. gradatulus or C. patens.

 

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Conus  alveolus  Sowerby ii,  1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Sowerby i (1833: Pt. 25, fig. 11)

 

Published in: Conch. Illus., pt. 25, f. 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Sowerby i (1833: Pt. 25, fig. 11)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus stramineus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name alveolus

 

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Conus  amadis  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt,  p. 3388, no. 32
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: not known, designated (C, M & W) Rameswaram, India, lectotype from Nicobar Islands.
Type Data: Lectotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 78 x 41 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-amadis
Synonyms:-
amadis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; venustus Röding, 1798; castaneofasciata Dautzenberg, 1937; aurantia Dautzenberg, 1937; subacutus Fenaux, 1942; arbornatalis da Motta, 1978;
Geographic Range:-Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka and S. India to W. Thailand and N. Sumatra.
Habitat:-Reported from intertidal mudflats to about 18 m, in sand (S. E. India: Satyamurti, 1952; Kohn, l978a). C. amadis feeds on molluscs.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid; forms castaneofasciata  and arbornatalis smaller than typical shells. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conical; outline slightly convex adapically, straight below. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire usually of moderate height, often variably stepped, to high in form arbornatalis; outline concave, to straight in form arbornatalis. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum- diameter 0.9-1 mm. First 3.5-5.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, following whorls often carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 0 increasing to 5-6 spiral grooves and additional striae in late whorls. Last whorl with distinct to obsolete punctate spiral grooves from base to centre or beyond, separated by ribs at base and by ribbons above.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with various yellow to dark brown pattern elements: i.e. solid or interrupted, narrow to broad spiral bands of varying number; spiral lines, often articulated with white dots, spots and small tents; a variably complete network of fine lines, triangular spots, streaks and blotches bordering very small to large white tents. Elements combined in miscellaneous designs, varying from shells with plain spiral banding to shells with a delicate pattern including all elements. Larval whorls white to light brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with yellow to dark brown radial streaks and blotches, ranging from few scattered markings to confluent markings leaving hardly any ground colour. Aperture white or bluish white to orange.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-110 mm
(India 50 - 110, Andaman Sea 40 - 90)
RW 0.25-0.66 g/mm
(India 0.25 - 0.66, Andaman Sea 0.10 - 0.24)
RD 0.54-0.70
(India 0.54 - 0.70, Andaman Sea 0.54 - 0.60, C. lozeti 0.62)
PMD 0.78-0.90
RSH 0.13-0.20
(form arbornatalis up to 0.33, C. lozeti 0.12)
Discussion:-C. amadis resembles C. locumtenens, C. splendidulus, and C. thalassiarchus. C. lotumtenens is a somewhat smaller species without spiral grooves on postnuclear sutural ramps, with a reticulate colour pattern on the entire last whorl, without spiral lines and with brown or violet-brown deep within its aperture. C. splendidulus can be distinguished by its often heavier (RW to ca. 0.78) and less ventricose shell without pronounced spiral grooves on the sutural ramps. Its spire whorls are not carinate, its pattern lacks tents and the colour of its base is darker than that of the adjacent area.



Conus amadis arbornatalis da Motta, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Natural Study (Thai). 2,  no. 1,  seq. 7,  p. 7. figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off Ranong, Thailand. towards Bay of Bengal; 40-60 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64 x 30 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus amadis Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-amadis arbornatalis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Andaman Sea
Habitat:-Found offshore in 70-100 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. amadis
Discussion:-C. arbornatalis is an ecological variant from deeper water than other forms, that has a higher spire.

 

 

Conus  amadis  castaneofasciatus Dautzenberg, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Rep. Figure Kiener Coq Viv.,  pl. 84,  f.2 (CMW)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype was in MHNG and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 80 x 40.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus amadis Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-amadis castaneofasciatus subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Reported from intertidal mudflats to about 18 m, in sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. amadis
Discussion:-forma castaneofasciatus applies to shells from the Andaman Sea that are brown except for 1-2 lighter, reticulated spiral bands, at centre and sometimes below shoulder. The latter shells differ from those from India and Sri Lanka by their smaller.

 

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Conus  ambaroides  Shikama, 1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokohama Nat'l. Univ. sect. II., 24, p. 20,  pl. 4,  f. 3. a. &  b, pl. 5,  f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.2 x 15.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus ambaroides forma

 

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Conus  ambiguus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN/ Naturalis  Bill Fenzan/ Paul Kersten
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 44,  sp. 244
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Type locality not known, neotype is from coast of Senegal, West Africa.
Type Data: Neotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN/ Naturalis deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Monteiroconus Species:-ambiguus
Synonyms:-
griseus Kiener, 1845; miser Boivin, 1864; gernanti Petuch, 1975; bellocqae van Rossum, 1996
Geographic Range:-Senegal (South of Dakar), Gambia and probably northern Guinea-Bissau also. Absent in the Cape Verde Islands.
Habitat:-Shore to offshore
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell moderately large to large (normal length: about 40 to 65 mm), smooth, with a straight to very slightly convex profile. The spire is low to moderately high, with a straight to slightly convex profile. The shoulder is clearly angulated. The shell is pale purplish-brown, with dark brown crescent shaped flammules on the spire. The aperture is in the larger specimens and has a faint violet shading in the smaller.
Discussion:-C. ambiguus Reeve, 1844 can be separated from C. tabidus Reeve, 1844 by its normally larger size and angulated shoulder,  rounded in C. tabidus Reeve, 1844).
C. gernanti Petuch, 1975 is considered a synonym. Petuch stated that gernanti has lower spire and narrower shoulder width. It is intense violet colour with occasionly some brown axial flammules. C. ambiguus 3 spiral threads on top of spire whorls.
C. ambiguus is often considered as a synonym of C. tabidus Reeve, 1845, but the only thing common to both species is the colour of the last whorl, and even this it is not always true. C. tabidus constantly differs from C. ambiguus by the shape of its own shell, which is far less wide at the shoulder and in fact quite narrow. The sides of C. tabidus, almost always narrowing at the base, are never as straight as those of C. ambiguus. The spire of C. tabidus does not show the comma-shaped spots typical of ambiguus and its colour is never purple but only white or cream. Each of the first whorls of C. tabidus shows two more or less well marked spiral cords, while the spire of C. ambiguus is completely smooth.

 

 

Conus ambiguus f.  bellocqae  van Rossum,  1996

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN/ Naturalis, Leiden   Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paratype 1  Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paratype 2  Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: World Shells no. 12,  p. 59, figs. 1-6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Conakry, Guinea, West Africa; 50-60 m.
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN/ Naturalis, Leiden deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 60.4 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus ambiguus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Monteiroconus Species:-ambiguus bellocqae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Guinee
Habitat:-Trawled at 50 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell heavy, glossy, sides of whorl almost straight, not inflated at shoulder, smooth, shoulder roundly angled. Ground colour of body whorl whitish violet covered with numerous irregular reddish axial lines interrupted by two whitish violet spiral bands. Spire low to flat covered with reddish lines like body whorl.
Protoconch sharp pointed with 2 whorls; teleoconch over three whorls and spire of 6-7whorls with no nodules or grooves. Aperture narrow and straight; outer lip thin. Violet white inside aperture.
Discussion:-A shell similar to C. ambiguus with wavy reddish brown axial flammules.

 

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Conus  ammiralis  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

Living Animal:  David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 713
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: middle American Ocean, (erroneous), corrected (C, M & W) Moluccan Islands, Indonesia
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 70 x 40 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis
Synonyms:-
occidentalis Linnaeus, 1758; ordinarius Linnaeus, 1758; summus Linnaeus, 1758; vicarius Linnaeus, 1767; architalassus [Lightfoot], 1786; larvatus Gmelin, 1791; palinurus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; personatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; polyzonus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; extraordinarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; archithalassus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; vicarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; trifasciata Spalowsky, 1795; summus Röding, 1798; torquatus Röding, 1798; equestris Röding, 1798; princeps Röding, 1798; petreus Röding, 1798; pseudocedonulli Blainville, 1818; amboinensis Donovan, 1822; blainvillii Vignard, 1829; temnes Iredale, 1930; australis Dautzenberg, 1937; crebremaculata Dautzenberg, 1937; donovani Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-E. Thailand to N. W. Australia; Japan to Marshall Is., Fiji, New Caledonia to Queensland
Habitat:-C. a. ammiralis in 2-240 m, ranging as deep as 50-150 m in Queensland, 20-240 m in Philippines. Reported from fine to coarse sand and muddy sand, often beneath rocks and sometimes among algae.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. ammiralis
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy; relative weight of similarly sized specimens may vary by 50%. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical fourth and almost straight below, sometimes slightly concave centrally. Shoulder angulate, smooth in C. a. ammiralis, except weakly tuberculate in specimens with granulose ribs on last whorl (form architalassus); shoulder prominently tuberculate in C. a. pseudocedonulli. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to concave. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.9 mm. About first 4 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate (C. a. ammiralis) or all whorls tuberculate (C. a. pseudocedonulli). Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 4-6 fine spiral grooves, replaced by many spiral striae in last 3 whorls. Last whorl usually with closely spaced weak to obsolete spiral ribs near base; some populations of C. a. ammiralis (e.g. Moluccas; Solomon Is.) include granulose specimens (form architalassus).
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2-6 variably broad pale orange to dark brown spiral bands, containing dark spiral as well as axial lines and interrupted by small to large white tents that may fuse to some extent. Below shoulder, at base and between colour bands, fine yellow to tan lines form a delicate network with fewer large white tents. Pattern occurs in varied designs. Larval whorls pink. Early postnuclear sutural ramps usually eroded, grading from pink to white, sometimes with brown dots at outer margins. Late ramps with light to dark brown radial blotches containing darker radial lines. Aperture white, occasionally orange-brown deep within.
Discussion:-C. ammiralis is so distinctive that it cannot be confused with any of its congeners. RKK agree with Coomans et al. (1982) that C. pseudocedonulli is best considered a geographic subspecies of C. ammiralis, occurring throughout the Indian Ocean as far east as W. Thailand. Although Richard (1982, 1990) and da Motta and Lenavat (1979) recorded C. a. ammiralis from W. Thailand, da Motta later (1987: p. 28) noted that it does not occur there: The nearest colony of ammiralis [to W. Thailand] is located off Songklha inside the Gulf of Thailand. Thus the Malayan Peninsula appears to be the distributional boundary between the two subspecies. C. a. temnes is based on East Australian shells from deeper water that cannot be separated by any constant difference. C. architalassus (synonyms are C. a. archithalassus and C. a. coronatus) refers to granulose specimens of C. a. ammiralis. The variability of C. ammiralis in colour pattern explains the long list of synonyms. C. hereditarius from W. Thailand agrees with C. a. pseudocedonulli from the W. Indian Ocean except for slightly smaller size. RKK therefore include this nominal species in C. a. pseudocedonulli.

 

 

Conus ammiralis  f.  architalassus [Lightfoot], 1786

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Argenville, 1757, App. pl. 1, fig. M

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus. p. 189, no. 4017
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboyna, (Ambon, Indonesia), designated unnecessarily (C, M & W) the Moluccas, Indonesia.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Argenville, 1757, App. pl. 1, fig. M. (fig. 48 x 24 mm. same figure as Martini, 1773, vignette 26, fig. 1).
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis architalassus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Sand coral
Description:: -C. architalassus refers to granulose specimens of  C. a. ammiralis.

 

 

Conus  ammiralis pseudocedonulli   Blainville,  1818

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Dict. Sci. Nat. 10, p. 247
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758; RKK regards it as a subspecies
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis pseudocedonulli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mozambique to Kenya and Seychelles, West Thailand
Habitat:-C. a. pseudocedonulli slightly subtidal to about 50 m, from fine to coarse sand and muddy sand.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. ammiralis
C.  pseudocedonulli shoulder prominently tuberculate; postnuclear whorls tuberculate and body whorl granulated.
Discussion:-C. pseudocedonulli is best considered a geographic subspecies of C. ammiralis, occurring throughout the Indian Ocean as far east as W. Thailand.

 

 

Conus ammiralis f. temnes  Iredale, 1930

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Queensl. Mus. X, p. 80
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Capricorn Is., E. Australia
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64 x 22.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis temnes forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Queensland
Habitat:-Reported from fine to coarse sand and muddy sand, ranging as deep as 50-150 m in Queensland
Description:- C. temnes refers to E. Australian form from deeper water thought to be slender and higher spire.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  amphiurgus  Dall, 1889

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Xviii,  p. 94
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Cape Catoche, Yucatan
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-amphiurgus
Synonyms:-
juliae Clench, 1942; glicksteini Petuch, 1987
Geographic Range:-E. Mexico, Florida
Habitat:-Dredged from off shore reef areas on the Campeche Bank at depths of 40 to 70 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 30 to 40 mm, with low to moderate, sharply pointed spire and convex sides. Shoulder roundly angulate, body whorl smooth except for spiral ridges near the base. Tops of whorls with 3 to 4 low spiral ridges. Nucleus: 3 whorls; axial sculpture on the sides of the first 3 postnuclear whorls (Van Mol & Tursch, 1968); in most specimens sculpture not apparent because of erosion. Operculum small and elliptical. Colour red, orange or yellow, often with indistinct white mid-body band and fine spiral lines of brown dots. In particular over the white band the brown dots may be darker and may coalesce to produce axial bars of colour. Tip of spire pinkish, also in yellow specimens, interior of aperture mostly pinkish.
Discussion:-C. amphiurgus could be confused with C. daucus (which has the shoulder angulate to carinate, a lower spire, and a body whorl which slopes almost straight down, after bulging out a little below the shoulders), C. mayaguensis (which is smaller with a sharper shoulder and only faint spiral sculpture on tops of whorls) and C. archetypus (which in smaller with a less pointed spire and a different colour pattern).
C. juliae is considered a synonym.
The holotype of C. amphiurgus has a more sharply pointed spire and appears to be more slender than the type of C. juliae. No distinct spiral lines of brown dots can be observed in the type of C. amphiurgus, while these are very conspicuous in the holotype of c. juliae.
C. mayaguensis could be confused with C. amphiurgus (which is larger, with a more sharply pointed spire -nucleus: 3 whorls -and more distinct spiral sculpture on the tops of the whorls.

 

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Conus  amplus  Röckel  &  Korn, 1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3,  p. 27, pl. 2,  f. 21-25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas, Philippines (C. nisus Sowerby, 1858)
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Thes. Conch.,  Pl.19,  f. 471
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. nisus Sowerby 1858.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-amplus

Synonyms:- nisus Sowerby, 1858
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific from Solomons to Vietnam

Description: Previously a subspecies of C. stramineus and raised to species by Filmer in 2012 Visaya review. Size 30-50 mm. Glossy/shiny. It has ground colour of ivory white with numerous axially aligned pale brown bars and flecks. The spots tend to be in three bands with middle band stronger. Aperture is purple brown with white edge to lip.

Discussion: C. amplus has a taller spire and is broader than C. stramineus which has a broader aperture and much larger squarish brown spots. It has been circulated as C. stramineus mulderi. Filmer limits that species to the darker coloured shells found in Panay, Philippines.

 

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Conus  anabathrum  Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. Xiii,  p. 304,  pl. ix,  f. 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Florida
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.5 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum
Synonyms:-
candidus Kiener, 1845; floridanus Gabb, 1869; floridensis Sowerby iii, 1870; burryae Clench, 1942; patglicksteinae Petuch, 1987; tranthami Petuch, 1995; antoni Cargile, 2011; mazzolii Petuch & Sargent, 2011; tortuganus Petuch & Sargent, 2011
Geographic Range:-Occurring along the west coast of Florida, south of Cedar Key. The species can also be found off the south and south-east coast of Florida.
Habitat:-Found on sand in shallow grass- covered intertidal zones, but also dredged offshore from up to 15 m. depth.
Description:-Source Vink (Vink used the name C. floridanus for C. anabathrum pre ICZN decision)
A relatively light but strong shell, 30 to 50 mm., with a thin lip with tall, straight to concave-sided spire. Body whorl straight to slightly convex and smooth except for weak spiral ridges near the narrow base. Shoulder carinate or sharply angled, spire whorls stepped, often with shoulder distinctly overhanging the suture of the next whorl. Nucleus: 1.5-2 whorls; first 3 to 4 postnuclear whorls with fine nodules; operculum longish, about 1/4 of aperture height; periostracum thin, yellowish. Typical C. anabathrum is white with two yellow-brown bands above and below mid-area, which may be solid or broken into blotches. Mostly, in addition, there are many spiral rows of slightly darker dots and dashes. Spire white with comma-shaped yellowish brown blotches.
C. a. anabathrum body whorl pale yellowish to pale tan, sometimes very blotchy and unevenly colored; spiral rows of dashes weak but sometimes visible as lines deep in pattern midbody indistinct; base pale; shallow water;
C. a. burryae: body whorl dark reddish brown sometimes mottled paler, midbody indistinct, Continuous spiral dark brown lines often present, base mostly dark brown shallow water Florida Keys;
Discussion:-C. anabathrum replaces C. floridanus Decision of ICZN.
In a colour form found in nearly all populations of C. anabathrum, but mostly seen in larger deep-water specimens, the spiral rows of dashes and the markings on the spire are dark reddish brown distinctly contrasting with the background of more orange brown bands. This form was described as C. floridensis by Sowerby.
A population occurring on the Florida Keys and along the coast of Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico (Vokes & Vokes, 1983) is recognized as the subspecies C. anabathrum burryae.

 

 

Conus anabathrum antoni  Cargile, 2011

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype courtesy Bill Cargile


Published in: Journal of American Conidae 1(1),  3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dry Tortugas
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.6 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family
:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum antoni subsp.
Synonyms:-
tortuganus Petuch & Sargent, 2011
Geographic Range:-Florida
Habitat:-Approximately 10 meters depth, sand and rubble, near low profile reef.
Description:-Source Original description.
The shell is conical with a slighty convex outline, more so above midbody. The shoulder is angulate, or sharply angulate. The spire is moderate in height, straight to moderately concave in outline. The last whorl is smooth and glossy above, except for fine axial threads;  the basal third has numerous unevenly spaced radial grooves.
The color of the body whorl of juvenile shells  is generally pale pink, white, yellow, orange, or violet, with a discontinuous band of white axial streaks or blotches at the midbody. With maturity, the colors become more intense, and may be overlaid with axial brown streaks. The sutural ramp may develop regularly spaced dark marks. The aperture is white,  pale pink, or violet.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus anabathrum burryae  Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1, p. 29,  pl. 14, f. 3. & 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Lower Matecumbe Key, Lower Florida Keys
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.5 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum burryae subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Lower Florida Keys and Biscayne Bay (along the coast of Yucatan, Mexico)
Habitat:-On grassy mud flats.
Description:-Source Vink   C. anabathrum.
C. a. burryae differs from typical C. anabathrum in being reddish brown to dark brown, usually in blotches but also uniform. The spiral rows of darker dashes often become continuous spiral lines. A white mid-body area can no longer be distinguished, the tip of the base is usually brownish black. There are also morphological differences, C.anabathrum burryae is smaller and narrower with often a more convex body whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

Conus anabathrum  mazzolii  Petuch & Sargent, 2011

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan LACM

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Visaya 3(4) , 99
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Little Torch Key, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.7 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum mazzolii subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida Keys
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus, elongated, slender, biconic, with very high, elevated spire; profile with straight sides, becoming slightly constricted at anterior end; spire stepped, distinctly scalariform.
Smooth, glossy; anterior tip encircled with 6-8 thin spiral cords; base color white, pink, or pale salmon-orange (as on holotype), overlaid with dark orange-tan to dark brown irregular longitudinal flammules and patches; larger flammules marked with 6-8 thin brown spiral lines, often composed of tiny dots and dashes; anterior tip yellow orange or pale orange.
Shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by thin, sharp carina, subsutural area flattened or slightly sloping.
Spire extremely high and elevated, stepped, composed of 8-9 whorls; spire whorls smooth and shiny, ornamented with numerous extremely fine crescent-shaped threads; spire white or pink marked with large, regularly-spaced dark brown amorphous flammules or checker-shaped spots; early whorls pale brown or orange-brown; protoconch pale orange, proportionally large, rounded, mammillate. Aperture proportionally very narrow, straight, uniformly wide;  interior of aperture white or pale pinkish-white.
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  anabathrum f. patglicksteinae  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 30, pl. 5, figs. 3 & 4
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Palm Beach Island, Palm Beach Co., Florida; 120 m.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer  a synonym form of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865; Tucker suggests that this may form of C. amphiurgus.
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum patglicksteinae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Beach County, Florida
Habitat:-Trawled from 400 ft.
Description:-Source Molluscan Fauna 1987    C. patglicksteinae
Description: Shell solid, elongate, tapered, with low spire; body whorl smooth, with only a few faint spiral sulci around anterior tip; shoulder sharp-angled; aperture long and narrow; color bright pinkish-orange with band of scattered white patches around mid- body and few scattered white patches along shoulder area; orange body color overlaid with 12 rows of large orange- brown dots and dashes; spire whorls white with large, bright orange, interconnected flammules; interior of aperture pale pinkish-white.
Discussion:-
C. patglicksteinae: this deep water subspecies of the common shallow water Conus floridanus Gabb (and its highly colored variety floridensis Sowerby) differs from the nominate species in having a low, almost flattened spire, in being almost solid orange-pink in color, and in having large, radiating, interconnected orange spire flammules. In many ways, particularly the low, flattened spire and rows of large dots, C. floridanus patglicksteinae resembles certain orange varieties of C. regularis Sowerby from the Gulf of California. The new subspecies differs from C. floridanus burryae Clench from the Florida Keys ( a full species?) by having a much lower, flattened spire and by having a bright pinkish- orange base color. C. floridanus patglicksteinae lives together with the other southeastern Florida deep water cones, C. flamingo Petuch, C. binghamae Petuch, C. glicksteini Petuch, and C. amphiurgus Dall (= C. juliae Clench).

 

 

Conus anabathrum tortuganus Petuch & Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan LACM

Published in: Visaya 3(3) , 43
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dry Tortugas
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 27.9 x 13.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus anabatrum antoni Cargile, 2011
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name tortuganus

 

 

Conus anabathrum f.  tranthami  Petuch, 1995

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: La Conchiglia xxvii,  no. 275, p. 37,  f. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Pickles Reef, off Plantation Key Florida, U. S. A.; 3 m.
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum tranthami forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida Keys
Habitat:-In sand pockets scattered among coral rubble areas on the reef platform. In shallow water (2-10m depth).
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small when compared to average Conus floridanus floridanus Gabb, 1868 (C. anabathrum), distinctly pyriform, broad across shoulder, tapering abruptly to anterior end; shoulder sharply-angled, carinated; spire elevated, scalariform; protoconch projecting. Aculeiform; composed of two and one half whorls; body whorl smooth and polished; anterior tip encircled with 6-8 deeply incised spiral sulci; color varying from white (as in the holotype) to pink, to pale salmon orange, overlaid with scattered large yellow or pale tan flammules; interior of aperture pale violet in fresh specimens; periostracum thin, translucent, smooth.
Discussion:-This new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies in being a much smaller, stockier less elongated and distinctly pyriform shell with a much more elongated, projecting protoconch. The new subspecies also differs in color, lacking the rows of prominent dots and dashes that are so characteristic of the nominate subspecies.

 

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Conus  anabelae  Rolán  &  Röckel, 2001

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Original Description
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus 19 (2),  p. 59
Ocean geography : East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Amelia Beach, Moçâmedes, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.3 x 15.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-anabelae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola, Moçâmedes Bay
Habitat:-Shallow water under rocks in sand.
Description:-Source Original description
Small to moderately small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical. Outline convex at adapical third, slightly concave below. Areture wider at base than near shoulder, Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire low, outline straight or slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, with numerous spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with some broad and weak grooves at base.
Ground colour light brown, changing to darker and lighter zones, spiral bands or spiral lines. Usually darker brown near base and often with lighter brown broad spiral band at centre or above centre. Lighter zones with very close-set axial brown lines. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 18-29 mm
RW 0.09-0.21 g/mm
RD 0.66-0.73, 0.75-0.78
PMD 0.76-0.80
RSH 0.07-0.14
Discussion:-C. anabelae Rolán & Röckel, 2001 is most similar to C. babaensis Rolán & Röckel, 2001 in shell characters, but can be distinguished by its brown (instead of white) ground color. While in C. anabelae the pattem merges from lighter to darker brown, in C. babaensis brown and white bands and flecks are clearly separated.

 

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Conus  anaglypticus  Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn

Published in: J. Conchyl. xiii,  p. 314, pl. xi,  f. 8  &  8a
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Antilles
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.3 x 9.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-anaglypticus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Antilles; N. Puerto Rico (Vink)
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10 to 20 m under coral heads
Description:-Source Vink
A small shell, 10 to 20 mm, with convex sides of the body whorl and a straight-sided spire. Spire whorls flat, nucleus: 1.5 whorls. Shoulder angulate, body whorl covered with regularly disposed spiral rows of small granulations. Some specimens (variety beta) are not granulated. Colour uniform orange to pale red or red, often with a somewhat lighter coloured band below mid- section. On the lighter coloured band darker squares may be present; similar dark reddish squares alternated with white maculations are then present on the spire whorls. Some specimens have white axial flames on the body whorl.
Discussion:-C. anaglypticus could be confused with C. mindanus (which is larger with more concave tops of the spire whorls, less convex body whorl and larger granulations in pustolose specimens), C. pusio ( which has a different coloration and pattern and is not granulated) and C. selenae (which has spiral ridges or at least one or two faint spiral cords on the tops of the spire whorls and a more rounded shoulder of the body whorl.
After cone shells closely resembling the type material of C. anaglypticus were found off the northern coast of Puerto Rico, Vink (1984) concluded that C. anaglypticus is a valid species distinct from C. mindanus.
Tucker suggests that C. vanhyningi is a synonym.

 

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Conus  anceps  A.  Adams, 1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854,  p. 119
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 78 x 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus consors Sowerby ii, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-consors anceps forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Form anceps occurs broadly in the Western Pacific.
Habitat:-Slightly subtidal to 200 m; in sand and silt
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. consors
Form anceps is narrowly to ventricosely conical, not distinguishable from each other by shell shape, and differ only in the colour pattern (shades of spiral banding yellowish to orangish brown in form anceps)
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  andamanensis  Smith, 1878

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 804,  pl. 50, f. 1 & 1a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Port Blair, Andaman Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-andamanensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Andaman Sea
Habitat:-Intertidal and shallow subtidal; in sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small, moderately light. Last whorl conical, ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical, outline slightly convex; left side slightly concave at base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat to slightly convex, with 2 increasing to 3 rather weak spiral grooves; late ramps either with obsolete spiral sculpture or 2-3 spiral grooves. Basal third to half of last whorl with widely spaced punctate spiral grooves and ribbons between; ribbons may grade to ribs at anterior end.
Ground colour white to bluish grey, may be suffused with pink. Last whorl with variably numerous, orangish to dark reddish brown dots, spots, spiral bars and small axial markings, irregularly scattered and sometimes additionally arranged in 2-3 spiral rows, on each side of central third and sometimes also below shoulder. Larval whorls white to beige. Late sutural ramps with orangish to dark reddish brown radial lines or streaks. Aperture white, may be orangish brown or violet-brown deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 26-31 mm
RW 0.07-0.13 g/mm
RD 0.54-0.60
PMD 0.77-0.87
RSH 0.10-0.16
Discussion:-The shells from the Philippines that are recently offered are in fact C. balabacensis  Filmer 2012.

 

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Conus  andremenezi  Olivera  &  Biggs,  2010

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus 124, 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36.7 x 16.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kurodaconus Species:-andremenezi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Trawled about 200 m
Description:-Source Original description
Biconical shell. Last whorl is broadly conical, with raised spiral ribs that are not smooth. Raised ribs on the body whorl. The body whorl ground color off white.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  anemone  Lamarck,  1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv, p. 272
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Holland (Australia)
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone
Synonyms:-
maculosus Sowerby ii, 1833; pallescens Sowerby ii, 1833; novaehollandiae A. Adams, 1854; superstriatus Sowerby ii, 1857; maculatus Sowerby ii, 1858; roseotinctus Sowerby ii, 1866; carmeli Tenison-Woods, 1877; flindersi Brazier, 1898; remo Brazier, 1898; peronianus Iredale, 1931; incinctus Fenaux, 1942; nitidissimus Fenaux, 1942; singletoni Cotton, 1945; saundersi Cotton, 1945
Geographic Range:-Queensland southward and westward to W. Australia, northward to King Sound; N. coast of Tasmania.
Habitat:-Intertidal and subtidal to about 40 m; on reefs, rock platforms, sand bottoms or rock rubble, often sheltering beneath stones, rock or boulders and among algae or eel-grass. In N. W. Australia, C. anemone is reported from the intertidal zone to 6 m, and in S.W. Australia, to approximately 30 m. Some variants from S. Australia are found even deeper: Form peronianus in 10-20 m, and form carmeli to 40 m. However, intertidal populations also occur in the southern part of the species range.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to large, moderately light to solid. Specimens from shallow-water habitats in W. Australia smaller but relatively heavier than deeper subtidal specimens from eastern localities. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, sometimes conoid-cylindrical or pyriform; outline slightly to strongly convex, rarely sigmoid; left side often variably concave above base. Shoulder angulate, occasionally subangulate. Spire low to high, outline straight to concave; spire height of form carmeli usually outside the range of all other variants (mean RSH 0.28). Larval shell hooked, of 2-2.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 1.3 mm; surface with irregularly arranged minute granules (at high magnification; Kohn, 1993). First 2-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; in form carmeli, first 6-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat and steep to horizontal, with 2-3 increasing to 7-10 spiral grooves. Last whorl variable in surface sculpture: Often closely spaced and uniformly broad spiral ribs extending from base to shoulder; occasionally a few more widely spaced and stronger ribs at base. In largely smooth specimens, spiral ribs weak and restricted to base, followed adapically by spiral threads up to shoulder. In some populations (throughout entire range), distinctly sculptured shells intergrade with fairly smooth ones; some variants are more constant in surface sculpture, e.g., the relatively smooth form peronianus.
Ground colour white, cream, pale blue, pink, or light violet; usually several of these colours merge on the same shell. Pattern of last whorl variable, consisting of 2-3 spiral bands, variably sized blotches, flames, axial streaks and lines. Pattern elements orange or brown to reddish and blackish brown. Immaculate white or pink shells intergrade with shells largely overlaid with solid dark brown, except for a central ground-colour band with brown reticulation. Additional spiral rows of orangish, reddish or blackish brown dashes vary considerably in number and arrangement; dark dashes may alternate regularly with ground-colour dashes within the rows. Colour pattern typically relatively sombre (dark brown markings on a bluish ground) in northwestern populations and often exhibiting bright, light colours (orange, pink, light violet) in populations from Southern Australia. Larval whorls white, cream, orange or brown (for development, see Kohn, 1993). Postnuclear sutural ramps variably maculated with brown radial streaks and blotches; immaculate spires intergrade with heavily blotched ones. Aperture mainly pale blue or violet variably suffused with brown, also dark brown or orange, pink or rarely white.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-93 mm
RW 0.08-0.30 g/mm (L 30-80 mm)
(L 30-80 mm)
RD 0.54-0.69
(form peronianus 0.54 - 0.63; form carmeli 0.57 - 0.75)
PMD 0.70-0.84
RSH 0.09-0.23
(form peronianus 0.09 - 0.13; form carmeli 0.21 - 0.34)
Discussion:-C. anemone may be similar to C. cocceus, C. ardisiaceus, and C. clarus. For comparison with C. clarus, see the Discussion of that species. C. cocceus is generally smaller and tends to have a broader last whorl (RD 0.60-0.71); its shoulder is rounded to indistinct, its spire outline convex rather than straight, and its postnuclear whorls are not tuberculate. C. ardisiaceus differs in its usually broader last whorl (RD 0.65-0.73) that is distinctly smoother and has a contrasting brown anterior end. The periostracum is smooth in C. anemone but bears tufted spiral ridges in C. ardisiaceus. Diversity of suitable habitats and benthic development with reduced vagility apparently have led to a high intraspecific variability and the description of variants as different nominal taxa. Rather the variants appear to be individual forms, local forms or ecological variants of somewhat wider range. Form atractus is very similar to form carmeli. - C. carmeli: This variant has sometimes been considered a valid species. More often, it is erroneously referred to as C. anemone f. compressus (Wilson & Gillett, 1971 ; Walls, [1979]; Lauer & Richard, 1989), but this has been corrected by Kendrick & Ryland (1981) and Coomans et al. (1985a). Specimens described as C. carmeli have biconic shells (RD 0.57-0.75) with a spire of moderate height to high. They differ from other forms of C. anemone in spire height (mean 0.28 vs. 0.14), larger number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls (6-8), and yellowish brown aperture. Only extreme variants of C. carmeli have RD outside the range of other C. anemone variants (0.53-0.68); the mean values, however, are the same. We consider the differences from C. anemone insufficient to justify separation at species level. The form described as C. carmeli occurs from the Bass Strait (Victoria/Tasmania) westward to Ceduna (S. Australia). - C. compressus: A local form from the Houtman Abrolhos (see Kendrick & Ryland, 1981 - C. maculosus: A shape and colour pattern variant occurring in various parts of the species range. - C. novaehollandiae: Considered a subspecies of C. anemone from northern W. Australia by Coomans et al. (1980) and Richard (1990). Coomans et al. cited C. a. novaehollandiae only as with a low spire. However, the shells from the northwestern populations and the typical form of C. anemone cannot be separated by spire height (RSH 0.09-0.20 vs 0.10-0.23), nor by shape, sculpture and colour pattern. Therefore we favour the taxonomic status of a form rather than that of a geographical subspecies: Probably an ecological variant, growing larger, usually with a lower spire and generally brighter in colour than other forms of C. anemone. It ranges from southern W. Australia eastward to Tasmania and Sydney, New South Wales. Walls ([1979]), da Motta (1986), and Richard (1990) considered C. peronianus a valid species, but its shell morphometry characters are entirely within the range of C. anemone, and there are no constant differences in colour, number of larval whorls, or sculpture of spire and last whorl. - C. remo: A colour form (splashed with bright orange; Cotton, 1945) from South Australia and Victoria (Cotton: Port Macdonnell to Western Port). - C. saundersi: A shape and colour pattern variant very similar to C. maculosus. - C. singletoni: A variant with a white shell.  C. comptus, C. flindersi, C. roseotinctus, and C. rossiteri are based on subadult specimens. C. rossiteri (holotype: L 14.5 mm) may be a juvenile of C. anemone or of C. papilliferus.

 

 

Conus anemone  f.  carmeli  Tenison-Woods, 1877

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in TMH Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Pap. Pr. Rept. Roy. Soc. Tasmania for 1876,  p. 134
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tasmania
Type Data: Holotype in TMH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone carmeli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bass Strait Tasmania to Ceduna ( S Australia).
Habitat:-
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. anemone
Specimens described as C. carmeli have biconic shells (RD 0.57-0.75) with a spire of moderate height to high. They differ from other forms of C. anemone in spire height (mean 0.28 vs. 0.14), larger number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls (6-8), and yellowish brown aperture.

 

Conus  anemone f. compressus  Sowerby ii, 1866

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Thes. Conch.. iii p. 325, pl. 25 (286), f. 602-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-compressus
Synonyms:-
atractus Tomlin, 1937
Geographic Range:-S Australia, Houtman Abrolhos
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Original description and type.
C. compressus has high stepped spire with rounded margins of whorls. Early whorls are carinate. Slim long eliptical shape of body whorl. White with pinkish orange bands breaking into axial flammules on body and spire.
Sowerby notes that it similar to C. anemone but slimmer with many more turns in given diameter than C. anemone.
Discussion:-RKK consider it a local form of C. anemone from the Houtman Abrolhos (see Kendrick & Ryland, 1981)

 

 

Conus anemone  novaehollandiae  A.  Adams, 1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854,  p. 119
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Swan River, Australia.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone novaehollandiae subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Northern W. Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal and subtidal to about 40 m; on reefs, rock platforms, sand bottoms or rock rubble, often sheltering beneath stones, rock or boulders and among algae or eel-grass. In N. W. Australia, C. anemone is reported from the intertidal zone to 6 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae.C. anemone
C. novaehollandiae: Considered a subspecies of C. anemone from northern W. Australia by Coomans et al. (1980) and Richard (1990). Coomans et al. cited C. a. novaehollandiae only as with a low spire. However, the shells from the northwestern populations and the typical form of C. anemone cannot be separated by spire height (RSH 0.09-0.20 vs 0.10-0.23), nor by shape, sculpture and colour pattern
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus anemone  f. peronianus  Iredale, 1931

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Rec. S. Austral. Mus. 18,  p. 224,  pl. xxv,  f. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sydney, Australia
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 62 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone peronianus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southern W. Australia eastward to Tasmania and Sydney, New South Wales.
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:- C. peronianus is probably an ecological variant, growing larger, usually with a lower spire and generally brighter in colour than other forms of C. anemone.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus anemone  f.  remo  Brazier, 1898

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 22,  p. 271
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: San Remo, Victoria, Australia
Type Data: Lectotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 17.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone remo forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Australia and Victoria (Cotton: Port Macdonnell to Western Port).
Habitat:-
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C anemone
C. a.  remo color form splashed with bright orange from S Australia.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus anemone  f.  saundersi  Cotton, 1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Rec. S. Austral. Mus. 8,  p. 264,  pl. 4,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Edithburgh, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia
Type Data: Holotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone saundersi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Australia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell pyriform, rather wide,spire short,sharp with concave sides; body whorl and spire covered with regular spiral striae; body whorl sharply angled at shoulder, the top of the spire whorls forming flat surface;outer lip convex, aperture quite wide widening anteriorly. Anterior base of body whorl strongly spirally lirate. Colour pattern of reddish brown axial flammules forming arrowhead shapes at their margins. Ground colour cream; aperture violet within.
Discussion:-RKK assign as form of .C anemone.

 

 

Conus anemone  f. singletoni  Cotton, 1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Rec. S. Austral. Mus. 8,  p. 263, pl. 4,  f. 10
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Victoria, Western Port, W. Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.5 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone singletoni forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Australia
Habitat:-
Description: C. singletoni: A variant with a white shell

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Conus  angasi  Tryon, 1884

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Man. Conch. 1,  p. 62,  pl. 19,  f. 99
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Pt. Jackson, Australia. (C. metcalfei, Angas 1877)
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued (C.metcalfei)
Type Size: 20 x 10.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. metcalfei Angas, 1877.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-angasi
Synonyms:-
rhododendron Jay, 1839; metcalfei Angas, 1877; advertex Garrard, 1961; the latter seen as a valid species now.
Geographic Range:-New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, possibly restricted to the area between Sydney and Fraser Id.
Habitat:-In 50-250 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid; form advertex (Pl. 60, Figs. 19, 20) of smaller maximum size than typical form (Pl. 60, Figs. 16-18). Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical or broadly and ventricosely conical, form advertex often broader than typical form; outline convex at adapical third, straight below. Basal part of columella with a strong dentiform plait at its posterior end. Shoulder angulate, subangulate in large specimens. Spire low and usually with concave outline in form advertex, of low to moderate height and usually with slightly sigmoid outline in typical form. Larval shell of 1.75-2 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1-1.3 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-8 spiral grooves, with additional spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with rather closely spaced spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with pinkish to light brown spiral bands below shoulder, above centre and within basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots, dashes, spots and bars extending from base to shoulder, usually concentrated and partially fused near and within the spiral colour bands. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial streaks usually extending beyond outer margins. Aperture white, tinged with cream and pink deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-46 mm
RW 0.08-0.20 g/mm (L 27-46 mm)
(L 27-46 mm)
RD 0.65-0.71

PMD 0.77-0.89
RSH 0.08-0.19
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  angasi f. advertex  Garrard, 1961

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust. no. 5,  p. 30, pl. 1,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Moreton Is., Queensland, Australia; 80 fathoms.
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Seen as a valid species now.
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-angasi advertex forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Queensland, Australia; New South Wales
Habitat:-Deep Water. Form advertex is reported from sand bottom and seems to have a more limited bathymetric range (120-200 m).
Description:-Source Living Conidae.  C. angasi
Shell Morphometry
L 30-46 mm
(form advertex 27 - 37 mm)
RW 0.08-0.20 g/mm (L 27-46 mm)
(L 27-46 mm)
RD 0.65-0.71
(form advertex 0.66 - 0.75)
PMD 0.77-0.89
(form advertex 0.81 - 0.90)
RSH 0.08-0.19
(form advertex 0.01 - 0.09)
Discussion:-The conchological differences between C. angasi and C. advertex do not justify separation at the species level. Because they occur sympatrically, C. advertex should be provisionally considered a form of C. angasi (see Walls, [1979]; Coomans et al., 1979b; Richard, 1990); recently seen as valid.

 

----------

 

Conus  angioiorum  Röckel  &  Moolenbeek,  1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum Nr. 3, p. 46,  pl. 5, f. 12-18
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Djibouti
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35.1 x 17.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-angioiorum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Djibouti; probably Eritrea, Kenya and Madagascar
Habitat:-To 30 m, on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline convex at adapical third, less so to straight below. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of 1.75-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave adaxially, with 0-1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves and additional spiral striae. Last whorl with variably wide spiral grooves basally, separating spiral ribs at base and ribbons above.Ground colour white. Last whorl with variably arranged, well-separated spiral rows of rarely confluent brown dots and spots. Larval whorls white to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps with sparse brown radial markings. Aperture white, sometimes pale yellow.
Shell Morphometry
L 26-45 mm
RW 0.11-0.20 g/mm
(L 26-36 mm)
RD 0.56-0.64
PMD 0.79-0.87
RSH 0.09-0.17
Discussion:-C. angioiorum resembles C. jickelii from Djibouti. Shells of the latter attain somewhat larger size than sympatric C. angioiorum, have a pattern of larger, more confluent and darker brown markings, a yellow or brownish violet collabral band within the aperture, and a brown apex; their last whorls are less ventricose and more straight-sided.


----------

 

Conus  anosyensis  Bozzetti, 2008

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Luigi Bozzetti

 

 

Published in: Mostra Malacologica Mondiale 58 58,  15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Antsotso, SW Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30.8 mm x 17.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-anosyensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:- Last whorl widely conical, solid, spire low with straight or slightly concave outline, shoulder subangulate; protoconch of the holotype of about 2 1/2 whorls but eroded, teleoconch of 7 flat whorls, 4-5 little spiral ribs on subsutural ramp, tubercled and waved on first 3 whorls of teleoconch, than smooth; thick radical growth streaks; aperture narrow, larger at base, surface of last whorl covered with little spiral ribs, wide and raised at base, that fade progressively adapically and vanish near the shoulder, weak axial growth streaks; grey-lilac colour on the last whorl, little sporadic white dots irregularly distributed mainly on the front half, subsutural ramp of last 4 whorls of teleoconch and shoulder of the last whorl covered with alternate elongated brown and little white spots, protoconch and first whorls of teleoconch white, aperture and inner lip blue-lilac, a vertical band on the inner face of the outer lip. This species was compared with Conus carnalis from Angola but not with Conus balteatus or Conus rattus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  anthonyi  Petuch, 1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CAS Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Veliger xvii. no. 3,  p. 263,  f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia do Inferno, Sao Tiago Is., Cabo Verde Is. (15deg 00 N. 2 deg 33 W).
Type Data: Holotype in CAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 13 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-anthonyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-Rocky intertidal area
Description:-Source original description.
Shell solid, slightly pyriform, polished. Body of 8 whorls; shoulder smooth. Color dark blue-grey covered by a series of elongate white flammules arranged in an alternating zigzag pattern. This in turn is overlaid by 10 to 12 prominent, raised, black spiral cords. Anterior tip black; spire blue with large amorphous black flammules. Aperture deep purple with a central white band. Edge of lip white with alternating dark banding where the black spiral cords show through. Periostracum smooth, transparent yellow. Operculum oval, as is typical of the genus.
Discussion:-Africonus anthonyi is the smallest member of the genus and bears a close resemblance to A. desidiosus ( A. Adams, 1853) .However, the black, raised spiral cords, and the black flammules on the spire of A. anthonyi make it easily separable from A. desidiosus.

 

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Conus antoni  Cargile,  2011

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype Courtesy of Bill Cargile


Published in: Journal of American Conidae 1(1), 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dry Tortugas
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.6 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family
:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum antoni subsp.
Synonyms:-
tortuganus Petuch & Sargent, 2011
Geographic Range:-Florida
Habitat:-Approximately 10 meters depth, sand and rubble, near low profile reef.
Description:-Source Original description.
The shell is conical with a slighty convex outline, more so above midbody. The shoulder is angulate, or sharply angulate. The spire is moderate in height, straight to moderately concave in outline. The last whorl is smooth and glossy above, except for fine axial threads;  the basal third has numerous unevenly spaced radial grooves.
The color of the body whorl of juvenile shells  is generally pale pink, white, yellow, orange, or violet, with a discontinuous band of white axial streaks or blotches at the midbody. With maturity, the colors become more intense, and may be overlaid with axial brown streaks. The sutural ramp may develop regularly spaced dark marks.. The aperture is white,  pale pink, or violet.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

 

Conus  antoniaensis  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 83, p. 16 -17
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Baia Antonia, Boa Vista
Type Data: Holotype in MMM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15.6 x 9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Tenorio this a synonym of boavistensis
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-antoniaensis
Synonyms:-
boavistensis Rolŕn & Fernandes, 1990
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-
the specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 5 meters deep, over and under rock
Description:-
Shell small (14 to 15.5 mm) profile elongated pear-shaped, almost biconical, with spire moderately high, slightly stepped with sutures clear, slightly convex whorl tops covered spirally with 6 small furrows; spire coloring comprises dark greensish grey with white speckles. The aperture is wide with an internal colour of brownish-reddish purple, characterized by 2 light bands almost white; one immediately under the shoulder and the other placed at 3/5 down whorl length. The aperture aligned with the shoulder. The shell has a gray-greenish plain background with dotted light grey ornamentation and irregular White dashes; the two light bands are visible inside the aperture with two wide darker bands.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  antonioi  Cossignani,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

a

Published in: Malacologia 82, p. 28 - 29
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Baia Pequeńa, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 21,0 x 12,8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-antonioi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:-
The specimens studied were found at 0.3 to 8 feet deep, on rock
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Shell small (15 to 25mm) pear-shaped profile , with gentle convexity in a low spire whose whorls are marked by four spiral grooves evident , the shoulder is rounded and wide aperture begins at shoulder, continuing the line of the spire . The color is white inside. The profile of last whorl is moderately convex with a tendency to linearity in siphonal area . The coloring is tawny - yellowish with minute spiral lines of more intense color . Minute white speckles almost triangular with clockwise orientation characterize the middle band and the shoulder; the area near the siphonal canal is a more intense color tending to brown.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  antoniomonteiroi  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 47,  pl. 1,  f. 16,  pl. 2,  f. 16, pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Parda, Isla de Sal, Cape Verde Is.; 0.5 - l m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.8 x 8.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-antoniomonteiroi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde. The oriental coast of the island of Sal: Pedro de Lume and Parda.
Habitat:-Low rocks in a depth from 0,5 to 1 m. Rarely in greater depths.
Description:-Source Original description Iberus
Description: Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension is, usually, between 10 and 18 mm. The largest specimen is of 20 mm. The silhouette is a little peculiar with a not very long last whorl, shoulder very marked and spire with concave profile that barely is elevated in the last whorls, but is sharp in its beginnings; the whorls of the spire are not stepped and present a plain striated spiral. Coloring brownish-green, varying tones from yellow to olive; on this base color appear various marks of white color that are situated on the shoulder and in a narrow band below the middle of the last whorl. One more light band usually appears under the shoulder. Little variability with changes of tones or of the quantity of spots. Aperture, somewhat colored when the last whorl is not very developed, is white in most cases. Columella white or pink. Periostracum yellow, transparent, fine, possesses frequently spiral lines with bumps.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  aphrodite  Petuch, 1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Nemouria, no. 23,  p. 11, f. 34 &  35
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Panglao, Bohol Is., Philippines; ca. 250 m.
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-aphrodite
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Ryukyus; Philippines; New Caledonia
Habitat:-In depths of 120-380 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small and light. Last whorl usually conical, outline almost straight; left side slightly concave at base. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire usually of moderate height, slightly stepped; outline concave. Larval shell of 3.25-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. First 2-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, following whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or slightly concave, with arcuate radial threads; spiral striation obsolete or absent. Last whorl glossy, with a few spiral ribs and ribbons at base and 1-2 fine spiral grooves below shoulder.
Ground colour violet-grey or beige. Last whorl variably overlaid with brown axial blotches and numerous variably broad spiral rows of alternating brown and light dots and dashes. A narrow light spiral band located below centre, often a similar but less prominent light band above centre. Larval whorls white to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial blotches and darker brown dots along the outer margin. Aperture violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 15-24 mm
RW 0.03-0.06 g/mm
RD 0.61-0.68
PMD 0.84-0.96
RSH 0.17-0.24
Discussion:-C. aphrodite resembles C. memiae and C. dayriti. The latter species differs in its lower spire (RSH 0.07-0.17) and its spirally grooved sutural ramps; only its first 0.25-2 postnuclear whorls are weakly tuberculate or undulate.

 

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Conus  aplustre  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I, Conus,  pl. 30,  sp. 170
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) Woody Head, N.S.W., Australia.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-aplustre
Synonyms:-
neglectus A. Adams, 1854; cooki Brazier, 1870
Geographic Range:-New South Wales and S. Queensland, Australia
Habitat:-In shallow water; under rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight toward base; left side may be concave near base. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave; 3 increasing to 5-8 variably fine spiral grooves on late ramps. Last whorl with rather widely spaced distinct spiral ribs on basal third to half.
Ground colour greyish to light blue. Last whorl with 2-5 (usually 3) variably broad, olive to brown or pink spiral bands. Variably spaced spiral rows of small to large squarish brown dots extending from base to shoulder, sometimes reduced and often with intermittent greyish to bluish white dashes. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown wavy radial lines and streaks, sometimes extending over shoulder. Aperture brownish or dark violet behind a translucent marginal zone, with a pale band at centre and shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-27 mm
RW 0.05-0.13 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.73
PMD 0.75-0.85
RSH 0.09-0.14
Similar to C. papilliferus which has smaller brown spots in regular spiral rows, thinner, lighter with more angular shoulder and flatter spire
Discussion:-C. aplustre is similar to C. papilliferus in shape and sculpture. The latter species is often larger and less straight in outline. Its last whorl pattern lacks spiral colour bands but has olive to dark brown axial markings, and the dotted spiral lines are more often incomplete or absent; its last whorl sculpture is less prominent, and its periostracum has spiral rows of tufts. The animals have a quite different colouration.

 

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Conus  apogrammatus  Dall, 1910

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in USMN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 38 (1741),  p. 224, not figured

Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific

Type Locality: Panama, (West coast)

Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 35.5 x 22 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus princeps

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Ductoconus Species:-princeps f. apogrammatus

Synonyms:

Geographic Range:- West coast of Panama

Habitat:-Shallow water

Description:-Source Walls

Moderately to very heavy, often cumbersome, with a low gloss; obconical, the sides nearly straight; basal ridges and axial threads; shoulder roundly angled, with heavy but low coronations, broad; spire low/flat, the early whorls erode; whorls heavily coronated, slightly concave above; body whorl deep pink to bright orange, rarely yellowish, with/ without narrow/broad irregular axial flammules/threads of black/dark brown;spire color as body with curved blackish lines; early whorls eroded white; aperture narrow, uniform; outer lip sharp, straight; mouth dull pink to orange often milky white within; columella short narrow

C. p. aprogrammatus lacks markings.

Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  arafurensis  Monnier,  Limpalaër  &  Robin, 2013

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in the Illinois Natural History Survey  Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 1, 2013; p. 19 – 21, fig, 20; Pl. 2 & 3

Ocean geography: Indo Pacific

Type Locality: Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia

Type Data: Holotype in INHS deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 42,60 x 21,20 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Pioconus Species:-arafurensis

Synonyms:

Geographic Range:- Australia

Habitat:-Said to be collected in 140 m; other information indicates that it lived under a stone in a small pool.

Description:-Original Description

Moderately small to medium size varying from 25 to more than 50 mm. spire moderately high and rather straight to slightly concave. The last whorl shape is conical to ventricosely conical.

The adult shell has about ten whorls. The first teleoconch whorls are tuberculate and stepped. The suture attaches to the previous whorl below the angulate shoulder. The sutural ramp is sculptured with two spiral grooves that increase to nine or ten spiral striae on the last whorl. The shoulder of the teleoconch whorls remains undulate down to the aperture.

The last whorl has a conical to ventricosely conical shape. It is spirally sculptured with 10 to 30 raised and pustulose cords from base to shoulder. The sculpture tends to fade progressively with growth. The pattern of the last whorl has a background made of very light blue-grey covered by irregular orange and orange-brown patches more packed in two bands over and under the middle of the last whorl. The raised cords are covered by spiral lines of dark brown dots articulated with white spots which correspond to the pustules. The outer lip is sharp and bordered one or two millimetre inside with a brown to purplish axial band.

Discussion:-

 

 

----------

 

Conus  araneosus  [Lightfoot],  1786

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773: Pl. 61 fig.676)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus. p. 76,  no. 1714,  p. 106,  no. 2328
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China and Coromandel Coast
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773, pl. 61,  fig.676)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-araneosus
Synonyms:-
arachnoideus Gmelin, 1791; araneosus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; nicobaricus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; reticulatus Perry, 1811; monstrosus Kuster, 1837; peplum Sowerby ii, 1857;
Geographic Range:-Sri Lanka and S.E. India.
Habitat:-Intertidal to 20 m, on limestone and sandy substrata. C. a. araneosus appears to feed on gastropods.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical, generally broader in C. a. araneosus outline straight to slightly convex. Shoulder angulate, weakly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, consistently low in C. a. nicobaricus; outline straight. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Later teleoconch sutural ramps concave and nearly smooth. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs above base.
C. a. araneosus: Ground colour white, tinged with violet in shells from India. Last whorl with a fine network of reddish brown lines outlining small white tents, usually with a dark brown spiral band on each side of centre. Bands interrupted by bluish ground-colour tents and a few brown tents. Teleoconch sutural ramps with fine reddish brown zigzag lines and bluish brown marginal blotches between tubercles. Aperture nearly white (shells from Sri Lanka) or outer part pale violet, interior deep yellow (shells from southeast India).
Shell Morphometry
L 55-100 mm
RW 0.40-1.50 g/mm
RD 0.61-0.70
(C. a. araneosus; 0.61-0.70; -C. a. nicobaricus 0.54-0.63)
PMD 0.86-0.94
RSH 0.09-0.15
(C. a. araneosus; C. a. nicobaricus 0.04-0.09)
Discussion:-C. areneosus ‘relative broad; gloss low, whole shell coarse appearance; lacks dark spiral blotch below shoulder; tenting fine irregular mouth exterior dark violet; no coronations on shoulder; Northern Indian Ocean Red Sea NE Africa India Sri Lanka;
C. nicobarius: narrower;gloss high delicately patterned, well developed band of dark blotches below shoulder; tenting very open, tents large continuing to mouth; coronations strong ,erect; Philippines, Andaman, Nicobar.
C. araneosus resembles C. bandanus in shape, but the latter species attains larger size (to 150 mm). Its last whorl colour pattern is a much coarser network and has many fewer white tents. RKK consider C. a. araneosus and C. a. nicobaricus as subspecies, because they are nearly indistinguishable in shell characters and colouration of the animal.

 

 

Conus araneosus  nicobaricus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Brugiere Tableau (1798, pl. 318, fig. 9)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 612

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: East Indies, [presumably Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal].

Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798, pl. 318, fig. 9)

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus araneosus [Lightfoot],  1786

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Conus Species:-araneosus nicobaricus subsp.

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-Moluccas to Philippines; probably also in Nicobar and Andaman Islands.

Habitat:-Shallow water, on sand substrate under corals and in coral rubble on subtidal reef platforms.

Description:-Source Living Conidae

Spire of low to moderate height, consistently low in C. a. nicobaricus outline straight. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Later teleoconch sutural ramps concave and nearly smooth. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs above base.

Shell Morphometry

L 55-100 mm

RW 0.40-1.50 g/mm

RD 0.54-0.63

PMD 0.86-0.94

RSH 0.04-0.09

C. a. nicobaricus: Ground colour white, occasionally with a tinge of red or violet. Last whorl with a network of reddish brown to blackish brown lines outlining variously sized white tents that often coalesce. Usually with 3 discontinuous bluish or blackish brown spiral bands, on both sides of centre and below shoulder; central band more pronounced than other bands. Spire and shoulder with fine, dark brown zigzag lines and blue-tinged brown blotches between tubercles. Aperture white to light violet, yellow deeper within.

 

----------

 

Conus  arangoi  Sarasua, 1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype ANSP Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Poeyana, no. 165,  p. 1,  f. 1a-b
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Marianao, Habana, Cuba; 10-15 m.
Type Data: Holotype in IZAC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-arangoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas, Cuba
Habitat:-10 m to 30 m
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell is light for genus not exceeding 35 mm in length. Protoconch of 2 papillose whorls; spire whorls and shoulder with small nodules; the last whorl surface shiny with spiral striae, crossed by fine growth lines; Pattern is hazy; colour yellowish, sometimes rose, base white; last whorl with three bands of irregular orange marks, one band below the shoulder, one below the middle, and one at the base; between these bands interrupted spiral bands of orange may be present; spire the same colour
Discussion:-Vink:C. arangoi differs from C. havanensis in being larger, lighter in weight and more smooth (the spiral lines are only very weakly sculptured and more widely spaced). C. arangoi has the upper one of the three bands of orange maculations well below the shoulder (where the diameter is maximum), in C. havanensis the upper band (if present) is near the shoulder .

 

----------

 

Conus  arawak  Petuch & Myers, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 31 – 32 with fig, fig. 3, J & K
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic
Type Locality: Off eastern coast of Petit Martinique Island, Grenadines (Dependency Grenada), Lesser Antilles Archipelago
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-JASPIDICONUS
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-arawak
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Petit Martinique, Grenadines
Habitat:-In carbonate sand, 3 m depth, near coral reefs
Description:-: Shell rotund and slightly inflated, with distinctly convex sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by thin, rounded carina; spire elevated, broadly pyramidal, with slightly convex outline; body whorl polished and shiny, sculptured with 16 slightly incised, evenly-spaced, thin spiral sulci; anteriormost 10 spiral sulci larger and more deeply-incised than posterior 6 sulci; spire whorls smooth; body whorl pale salmon-pink with broad bands of paler pink around mid-body and anterior end; shoulder carina marked with 20 tiny evenly-spaced pale tan dots; spire whorls pale salmon-pink, with few widely-scatered large orange-tan amorphous flammules; aperture proportionally wide, becoming wider toward anterior end; interior of aperture salmon-orange; protoconch proportionally large, rounded, mamillate, salmon-pink in color, composed of 2 whorls.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus arbornatalis  da Motta, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Natural Study (Thai). 2. no. 1. seq. 7 p. 7. figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off Ranong, Thailand. towards Bay of Bengal; 40-60 fathoms.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64 x 30 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus amadis Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-amadis arbornatalis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Andaman Sea
Habitat:-Found offshore in 70-100 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. amadis.
Discussion:-C. arbornatalis is an ecological variant from deeper water than other forms, that has a higher spire.

 

----------

 

Conus  archetypus  Crosse, 1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. xiii,  p. 313, pl. x, f. 7
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Designated (Vink) Baia de Todos os Santos, Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus
Synonyms:-
brasiliensis Clench, 1942; bertarollae Costa & Simone, 1997; baiano Coltro, 2004; cargilei Coltro, 2004; mauricioi Coltro, 2004
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Shallow water reef 10-14 m
Description:-Original description.
Shell quite solid, smooth and glassy, with traces of obsolete grooves on the spire. Base colour solid fawn with numerous brown spiral dots plus two clear bands of purplish rose colour, one below the shoulder and the other midbody. Area of white irregular spots; the middle zone is encircled with two bands of darker fawn.The spire is quite prominent with white and chestnut brown markings of equal size. The base has grooves with the dotted markings of the main whorl.The aperture is purplish.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus archetypus f.  baiano Coltro, 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11, p. 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 25 km SW Abrolhos Arch., off Alcobaca, Bahia State, Brazil (17deg 24 S, 38deg 20 W)
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus baiano forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil, Bahia State
Habitat:-Lives on rubble and coral sand bottom at 10-25 meters on offshore reefs on southern Bahia State, Brazil
Description:-Source: Original description
Description: Length: 23 to 30 m, concave-sided moderately elevated spire (1/8 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth. Body whorl slightly convex with 6-8 incised lines on the base. Apex pink-white to white, nucleus with 1 1/2 to 2 whorls, fine ribs on the first whorls. Spire with 5 up 7 whorls, with medium deep suture with white and brown dots, each whorl with 3-5 distinct spiral ridges crossed by many fine curved axial threads. Color body bright red with white marks and brown dots lines, sometimes dark purple-brown and white . Pink red aperture on red specimens or purple aperture on the purple specimens..
Discussion:-Conus baiano seems to belong to the C. archetypus Crosse, 1865 complex. The shell of the new species resembles the shells of C. bertarollae Costa & Simone, 1997 and C. abrolhosensis Petuch, 1986 with regard to spire ridges, color and patterns. However, the shell of C. baiano has a spire comparatively more elevated and a brighter coloration. Conus bertarollae and C. abrolhosensis have variable white and red spire, while C. baiano has white and brown marks in red background spire. Conus baiano is restricted to a single reef complex, with the red population distributed on the north part of the reef and the purple (and more rare) in the southern part of the reef. Besides some species as Conus bertarollae and C. baiano may be closer, C. bertatollae and C. abrolhosensis are found together but C. baiano is found far south, has an allopatric distribution and no intermediate specimens were found between them, even checking some large quantities of shells from this area.

 

 

Conus archetypus f.  bertarollae Costa & Simone, 1997

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MORG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Siratus 3, p. 4. fig.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Alcobaca, Bahia, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MORG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 11.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus bertarollae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil, Bahia
Habitat:-Shallow water,  reef
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus.Color bright orange red with white blotches on shoulder and spire and a spiral band of irregular blotches at midbody.This band may be missing in some specimens.Spire 12-15% of total length, sculptured with thin spiral grooves.Suture deep giving spire a stepped aspect.Protoconch white mamillate. Whorl with slightly convex outline covered with thin axial growth lines crossed by circa 25 spiral lines that become stronger anteriorly.Shoulder angular and smooth.
Discussion:-C. bertarollae can be distinguished by its colour. It lives with C. archetypus which has a length width ratio of 1.74 compared to C.  bertarollae at 1.94. The color of archetypus is paler and the spiral structure weaker.
The common forms of C. ceruttii from Honduras are very similar but typically C. ceruttii is larger 40 mm v. 26 mm and its spiral groove structure is limited to anterior third of shell.

 

 

Conus archetypus brasiliensis Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 24,  pl. 12,  f. 2.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Victoria, Espirito Santo state, Brazil.
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.9 x 12.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus brasiliensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
abrolhosensis Petuch, 1987 (According to Filmer)
Geographic Range:-Brasil
Habitat:-Shallow water reef
Description:-Source Original description
Shell relatively thin and small, probably reaching length of 25 mm. Color a mottled reddish brown in two bands seperated by midarea of white which is well invaded by patches of the brownish red. Spire low, obtuse at 125deg angle and possessing fine spiral threads.Aperture oblique with thin outer lip.Sculpture of 6-8 spiral threads near base; remainder of shell smooth with faint axial threads.
Vink commented
The subspecies has a colour pattern somewhat similar to that of typical C. archetypus but with the lighter patches on the upper half of the body whorl very distinct, so that the pattern can also be described as consisting of two broad spiral bands of brown, tan or orange on a whitish background, often connected by axial flammules and streaks; Many specimens with spiral lines of brownish dots. Background often not evenly coloured.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus archetypus f.  cargilei Coltro, 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11,  p. 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 75 km NNE Abrolhos Arch., off Alcobaca, Bahia State, Brazil (15deg 57 S, 38deg 01 W)
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus cargilei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on rubble and coral sand bottom at 20-35 meters on offshore reefs on southern Bahia State, Brazil
Description:-Source: Original description
Description: Length: 16 to 25 mm, concave-sided moderately elevated spire (1/6 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth with a sharp angle. Body whorl elongated, straight to slightly convex with 8-9 incised lines on the base on adult specimens. Juvenile specimens have entire body covered by incised lines. Apex pink or pink-orange, nucleus 2 to 2.5 whorls, smooth. Spire with 5 up 7 whorls, with two or three (light) weak spiral ridges, white and brown dots.Color body extremely variable, from completely black, to dark brown with lines, grey and green, red- brown, etc. The black or black and white specimens are colorful when juveniles. Deep purple aperture with shell color margin.
Discussion:-The most variable shell from the Abrolhos Archipelago, it is probably related to the Conus archetypus Crosse complex of species. As most of the other related species, has an ornamented top and an extremely variation of patterns and colors. The new species could be confused with the very similar C. beddomei and C. brasilensis, but C. cargilei is more elongated and has straighter sides than C. beddomei and C. brasiliensis, or even any other species from the complex. The shape and proportions of the shell are very characteristic, and there are not found intermediates between C. cargilei and any other species that belong to the same complex. The new species lives in two offshore reefs and no specimens were found outside these localities yet.

 

 

Conus archetypus f. mauricioi  Coltro, 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11, p. 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Rio do Fogo, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 19 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus mauricioi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on coral sand bottom at 10-25 meters on offshore reefs
Description:-Source: Original description
Length: 17 to 22 mm, concave-sided, almost straight moderately elevated spire (1/5 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth. Body whorl slightly convex with 6-8 light incised lines on the base. Apex pink, nucleus with 2 to 2.5 whorls. Spire with 6 up 8 whorls. A medium deep suture between the whorls. Color body extremely variable, from bright yellow or pink-red to brown, green, purple and even bluish-grey. Always with white blotches or marks. Spiral cord bands are present on 90% of the examined specimens. Top with white and brown marks on shell color background. Pink white aperture, colored inner margin.
Discussion:-During many years this species was confused with the Caribbean species Conus beddomei Sowerby, 1901. Conus mauricioi is very variable in color and patterns, the body whorl is comparatively shorter and wider than in C. beddomei and even in the others species of the C. archetypus complex which occur in Brazil.

 

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Conus  archiepiscopus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 747
Ocean geography : Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 68 x 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile archiepiscopus forma
Synonyms:-
communis Swainson, 1840
Geographic Range:-W. Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. textile
C. archiepiscopus : Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, with a fine reticulate pattern and distinct spiral colour bands. Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with blue. Known from different localities within the W. Indian Ocean. RKK consider it a form of C. textile very similar to form euetrios. In Madagascar it intergrades with sympatric conoid-cylindrical variants of C. textile. Shells similar in shape and colour pattern sometimes occur in Melanesia.


----------

 

Conus architalassus [Lightfoot], 1786

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Argenville, 1757, App.,  pl. 1, fig. M

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus. p. 189, no. 4017
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboyna, (Ambon, Indonesia), designated unnecessarily (C, M & W) the Moluccas, Indonesia.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Argenville, 1757, App. pl. 1, fig. M. (fig. 48 x 24 mm. same figure as Martini, 1773, vignette 26, fig. 1).
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-
Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis architalassus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Sand coral
Description:: -C. architalassus refers to granulose specimens of  C. a. ammiralis

 

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Conus  archon  Broderip & Sowerby, 1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1833,  p. 54
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Bahia of Montija
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-archon
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W. Mexico - Panama
Habitat:-Offshore to 100 m
Description:-Source Walls
Heavy, solid, with low/moderate gloss; sides straight;weak basal ridges, numerous axial lines;shoulder broad roundly angulate/carinate;spire moderate,sides concave;early whorls bluntly pointed, middle ones coronate; tops of whorls concave; body whorl opaque white or cream, overlaid with large blotches of tan, chestnut, red brown often arranged in spiral or axial bands; whorl covered with fine spiral lines of brown and white dashes/dots; axial growth lines stained brown yellow; spire white/cream with rectangular red brown blotches;numerous curved brown lines; aperture moderate uniform; outer lip sharp sloping below shoulder; mouth white; columella indistinct.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  arcuatus  Broderip & Sowerby, 1829

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten


Published in: Zool. Journ. 4,  p. 379
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Near Mazatlan, Mexico
Type Data: Neotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Kohniconus Species:-arcuatus
Synonyms:-
borneensis A. Adams & Reeve, 1848
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W Mexico - Ecuador-Peru
Habitat:-Moderate deep
Description:-Source Walls
Light in weight, fragile with moderate gloss; sides convex posteriorly then pinched in to narrow base; body covered partially or fully by broad flat ribs;grooves broad; shoulder broad, sharply carinate; spire high, pointed, sides concave; whorls strongly stepped carinate, concave above; early whorls only slightly nodulose; body whorl white/cream usually with three irregular bands yellowish to red brown axial spots; Shoulder and later spire whorls with small oval brown spots; early whorls pale pinkish; aperture narrow, uniform; outer lip very thin sharp, convex; mouth white; columella indistinct
Discussion:-C. arcuatus can be distinguished by its broad flat spiral ridges which can reach shoulder of become obsolete at midbody. See C. janowskyae from Caribbean which is similar species.

 

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Conus  ardisiaceus  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in Naturalis, Leiden, Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des  Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 316,  pl. 108, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Masirah Island, Oman
Type Data: Neotype in Naturalis Leiden, deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-ardisiaceus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Muscat - Oman
Habitat:-Shallow water; on coral reef
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Description: Moderately small to medium-sized, usually moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical, sometimes broadly ovate; outline convex, less so to straight toward base; left side constricted at base or sigmoid. Shoulder rounded to angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to almost straight or slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 3 increasing to 5-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few usually weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to light greyish blue. Last whorl usually with brown, olive, orange, or blackish brown flecks, variable in shape and arrangement and often fusing into 3 spiral bands, at centre, below shoulder and at base, and with axial streaks or blotches. Pattern varying from scattered flecks to solid bands. Spiral rows of variably alternating brown and white to light grey dots and dashes generally extending from base to shoulder; rows without light markings intergrade with rows containing only a few dark dots and consisting mainly of light dashes. Base, siphonal fasciole and columella light to dark brown. Apex white to orange. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown to blackish brown radial streaks and blotches, usually faded in early whorls. Aperture light to dark violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-55 mm
RW 0.10-0.32 g/mm
RD 0.65-0.73
PMD 0.70-0.83
RSH 0.10-0.20
Discussion:-C. ardisiaceus resembles C. anemone, C. tinianus and C. papilliferus. C. tinianus differs in a narrower last whorl (RD about 0.53-0.66) that is ventricosely conical to conoid-cylindrical rather than to ovate (PMD about 0.76-0.84); the spiral sculpture on its late sutural ramps is finer and weak to obsolete. C. tinianus has a yellow to orange-red or a black animal that is heavily dotted with white. The taxonomic status of C. ardisiaceus was disputed until Coomans et al. (1981) designated a neotype satisfactorily corresponding with Kiener's original figure. RKK agree with these authors in applying the name to a Conus species endemic to Oman.

Not appropriate for the name arenaria

 

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Conus  arenatus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. vol. 1 p. 621.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Puncticulis Species:-arenatus
Synonyms:- arenosus Roding, 1798; stercusmuscarum Röding, 1798; granulosa Lamarck, 1822; punctisminutissimis Lamarck, 1822; mesokatharos Tryon, 1884; undata Dautzenberg, 1937; aequipunctata Dautzenberg, 1937; granulosa Dautzenberg, 1937; bizona Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils, 1981
Geographic Range:-Indonesia and Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 30 m, living almost exclusively in sand. Mainly on wide stretches of sand on intertidal to shallow-subtidal reef flats; occasionally also in rubble mixed with sand, in mud among mangroves or on heterogeneous reef substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. arenatus
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy; maximum size smaller in eastern populations. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical in eastern populations, conical to sometimes broadly conical in the W. Indian Ocean; outline convex, sometimes straight centrally. Siphonal fasciole distinct, occasionally separated from basal zone by an incision. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, weakly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to moderately convex. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base; in subadults and small adults, ribs may be granulose and extend to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown or black dots, clustered in 2-3 interrupted spiral bands or in axial zigzag flames; dotted areas often with underlying grey shadows, most conspicuous within spiral bands. Opaque white dashes often irregularly alternating with dark dots. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably maculated with axial clusters of brown and black dots. Aperture white, brown or pinkish orange deeper within.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-67 mm
(eastern populations; 35-90 mm W. Indian Ocean populations)
RW 0.20-1.10 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.72
PMD 0.75-0.85
(eastern populations; 0.84 - 0.89 W. Indian Ocean populations)
RSH 0.08-0.19
Discussion:-C. arenatus resembles C. pulicarius in shell characters and often also in body colourationCoomans et al. (1979, 1981, 1982) recognize 3 geographical subspecies: C. a. arenatus (Indonesia and Pacific); C. a. aequipunctatus (Red Sea; Gulf of Aden) and C. a. bizona (Kenya to Thailand). However, the pattern differences between the two western subspecies are not constant. Although C. a. bizona was described as having two bands and C. a. aequipunctatus as having three, the third band is incomplete or lacking in some specimens from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and it is present in some specimens from Sri Lanka. As noted above, W. Indian Ocean shells differ in size and shape from those farther east. In form mesikatharos the central part of the last whorl is unspotted, form granulosa bears granules on the entire last whorl, and form undata shows dots arranged in flame- like axial clusters.

 

 

Conus  arenatus  f. aequipunctatus  Dautzenberg, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 31, pl. I, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) Red Sea coast at Jeddah, (Saudi Arabia).
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53.3 x2 9.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Puncticulis Species:-arenatus aequipunctata forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea, Gulf Aden
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 30 m, living almost exclusively in sand. Mainly on wide stretches of sand on intertidal to shallow-subtidal reef flats; occasionally also in rubble mixed with sand, in mud among mangroves or on heterogeneous reef substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. arenatus
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy; maximum size smaller in eastern populations. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical in eastern populations, conical to sometimes broadly conical in the W. Indian Ocean; outline convex, sometimes straight centrally. Siphonal fasciole distinct, occasionally separated from basal zone by an incision. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, weakly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to moderately convex. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base; in subadults and small adults, ribs may be granulose and extend to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown or black dots, clustered in 2-3 interrupted spiral bands or in axial zigzag flames; dotted areas often with underlying grey shadows, most conspicuous within spiral bands. Opaque white dashes often irregularly alternating with dark dots. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably maculated with axial clusters of brown and black dots. Aperture white, brown or pinkish orange deeper within.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-67 mm
(eastern populations; 35-90 mm W. Indian Ocean populations)
RW 0.20-1.10 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.72
PMD 0.75-0.85
(eastern populations; 0.84 - 0.89 W. Indian Ocean populations)
RSH 0.08-0.19
Discussion:-Coomans et al. recognize 3 geographical subspecies: C. a. arenatus (Indonesia and Pacific); C. a. aequipunctatus (Red Sea; Gulf of Aden) and C. a. bizona (Kenya to Thailand). However, the pattern differences between the two western subspecies are not constant. Although C. a. bizona was described as having two bands and C. a. aequipunctatus as having three, the third band is incomplete or lacking in some specimens from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and it is present in some specimens from Sri Lanka. As noted above, W. Indian Ocean shells differ in size and shape from those farther east.

 

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Conus  ariejoostei  Veldsman, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Original Description

 

Published in: Malacologia no. 92, July 2016; p. 28, fig. 4 & 5
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Off Coffee Bay, North East Coast Sub-Province, East Coast Province, South Africa
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.82 x 12.13 mm
Nomenclature: an available name

Taxonomy: A form of Sciteconus brianhayesi Korn, 2001 or valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-ariejoostei
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:-Dredged on 110 m on sand
Description:-Source original description
Shell small, moderately high; profile conical; shoulder moderately convex, slightly round and smooth. Spire moderately high, slightly stepped with a sharp nipple-like protoconch with a moderately deep suture. Very fine ridges close to suture, on inner part of the spire whorl, spire off-white with no markings. The basal third has very fine ribs around the body whorl. Moderately narrow aperture with rounded convex lip. No markings on shoulder, thin orange band below the shoulder around the body whorl. The background color is off-white to cream; in some specimens thin bands are visible. Broad orange band below the thin dark orang band at shoulder, followed by a moderately broad orange band around body whorl. The basal third has light brown band around body whorl becoming darker at basal end.
Discussion:-C. ariejoostei is found in a very localized area, in the northern Transkei region of South Africa. They are a deep-water species, being dredged from about 70 to 100m deep. They are only known from a very restricted area at present.

 

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Conus  aristophanes  Sowerby ii,  1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 9, pl. 4 (190),  f. 81 & 82
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines and Sandwich Is.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus coronatus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-coronatus aristophanes forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Tahiti, Fiji and Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal to 10m in sand.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. coronatus

Form aristophanes has a narrower, less ventricose last whorl with a straighter outline, and fewer spiral grooves on the later sutural ramps. It more often has a bluish or greyish last whorl with more pronounced pale spiral bands.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  armadillo  Shikama,  1971

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokohama Nat'l. Univ. sect. II,  no. 18,  p. 34,  text f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Taiwan
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 73 x 32.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-armadillo
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan; Philippines; Queensland; Loyalty Island
Habitat:-Deep Water. In 100-390 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large and solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline convex at adapical fourth to half, less so to straight below. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of >3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 3-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 0-1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced spiral grooves; intervening ribbons often with a central groove.
Ground colour white. Ribbons with closely spaced solid or furcate axial brown dashes; paler brown background flecks often forming a broad spiral band on each side of centre. Larval whorls white. First 2-3 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate. Following sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern; radial lines continuous from shoulder to subshoulder area. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-79 mm
RW 0.30-0.41 g/mm
(L 60-72 mm)
RD 0.51-0.57
PMD 0.77-0.84
RSH 0.15-0.23
Discussion:-C. armadillo appears to vary little within and between geographic regions. It is very similar to C. australis: C. australis gabryae differs in a more ovate last whorl (PMD 0.72-0.80), with a more prominent sculpture of spiral ribs and ribbons, and a less regular colour pattern with long, rather continuous axial lines and streaks. C. australis australis is generally larger (L to 105 mm), has an usually narrower last whorl (RD 0.44-0.52) with a more prominent spiral sculpture of ribs and ribbons, and its late sutural ramps bear more spiral grooves. The aperture of C. a. australis is sometimes light violet and its last whorl colour pattern is more variable and less regular. Coomans et al. (1981, 1985b) and Richard (1990) regarded C. armadillo as a valid species closely related to C. australis, but Walls [1979] considered the oldest name for C. armadillo to be C. duplicatus Sowerby I. However, the original figure of  C. duplicatus shows a shell with a rather straight-sided last whorl and a less regular last whorl pattern including longer axial brown lines; it probably refers to a deep subtidal form of C. australis.

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Conus armeniaca Bozzetti, 2009  (Only listed for reference; a nomen nudum)

 

Pictures: No pictures

Published in: Malacolgia 64, 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as a form post 1960
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

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Conus  armiger  Crosse, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection Lorois Kiener (1845,  pl. 109, fig. 1)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Rev. Mag. Zool. 2, p. 200
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) coast of Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico.
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Lorois (C. crenulatus) and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 32 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for  C. crenulatus Kiener, 1845.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-armiger
Synonyms:-
crenulatus Kiener, 1845; clarki Rehder & Abbott, 1951;  frisbeyae Clench & Pulley, 1952
Geographic Range:-W. Florida, southern USA, Mexico
Habitat:-Dredged from sand or mud bottom in 40 to 100 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A rather light but strong shell, 25 to 40 mm, with a typical outline: the sides of the body whorl strongly convex below the shoulder and then greatly constricted to form a long narrow anterior canal, the spire high and concave sided. Shoulder weakly carinate and distinctly nodulose (with 18 to 20 nodules on the shoulder of the body whorl) or at least undulate, body whorl with broad squarish ribs which are pustulous, at least on the upper half of the whorl. Grooves between the ribs with microscopic axial threads. Tops of the whorls rather flat with about three spiral ridges crossed by axial growth lines. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; spire whorls strongly nodulose, in some specimens only the first three to four post-nuclear whorls nodulose, later whorls with undulated margin. Colour white or cream, often with distinct brown spots on the ribs and spire, or with pale brown clouds.
Discussion:-C. armiger could be confused with C. cancellatus (which has the sides of the body whorl below the shoulder parallel for a much longer distance, and which has less pronounced ribs on the body whorl which are not pustulose and of irregular size) and C. bajanensis (which is never spotted with brown, and has the ribs on the body whorl less distinctly pustulose. C. bajanensis has more than 20 nodules on the shoulder and more pronounced, wider spaced, axial ribs on the post- nuclear whorls).
C.  armiger armiger Crosse relatively slender;the shoulder nodulose and all spire whorls; body ribs heavy usually with strong squarish beads, the interstices with brown spots; Gulf of Mexico;
C.  armiger bajanensis Usticke Broader at shoulder and posterior;spire lower and straighter sides; shoulder weakly nodulose;body ribs beads weaker often just posterior; body whorl with brown nebulous band over posterior half not spotted; Barbados, Columbia, Surinam.

 

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Conus  armillatus  C. B.  Adams,  1850

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Contrib. Conch. 4, p. 59
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Jamaica
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15 x 8.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  hieroglyphus Duclos, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gladioconus Species:-hieroglyphus armillatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Netherland Antilles Aruba
Habitat:-Found at depths of 2 to 4 m under coral heads far out in sea
Description:-Source Vink
A small shell, 15 to 20 mm, with convex sides of the body whorl and a straight-sided spire. Spire whorls slightly stepped, somewhat convex, with three to four distinct spiral ridges separated by deep grooves. Nucleus: 1.5 rather large whorls (spire bluntly pointed). Shoulder rounded, body whorl covered with about 15 widely spaced beaded cords extending to shoulder, the small beads being spirally elongated. Body whorl black or black brown (reddish brown in faded specimens) with spiral rows of rectangular white markings. Sometimes only one row is present at mid-body, but mostly two or even many rows of white markings can be distinguished, which may fuse axially. The beads and base of the shell are violet (fading away in old shells). Spire whorls white with black brown markings, this pattern extending to below the shoulder. C. hieroglyphus cannot easily be confused with other species: the beads of C. selenae and C. anaglypticus are never spirally elongated as to form a distinct narrow spiral ridge. In some extreme cases the background colour can be recognised as white with rows of black brown markings, e.g. as in the lectotype of C. armillatus.
Discussion:-
There was much confusion after Adams deposited a juvenile specimen of C. regius as the type, later corrected. The type locality is questionable.

 

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Conus  articulatus  Sowerby iii, 1873

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection van Lennep Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 146,  pl. 15,  f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius
Type Data: Holotype was in collection van Lennep and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 18 x 10 mm fig.
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-articulatus
Synonyms:-
lombei Sowerby iii, 1881; nadaensis Azuma & Toki, 1970; tosaensis Shikama, 1970
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to W. Thailand and Indonesia; Japan to Philippines; Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Queensland.
Habitat:-Sand coral rubble 30-60 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually conical to broadly conical; outline variably convex adapically, straight (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder angulate to sharply angulate. Spire of moderate height to high, slightly stepped; outline slightly to deeply concave. Larval shell of 3.0-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8- 1.0 mm. First 3-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, without spiral sculpture. Last whorl with punctuate spiral grooves below centre and variably broad ribbons between.
Colour variable, primarily brownish orange, red, or olive. Last whorl with a variably broad, axially maculated white spiral band below centre, mostly edged by darker flecks or bands and usually with a variable number of dotted brown spiral lines. Occasionally conspicuous solid brown spiral lines from base to shoulder. Base and columella often tinged with violet. Larval whorls pink to violet; early postnuclear sutural ramps of the same colour and immaculate. Following ramps white, variably marked with brown radial blotches and marginal spots; shoulder edge regularly ornamented with brown spots. Aperture translucent.
Shell Morphometry
L 18-29 mm
RW 0.04-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.74
PMD 0.83-0.95
RSH 0.16-0.30
Discussion:-C. otohimeae resembles C. articulatus, but it differs in its larger size (to 40 mm), often tuberculate shoulder, lower spire (RSH 0.12-0.20), and narrower last whorl (RD 0.59-0.64). It does not have a violet base.Juvenile specimens of C. lischkeanus from E. Africa may be very similar to C. articulatus, but can be distinguished by the presence of spiral grooves on sutural ramps and the absence of tuberculate whorls. C. hamamotoi has a generally broader last whorl (RD 0.70-0.79) and a generally lower spire (RSH 0.15-0.22); its early postnuclear sutural ramps have 1-2 spiral grooves, its larval shell is pale orange rather than pink to violet, its base consistently white, and its late sutural ramps are brownish red but not white.
C. articulatus is very variable in shape, especially colouration and spire height, irrespective of locality. Specimens described as P. nadaensis from Japan falls within the range of variation observed in C. articulatus from Philippines and W. Thailand. C. lombei refers to a colour pattern variant of C. articulatus with an evenly reddish brown last whorl. The holotype of C. tosaensis was collected dead and most probably represents a very large specimen of C. articulatus.

 

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Conus  artoptus  Sowerby ii, 1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 33, f. 35
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South Seas; restricted (C, M & W) to Biak, New Guinea
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Sowerby I (1833: Pt. 33, fig. 35)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-artoptus
Synonyms:-
spectabilis A. Adams, 1854
Geographic Range:-Indonesia and Sulu Sea to Queensland, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
Habitat:-Sand 10-50 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae.
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly cylindrical to narrowly conoid-cylindrical; outline almost straight and nearly parallel-sided at adapical two-thirds, with attenuated sides below. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of moderate height; outline straight or concave. Larval shell of about 2.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.85 mm. First 4-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly convex, with 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with fine, closely spaced spiral ribs from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white, sometimes tinged with pink or violet. Last whorl with irregular light reddish brown blotches usually fusing into 3 broad transverse bands, below shoulder, at centre and within basal third. Spiral bands occasionally connected by axial streaks. In some localities (e.g. Vanuatu, Solomon Is., New Caledonia), the last whorl also has spiral rows of tiny brown dots or dashes. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with scattered brown spots. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-79 mm
RW 0.05-0.15 g/mm
(L 33-47 mm)
RD 0.39-0.47
PMD 0.72-0.84
RSH 0.12-0.15
Discussion:-C. viola Cernohorsky a grey to purplish red ground colour, a smooth last whorl except for a few spiral ribs basally, and only the first 1-3.5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. C. austroviola differs in its generally broader last whorl (RD 0.45-0.51), generally higher spire (RSH 0.14-0.19), bluish grey to brown colouration, and in its smoother last whorl with a few spiral ribs at base. C. nussatella can be distinguished from C. artoptus by its convex spire outline, distinct brown blotches on the teleoconch spire, and its last whorl pattern predominantly of spiral rows of reddish brown spots. In addition, C. nussatella has the maximum diameter of the last whorl generally closer to the base (PMD 0.60-0.77) and more postnuclear whorls tuberculate.

 

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Conus  arubaensis  Nowell-Usticke,  1968

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in AMNH Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Caribbean Cones from St. Croix and Lesser Antilles,  p. 12,  pl. I,  f. 995
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Aruba; 25 feet. Restricted to Barcadera, Aruba, by Usticke (1971)
Type Data: Lectotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.5 x 22.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of baylei Jousseaume, 1872 which is a subspecies of Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name arubaensis

 

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Conus  asiaticus  da Motta, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xvii,  no. 192-3, p. 25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Tai-chung, Strait of Taiwan, E. China Sea
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41.5 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-asiaticus
Synonyms:-
lovellreevei Raybaudi G. (Massilia), 1993
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines and Vietnam, Queensland
Habitat:-In depths of 25-60 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Usually medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, sometimes also conical in C. a. asiaticus and slightly ovate in C a. lovellreeve; outline convex adapicall less so below; left side slightly to distinctly concave near base. Siphonal fasciole sometimes very prominent and basal part of columella deflected to left in C. a. asiaticus. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of 2- 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 3-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate in C. a. asiaticus, first 1-6 in C. a. lovellreevei. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 0-1 increasing to 6-10 spiral grooves in C. a. asiaticus and 5-8 grooves in C. a. lovellreevei. Last whorl with strong, widely spaced major spiral ribs and ribbons, sometimes weakly granulose in C. a. lovellreevei and often strongly granulose in C. a. asiaticus; interspaces with distinct axial striae crossing spiral threads and 1-3 additional minor spiral ribs and/or ribbons.
Ground colour white. In C. a. asiaticus, last whorl sparsely to heavily overlaid with light brown axial streaks and blotches, mostly concentrated in adapical half and arranged in 1-2 spiral bands. In C. a. lovellreevei, last whorl usually adapically with sparse brown dots and axial streaks arranged in 1-2 spiral bands. Larval whorls white or grading to beige in C. a. asiaticus, white to brownish beige in C. a. lovellreevei; early postnuclear sutural ramps white to brownish beige in C. a. asiaticus, darker in C. a. lovellreevei. Late ramps with brown radial streaks and blotches, paler in C. a. asiaticus. Aperture white.
Discussion:-C. asiaticus is similar to C. mucronatus, C. alabaster, C. pagodus, C. sculpturatus, and the typical form of C. sculcatus. C. mucronatus differs in its last whorl pattern with prominent brown spiral lines, its weaker spiral sculpture on the adapical part of the last whorl, and its generally more conical and straight-sided last whorl. C. alabaster has a lower spire (RSH 0.10-0.14) with a more concave outline that is rather flat in the late whorls; the spiral elevations on the last whorl are narrower and the color pattern lacks the brown axial streaks.

 

 

Conus asiaticus lovellreevei Raybaudi G. (Massilia), 1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris xxxii, no. 1,  p. 3, pl. 1, f. 4 & 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madras, India.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.5 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus asiaticus da Motta, 1985
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-asiaticus lovellreevei subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-SE India
Habitat:-In depths of 25-60 m.
Description:-
See above.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  assimilis  A.  Adams, 1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854,  p. 118
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Australia
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 27.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus assimilis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific, Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. assimilis: Last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  ateralbus   Kiener,   1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in coll. Lorois Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.,  pl. 108,  f. 4 & 4a

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 313,  pl. 108, f. 4 & 4a
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: Syntype was in coll. Lorois and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 45 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Trovaoconus Species:-ateralbus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-Intertidal and subtidal; on reefs, rock platforms, sand bottoms or rock rubble, often sheltering beneath stones, rock or boulders and sand.
Description:-Source Iconography.
Shell with a straight profile; the spire is low and gently stepped, with well-marked suture and obsolete spiral grooves. The shoulder is angulated. The shell is normally black, with white dots forming a broad spiral band on the central portion of the last whorl. The spire is black, with white dots. Brown, yellow-orange and white specimens can be found too. Aperture is purplish, especially in fresh specimens, with a lighter central zone.
Discussion:-.

 

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Conus  athenae  Filmer, 2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in BMHH Mike Filmer

Published in: Hawaii The Sea Shells Addendum
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Hawaii
Type Data: Holotype in BMHH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.65 x 11.15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-athenae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Hawaii
Habitat:-Found at 105 fathoms
Description:-Source original description
Shell distinguished from its congeners by its sculpture. The body whorl has a dull shine and is white or very faint yellow-tan with no distinguishing marks.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  atimovatae  Bozzetti , 2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype Luigi Bozzetti

Published in: Malacologia, 77, p. 24,  pic.
Ocean geography: Madagascar
Type Locality: Lavanono, South Madgagascar
Type Data: Holotype in the Bozzetti collection

Type Size: 21.39 x 10.63 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of Conus achatinus Gmelin, 1791; a juvenile specimen
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Pioconus Species: achatinus f. atimovatae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar; only known from the type locality
Habitat:-
Description:-Source original description
Shoulder angulate, body whorl convex on right side, very slightly concave on left side; body whorl covered by evenly spaced spiral ribs; background color orange, lighter on the spiral ribs where are discontinuously present rows of black dashes, two lighter spiral bands under the shoulder and on the central area; on body whorl background color white oddly suffused by a grayish shade, the brown sutural band previously present turns in dark brown blotches evenly distributed.
Discussion:-Monnier, Limpalaër & Robin in Xenophora Taxonomy 1: a synonym (juvenile) of Pioconus achatinus  Gmelin, 1791.

 

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Conus  atlanticoselvagem  Afonso & Tenorio,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manuel Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxxvi, no. 310, 33
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Joao Valente Bank, 30 mi. SW of Sal Rei, Boavista, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Trovaoconus Species:-atlanticoselvagem
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Banco Joao Valente, Cape Verde; Endemic to a seamount 30 miles from Sal Rei, Boavista, CVI
Habitat:-Found partially buried in sand patches among small rocks, shelI debris and pink coralline algae in an area subjected to strong to moderate currents, in depths between 23 and 38 meters
Description:-Source Original description
Shell morphology.
L = 28-44 mm (Largest specimen: 55.7 mm)
RD =0.66-0.69;
RSH = 0.09-0.15;
PMD = 0.89-0.93.
Moderately small to medium-sized shell. The profile is conical, similar to that of Conus trochulus Reeve, 1844, but with a more slender shape and slightly higher spire. The last whorl has straight sides, slightly convex on the shoulder and near the base. The shoulder is angulated. The aperture is narrow, somewhat wider toward the base. The lip is straight or slightly concave, particularly in smaller specimens. The spire is moderate. distinctly convex (domed) with a mammillate pinkish protoconch.The suture is well-marked, with the late sutural ramps essentially flat. The spire is white to lavender, always with golden brown radial flecks. The last whorl is pinkish violet, darker towards the base, around the columellar region. Axial as well as spiral lines of contrasting darker pink-violet color are often present. The pattern elements consist of golden brown to purple brown blotches,  arranged in up to three interrupted spiral bands, one around the mid-body, one in the region of maximum diameter below the shoulder, and the other one near the base, approximately at 1/3 of the aperture height. Sometimes, the brown blotches appear overlaid with tiny white dashes. Occasionally the pattern is reduced to two or three broad faint purplish-brown spiral bands, or alternatively the pattern is very dense and covers most of the last whor1. The aperture is intense pink-violet within with the inner edge of the outer lip white. In some specimens, faint spiral lines of darker violet color may be present. The columella has the same intense pink-violet color of the aperture. The periostracum is thin, translucent, smooth and pale yellowish.
Shell characters do not vary much. The pink-violet ground color and pinkish protoconch; the intense pink-violet aperture and columella, and the golden brown radial flecks on the domed spire are constant features. The degree of variation among specimens comes from the amount and distribution of the brown blotches around the last whorl, as well as the fact that some shells are more slender, with higher spires than others.
Source Iconography
Medium sized , the shell has a straight profile with a moderate distinctly convex spire with mamillated pink protoconch. The suture is well marked with flat late sutural ramps; The shoulder is angulated.
The shell is pinkish violet darker towards the base with golden brown to purple brown blotches, usualyy arranged in three interrupted spiral bands. Variants include weaker bands and occasionally very dense bands covering much of the whorl. The spire is white to lavender with golden brown flecks. Color of the aperture is very intense pink within and outer edge of lip is white. Columella is also intense violet pink.
Discussion:-The general shape and aspect of the shell are consistent with those of the C. venulatus group, the spire of C. atlanticoselvagem is quite distinctive. The suture and the late suturaI ramps are very similar in aspect in C. atlanticoselvagem and in the other species of the venulatus complex. The light pink-violet background color of C. atlanticoselvagem together with the vivid pink-violet color of the aperture and columella are possibly the most immedately distinctive features that allow separation. This color remains and does not fade under normal circumstances.

 

----------

 

Conus  atlanticus  Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Johnsonia 1 p. 20, pl. 10,  f. 1-3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Bonita Springs, Florida.
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size :48 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lindaconus Species:-spurius atlanticus subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E Florida, USA - Mexico
Habitat:-Found on sand bars and grass covered flats in shallow water which is often turbid. Also dredged from sandy silt bottoms at depths of 30 to 40 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A heavy shell, 40 to 80 mm, with low to moderate strongly concave sided spire. Body whorl straight to slightly convex, and smooth. In some populations distinct spiral ridges near the base which may cover nearly the whole body whorl.
Shoulder roundly angulate, spire whorls smooth with rounded margins, slightly stepped and concave above. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; first 2 to 4 postnuclear whorls coronated, coronation gradually diminishing in subsequent whorls and often not apparent because of erosion. Animal cream-coloured, operculum ungulate and large, often longer than 1/3 of aperture height. Radula tooth with serration over 1/2 length of tooth and very short blade (Warmke, 1960). Periostracum light brown to red brown, mostly transparent but also thick and obscuring the contrasting colour pattern underneath.
In C. spurius atlanticus the spiral rows of dots, squares or oblongs are always regular. Frequently adjoining rows coalesce to form the typical 'chinese alphabet' shapes. Coalescence to larger maculations can also be seen, however, these maculations are always within a number of well delimited bands, and not, as in typical C. spurius, covering broad areas above and below mid body. In specimens from the Campeche area in Yucatan, Mexico, rows of smaller black brown spots can be observed. Specimens from Sanibel Is. have a pattern with large blotches regularly disposed in a number of bands.
Discussion:-Tucker comments: Spuriconus spurius atlanticus has always been a diffuse concept among authors. Generally, the only distinguishing trait is that there are brown blotches overlaying the brown spots. Unfortunately this trait occurs in all of the northern races recognized by Vink (1985C). Vink cites records for this subspecies in Yucatan, Venezuela, and Sanibel Island,  Florida, which overlaps ranges of nearly all the other subspecies. Tucker thinks the range should be limited to Florida and continental areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The range of S. s. spurius then should be limited to the central Caribbean. Vink presented no method that can be profitably used to distinguish these two subspecies and it t seems unlikely that one will be found. S. s. atlanticus possibly should be regarded as a synonym of S. s. spurius.

 

----------

 

Conus  attenuatus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 47,  sp. 263
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Curacao
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Reeve (1844: pl. 47, fig. 263)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-attenuatus
Synonyms:-
bifasciatus Sowerby ii, 1857; ustickei Miller in Nowell-Usticke, 1959 aureonimbosus Petuch, 1987
Geographic Range:-Martinique
Habitat:-Shallow Water 10-30 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A very elongate shell, light in weight, 20 to 30 mm, with a rather low sharply pointed spire and straight sides. Shoulder angulate, body whorl smooth except for a number of fine spiral ridges near the base. Tops of whorls with fine spiral threads. Nuclear whorls smooth. Animal yellowish white, operculum very small. The brownish periostracum is very thin, sometimes with a spiral line of hair-like processes. Most specimens of c. attenuatus are orange-yellow or orange-red with lighter bands below the shoulder and at midbody, but specimens may also be uniform yellowish white. A rare form with irregular lighter axial blotches is more common on Martinique.
Discussion:-Most specimens of C. attenuatus are orange-yellow or orange-red with lighter bands below the shoulder and at midbody, but specimens may also be uniform yellowish white. A rare form(type) with irregular lighter axial blotches is more common on Martinique.
C. attenuatus could be confused with c. daucus (which is less elongate and widened just below the shoulder), C. flavescens (which has the sides of the body whorl somewhat more convex and lacks distinct spiral threads on the spiral whorls) and C. flamingo (which is slightly turnip shaped).

 

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Conus  augur  [Lightfoot], 1786

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Knorr (1772,  pl. 13,  fig. 6)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus., p. 44, no. 1046
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: not mentioned, designated (C, M & W) Island of Ceylon, (Sri Lanka).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Knorr (1772,  pl. 13, fig. 6)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-augur
Synonyms:-
punctatus Gmelin, 1791; augur Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; pulverulentus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to W. Thailand; probably Moluccas
Habitat:-In 3-25 m; living in muddy sand, on coral rubble and beneath rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae.
Medium-sized to moderately large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical; outline convex at adapical third, slightly concave at central third and almost straight below. Shoulder subangulate to sharply angulate. Spire usually low; outline concave to convex. Larval shell of about 2 wide whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with densely set, fine to pronounced axial threads crossing 3-4 major spiral grooves in later whorls; additional spiral threads on last ramps. Last whorl with closely spaced spiral threads from base to shoulder.
Ground colour cream, suffused with yellow or orange. Last whorl with numerous spiral rows of fine reddish brown dots from base to shoulder and with a spiral band of reddish brown to dark brown axial blotches on each side of centre. Larval shell white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with moderately dense, reddish to dark brown, curved axial streaks, often reduced to a pre-sutural and a sub-sutural row of spots. Aperture white, often variously tinged with orange. Periostracum greyish brown to blackish brown, thick, opaque, and axially ridged.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-76 mm
RW 0.53-1.27 g/mm
(L 50-68 mm)
RD 0.57-0.69
PMD 0.85-0.93
RSH 0.05-0.13
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  aulicus  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MSNP Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 717
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Type locality Asia, restricted (C, M & W) to the Moluccas, Indonesia
Type Data: Lectotype in MSNP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 91 x 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-aulicus
Synonyms:-
auratus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; aurifer Röding, 1798; particolor Perry, 1810; propenudus Melvill, 1900; aurantia Dautzenberg, 1937; gracianus da Motta & Blöcher in da Motta, 1982
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific excl. Hawaii
Habitat:-In 1-30 m; on reef flats and coral reefs near dead and living corals, sand substrates or sometimes coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Form gracianus (Pl. 61, Fig 6) moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly cylindrical to narrowly ovate, sometimes cylindrical to ovate; outline straight and parallel-sided to slightly convex; left side concave and right side straight at basal fourth. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire usually of moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 2.5-3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 2-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, sometimes weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to slightly convex, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves in early whorls; late ramps with numerous spiral striae. Last whorl with fine, closely spaced spiral ribs on basal fourth to third and spiral threads above.
Ground colour white, often variably suffused with pink. Last whorl overlaid with reddish to blackish brown, leaving small to moderately large ground-colour tents and blotches. Brown areas interspersed with darker brown to black spiral lines often articulated with ground-colour dots. Predominantly brown shells intergrade with predominantly white shells. Form aurantia with an orange-brown pattern. Larval whorls and first 3-5 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white. Late ramps with radial streaks and blotches matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture cream to yellow or orange, white in subadults.
Shell Morphometry
L 65-163 mm
(form gracianus 30 - 60 mm)
RW 0.20-1.00 g/mm
(form gracianus 0.10 - 0.25 g/mm)
RD 0.40-0.51
PMD 0.63-0.75
RSH 0.11-0.17
Discussion:-The conchological differences between C. aulicus and shells described as C. gracianus do not justify separation at the species level. The latter shells match subadults of C. aulicus in morphometry, sculpture and colouration. RKK therefore consider C. gracianus to represent a dwarf local form of C. aulicus from Madagascar. Specimens referred to as var. aurantia differ from typical C. aulicus in their colouration and smaller maximum size (to about 95 mm). This form is recorded from Maldives, Indonesia, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. C. a. propenudus refers to a colour pattern form with reduced brown network pattern.

 

 

Conus aulicus f.  gracianus  da Motta & Blöcher in da Motta,  1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 16,  f. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Deeper fringes of Grand Reef, Tulear, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size:44x15mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus aulicus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-aulicus gracianus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-In 1-30 m; on reef flats and coral reefs near dead and living corals, sand substrates or sometimes coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. aulicus
The conchological differences between C. aulicus and shells described as C. gracianus do not justify separation at the species level. The latter shells match subadults of C. aulicus in morphometry, sculpture and colouration. RKK therefore consider C. gracianus to represent a dwarf local form of C. aulicus from Madagascar.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  aulicus  f.  propenudus  Melvill, 1900

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchol. Ix, no. 10,  p. 310
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Khor Fakkau, Oman
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 88 x 40 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  aulicus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-aulicus propenudus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Oman and other places
Habitat:-In 1-30 m; on reef flats and coral reefs near dead and living corals, sand substrates or sometimes coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. a. propenudus refers to a colour pattern form with reduced brown network pattern.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  aurantia  Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Knorr (1772,  pl. 5,  fig. 3)

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 14
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Knorr (1772,  pl. 5, fig. 3)
Nomenclature: A homonym:- An available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. aurantius Hwass, 1792.
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym (colour form) of C. amadis Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name aurantia


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Conus  aurantius  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 606
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Curaçao; Asiatic Ocean to the Philippine Islands, (erroneous), corrected (Clench & Bullock) Island of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-aurantius
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Curaçao, Bonaire
Habitat:-In daytime normally found partly or completely buried in sediment under coral slabs or rubble at depths of 3 to 10 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A slender shell, 50 to 70 mm, with mostly moderately elevated rather straight-sided spire with strorigly coronated spire whorls. Body whorl nearly straight- sided with coronated shoulder of the body whorl. Surface with granulated spiral threads, mainly near the base. Protoconch sharply raised as a small knob on the rather bluntly rounded first teleoconch whorls (Vink & Cosel. 1985-b: pl.12,f ig. 10), a typical feature. Aperture only very slightly broadening towards the base, no 'internal restriction' within the aperture. Animal bright red, operculum tiny and elliptical, about 1/9 of aperture height.
Colour purplish white with irregular large coalescing or occasionally isolated patches of bright orange, golden brown, wine red or black (Bonaire) and black or golden brown with dark outline (Curaçao). Some specimens are nearly completely dark coloured. In addition spiral lines of dark dots and dashes on the light areas, and of white dots on the dark areas, coinciding with the granulated spiral threads.
Vink & Cosel:
Shell 50-70 mm high, granulated, protoconch sharply raised as a small knob on the bluntly rounded first teleoconch whorls, base not unusually broad, shoulder knobs pronounced...Conus aurantius.
Shell 25-40 mm high, only weakly granulated, first teleoconch whorls less bluntly rounded, base broader more rounded, spire shorter, shoulder knobs smaller and less articulate....C. pseudaurantius.
Discussion:-In the Western Atlantic slender C. aurantius with its typical coronated shoulder cannot easily be misidentified. It could be confused with C. pseudaurantius (which is smaller with a more rounded base, a shorter spire and less articulate shoulder knobs).

 

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Conus  auratinus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1,  p. 2,  f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Fakarava Is., Tuamotus.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 82 x 29.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-auratinus
Synonyms:-
roseus Sowerby ii, 1834
Geographic Range:-Tuamotu Archipelago, Society and Marshall Is., Philippines, Vanuatu, and Solomon Is.
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal. In Marshall Is.found in 13-18 m on lagoon pinnacles and at the ocean-side of coral reefs, in caves and coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; relative weight of similarly sized specimens may vary by 40%. Last whorl narrowly ovate or narrowly cylindrical to ovate or cylindrical; outline slightly convex or straight and parallel-sided at adapical two-thirds; left side variably concave at basal fourth to third. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder indistinct. Spire of moderate height, outline straight. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 1-2 spiral grooves grading into numerous spiral striae. Last whorl with closely spaced weak spiral ribs at base and weak spiral threads above.
Ground colour white, usually suffused with pink. Last whorl overlaid with brown to reddish brown, leaving small to moderately large ground-colour tents. Brown areas interspersed with spiral rows of alternating darker brown dots or dashes and very small ground-colour markings. Larval whorls and about first 4 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white. Late ramps with connected radial blotches, streaks and lines matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture white, usually pale pink or yellow deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-102 mm
RW 0.12-0.35 g/mm
(L 55-90 mm)
RD 0.40-0.55
PMD 0.56-0.65
RSH 0.14-0.18
Discussion:-C. auratinus had been considered a variety of C. aulicus by Sowerby I and was assigned to C. auricomus or referred to as C. auratus Hwass by subsequent authors.. As C. auratus Hwass proved to be a synonym of C. aulicus (Kohn, 1968), da Motta redescribed C. aulicus var .roseus as C. auratinus.
The shoulder of C. aulicus is more distinctly demarcated from the last whorl, its PMD is closer to the shoulder (0.63-0.75), and the spire sculpture is more prominent on both its last whorl and in early teleoconch sutural ramps. At localities the species live together, no intermediate specimens have been found.

 

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Conus  aureofasciatus  Rehder & Abbott, 1951

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: Rev. Soc. Malacol. 8,  p. 64,  pl. 9,  f. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Dry Tortugas, Florida; 20 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 67.5 x 36.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lindaconus Species:-spurius aureofasciatus subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico; Florida, USA
Habitat:-Shallow to deep
Description:-Source Vink
A heavy shell, 40 to 80 mm, with low to moderate strongly concave sided spire. Body whorl straight to slightly convex, and smooth. In some populations distinct spiral ridges near the base which may cover nearly the whole body whorl.
Shoulder roundly angulate, spire whorls smooth with rounded margins, slightly stepped and concave above. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; first 2 to 4 postnuclear whorls coronated, coronation gradually diminishing in subsequent whorls and often not apparent because of erosion. Animal cream-coloured, operculum ungulate and large, often longer than 1/3 of aperture height. Radula tooth with serration over 1/2 length of tooth and very short blade (Warmke, 1960). Periostracum light brown to red brown, mostly transparent but also thick and obscuring the contrasting colour pattern underneath.
The pattern of the type specimens consists of a number of pale orange bands on a white background. Most authors are of the opinion that aureofasciatus merely represents a colour form of C. spurius. It is true that forms with a few more or less solid bands can be found in populations of typical C. spurius, but C. spurius aureofasciatus is different, having numerous orange bands, being larger (up to 90 mm) and lighter in weight. Most specimens of C. spurius aureofasciatus dredged off Yucatan have spiral rows of reddish brown spots in addition to the orange banding, and the type specimens must be considered extreme forms with only orange banding. c. spurius aureofasciatus somewhat resembles c. spurius quadratus, but has a less pointed spire and a smooth body whorl.
Typical C. spurius aureofasciatus without spiral rows of reddish brown spots is very rare. Clench (1953) and Abbott (1974) figure the holotype, Lozet & Petron (1977) and Walls (1979) show worn specimens.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  aureonimbosus  Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 17, pl. 2, figs. 7 & 8
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Gulf of Mexico, 50 km S of Apalachicola, Florida; 150 m.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus attenuatus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-attenuatus aureonimbosus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Florida, Florida Keys
Habitat:-70 meters
Description:-Source Original description
Shell thin fragile, slender and elongated; body whorl highly polished; numerous fine spiral cords around anterior end; shoulder sharp, obsoletely coronated with low undulations and rounded bumps; spire low; protoconch needle-like, protracted, projecting above spire; shell color pale cream yellow overlaid with large, amorphous, flammules of bright golden-yellow; mid-body with white band containing rows of pale tan dots and dashes; spire whorls white with dark orange and tan flammules; protoconch yellow; interior of aperture white; anterior tip of shell yellow; periostracum thin, yellow, transparent.
Discussion:-Conus aureonimbosus is closest to C. amphiurgus Dall (= C. juliae Clench) from the Gulf of Mexico and Carolinian Province, but differs in being a much smaller, more elongated and slender shell, by having I coronated spire, and by having a protracted, mammilate protoconch. By having an obsoletely coronated spire, C. aureonimbosus may actually be closer to the C. cardinalis complex from the Caribbean. If this is the case, then C. aureonimbosus represents the deepest- dwelling member of that normally reef-dwelling species group. The brilliant yellow patches on this new species certainly sets it apart from all other western Atlantic cone shells. Conus aureonimbosus and C. amphiurgus are compared on Plate 4.
Tucker suggests that it is synonym of C. attenuatus.

 

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Conus  aureopunctatus  Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 110,  pl. 25, f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Puerta Cortez, Honduras, on mud bottom, 3 m depth (emended 2013 Petuch)
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-aureopunctatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Venezuela, Nicaragua
Habitat:-Found at depths around 35 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Description: Shell small for genus, turnip-shaped, with wide body whorl and prominent constriction around anterior one-third, producing distinct anterior canal; shell shiny, polished; shoulder sharply carinated, with bladelike carina; spire elevated, scalariform; anterior third of shell ornamented with 10 thick, raised spiral cords, each separated from others by deeply- incised sulci; base color of shell white; smooth portion of body whorl with 4 rows of pale yellow-orange dots; spiral cords on anterior end marked with yellow-orange dots; spire whorls smooth, with numerous crescent-shaped orange flammules; interior of aperture white; periostracum brown, thick, and smooth.
Discussion:-Discussion: This distinctive little species is similar to only two other western Atlantic cones, C. sennottorum Rehder and Abbott from the Gulf of Mexico and C. gibsonsmithorum Petuch from Venezuela (PETUCH,1986) (Plate 25, Figure 7). From the former, C. aureopunctatus differs in being a smaller, more slender species with stronger, more regular cords on the anterior end. From the sympatric C. gibsonsmithorum, the new species differs in being a more slender shell, with a higher, more protracted spire, and by having rows of evenly-spaced, yellow-orange spots. The anterior spiral cords of C. aureopunctatus are also larger and better-developed than those of C. gibsonsmithorum. This species appears to be endemic to the Gulf of Venezuela area.

 

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Conus  aureus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 742
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Neotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 56 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-aureus
Synonyms:-
auricomus Lamarck, 1810; paulucciae Sowerby iii, 1877
Geographic Range:-Japan and Philippines to Queensland and New Caledonia and to Tuamotu Archipelago.
Habitat:-Found in 3-30 m on coral reef, in coral rubble and beneath coral rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical in C. a. paulucciae, also narrowly cylindrical to cylindrical, ventricosely conical or ovate in C. a. aureus. In C. a. paulucciae, outline of last whorl convex at adapical fourth, almost straight below; in C. a. aureus, outline convex to almost straight and parallel-sided at adapical two-thirds, concave at left side below. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to rounded, usually more angulate in C. a. aureus. Spire of moderate height, outline straight. Larval shell of 2.5-3 whorls and maximum diameter 0.75-0.9 mm in C. a. aureus, of about 3 whorls and with a maximum diameter of 0.8-0.9 mm in C. a. paulucciae. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-2 increasing to 4-10 weak spiral grooves; additional spiral striae on latest ramps. Last whorl with closely spaced, granulose to smooth spiral ribs from base to shoulder, sometimes weak to obsolete toward shoulder; in C. a. paulucciae, ribs usually smooth and generally obsolete above centre.
Ground colour white, often suffused with pink in C. a. paulucciae. Last whorl with a network of fine light to dark brown lines and yellowish brown blotches. Lines forming zones of many tiny to small and a few larger tents, arranged in 3-5 axial and 3 interrupted spiral bands, below shoulder and centre and at base. Blotches grouped in 2 broad and often some additional narrow spiral bands, interspersed with broad blackish brown axial lines. Larval whorls and first 2.5-4 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white in C. a. aureus; in C. a. paulucciae, apex cream to pink, larval shell and about first 2.5 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate. Following sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white in C. a. aureus, white to light pink in C. a. paulucciae.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-80 mm
RW 0.13-0.36 g/mm
RD 0.46-0.53
PMD -
(-C. a. aureus 0.70 - 0.81;-C. a. paulucciae 0.75 - 0.84)
RSH 0.12-0.23
Discussion:-C. a. aureus has a West and Central Pacific distribution, while C. a. paulucciae is restricted to the Indian Ocean. Intermediate specimens (shape, sculpture, apex colour) are known from the Indian Ocean and from Philippines. The conchological differences between C. aureus and C. paulucciae are often considered to justify separation at the species level. With regard to the generally disjunct geographical ranges, the different bathymetrical ranges, and to the intermediate shells, RKK favour the status of geographical subspecies.

 

 

Conus  aureus paulucciae  Sowerby iii, 1877

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection Paulucci PZS , pl. 75,  f. 3

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 752,  pl. 75, f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Paulucci and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus aureus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-aureus paulucciae subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mozambique, Mascarenes, Seychelles, Maldives, Chagos Is., W. Thailand, and N. W. Australia.
Habitat:-Found in 30-50 m in sand or coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C aureus
See above.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-80 mm
RW 0.13-0.36 g/mm
RD 0.46-0.53
PMD -
(-C. a. aureus 0.70 - 0.81;-C. a. paulucciae 0.75 - 0.84)
RSH 0.12-0.23
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  auricomus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 742
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Grandes Indes; East Indies, restricted (C, M & W) to the Sulu Sea, (Philippines)
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 56 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-auricomus
Synonyms:-
dactylosus Kiener, 1845; debilis Fenaux, 1943
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to Tuamotu Archipelago and Hawaii
Habitat:-In 3-40 m; on coral reefs, on sand slopes, in sand pockets and in caves.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl narrowly ovate or narrowly cylindrical to narrowly conoid-cylindrical; outline slightly convex to straight and parallel-sided at adapical two-thirds, straight to slightly concave below. Aperture wider near base than at shoulder. Shoulder rounded to subangulate. Spire of moderate height, outline usually sigmoid. Larval shell of about 3.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 4-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to slightly convex within the same specimen, with 1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves, usually weaker or sometimes replaced by many spiral striae on latest ramps. Last whorl with fine, closely spaced spiral ribs from base to shoulder; sculpture sometimes weak.
Ground colour white, suffused with rose in specimens from Tuamotu Archipelago. Last whorl overlaid with brown leaving numerous very small (Indian Ocean shells) to medium-sized (Pacific shells) ground-colour tents, edged with brown lines at frontal sides and arranged in 2-4 spiral bands. Brown zones usually with darker brown spiral lines sometimes articulated with ground-colour dots and tents. Larval whorls white to cream. First 3-4 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate, white to cream or pale pink. Following sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture usually white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-69 mm
RW 0.10-0.31 g/mm
(L 40-65 mm)
RD 0.40-0.46
PMD 0.69-0.78
RSH 0.12-0.18
C. dactylosus and C. debilis refer to finer pattern specimens from Indian Ocean
Discussion:-
C. auricomus is similar to C. aulicus form gracianus, C. auratinus and C. aureus aureus. C. aulicus form gracianus differs in its straight to slightly concave spire outline, less prominent spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps and on the last whorl, and its more convex sided last whorl. C. auratinus attains larger size and has a generally broader last whorl, the position of its maximum diameter is distinctly closer to the base (PMD 0.56-0.65), its spire outline is straight, and its spire sculpture is less prominent. C. aureus aureus can be distinguished by its broader last whorl (RD 0.46-0.53), straight-sided rather than domed early spire whorls, and by its last whorl pattern with broad, blackish brown axial lines. Indian Ocean shells of C. auricomus have a finer recticulate pattern than Pacific shells. C. dactylosus and C. debilis refer to specimens with such fine networks.

 

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Conus  aurisiacus  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Rumphius, 1705, pl. 34, fig. A

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1 p. 716
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Type locality not known, designated (C, M & W) Island of Amboina, (Ambon) Moluccas, (Indonesia).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Rumphius, 1705, pl. 34, fig. A,
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-aurisiacus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Moluccas, Sulawesi, and Philippines south of Mindanao
Habitat:-Found in 20-80 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conical; outline convex at adapical fourth, almost straight below. Shoulder sharply angulate. Spire usually of moderate height, outline straight to convex, apex domed. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, to deeply concave in late whorls, with 3-4 increasing to 5-8 sometimes weak spiral grooves. Last whorl with rather evenly spaced spiral ribs on basal third, or extending to adapical part.
Ground colour white, variably suffused with pink. Last whorl usually with 2-3 variably broad, pinkish brown spiral bands. Spiral rows of alternating white dashes and reddish to blackish brown dots, dashes and bars from base to shoulder; rows variable in size and number of brown markings. Base yellow. Apex immaculate white. Late sutural ramps largely light pinkish violet, usually with sparse brown blotches, occasionally with sparse white blotches; outer and inner margins of late sutural ramps barred with blackish brown. Aperture white or pale pink.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-95 mm
RW 0.24-0.46 g/mm
RD 0.57-0.62
PMD 0.81-0.87
RSH 0.10-0.16
Discussion:-C. aurisiacus closely resembles C. circumcisus, which can be distinguished by its distinctly narrower (RD 0.44-0.57) and more cylindrical last whorl, its subangulate to rounded rather than sharply angulate shoulder and by its less concave sutural ramps with a less pronounced spiral sculpture.

 

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Conus  aurora  Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 423
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 56 x 29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus tinianus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Ketyconus Species:-tinianus aurora forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Agulhas, RSA - Mozambique
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-

Discussion:-C. t. aurora is used to refer to orange beach shells.

 

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Conus  austini  Rehder & Abbott, 1951

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM  Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 41,  p. 22,  f. 7
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Southwest of Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida; 40-46 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.5 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name austini

 

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Conus  australis  Holten, 1802

 

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1795, pl. 183,  figs. 1774, 1775)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Enum. Syst. Conchyl.,  p. 39
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1795, pl. 183,  figs. 1774, 1775)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Graphiconus Species:-australis
Synonyms:-
australis Lamarck, 1810; duplicatus Sowerby i, 1823; gracilis Sowerby i, 1823; alabasteroides Shikama, 1963; cebuganus da Motta & Martin, 1982
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines and Vietnam; India and W. Thailand, probably also Fiji.
Habitat:-Found in 35-240 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. a. australis moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical, to conical in subadults; outline variably convex adapically, less so to straight below. Shoulder subangulate to sometimes angulate. Spire of moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 3.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 2-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0 increasing to 3-8 spiral grooves. Last whorl usually encircled with variably spaced, variably granulose ribs sometimes grouped in pairs or replaced by ribbons; intervening grooves narrow to wide and axially striate. C. a. gabryae smaller. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, also narrowly conoid-cylindrical in subadults. Shoulder angulate. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with granulose ribbons or pairs of granulose ribs from base to shoulder; shells with strongly granulose prominent spiral elevations intergrade with shells with a preponderance of axially striate incisions. Otherwise, C. a. gabryae matching C. a. australis in shell morphology.
Shell Morphometry
L - 64-105mm
RW - 0.20-0.53g/mm
RD - 0.44-0.52
PMD - 0.76-0.85
RSH - 0.14-0.21
Discussion:-RKK provisionally recognize C. a. gabryae as a subspecies restricted to the Solomon Is. It differs from C. a. australis mainly in having a more ventricose to ovate last whorl, and some specimens have colour patterns not known in C. a. australis. In 1989, L. Raybaudi Massilia described the subspecies C. a. gabryae under the name Conus (Asprella) armadillo gabryae. However, this name is not available under ICZN Art. 7A, and redescription was required (Korn & Röckel, 1992).
C. alabasteroides and C. cebuganus are based on subadult specimens of C. a. australis and are synonyms.
C. duplicatus matches deep subtidal shells from the Philippines in shape and sculpture (Rockel, 1987b). We therefore consider it an ecological form of C. a. australis, characterized by strong, paired ribs on the last whorl, weak spiral colour bands, predominant short axial lines and dashes, and a rather straight last whorl outline.

 

Conus australis  f. cebuganus  da Motta & Martin, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Carf. Phil. Shell News 4(3),  p. 1,  fig. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Visayan Sea between Malapascua Is. & Bantayan Is., Philippines; 20-40 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym, juvenile of Conus australis Holten, 1802
Current Group Names:-
Family
:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-AGraphiconus  Species:-australis cebuganus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-40m
Description:-S.
Discussion:-
C. cebuganus is considered the juvenile form of C. australis.

 

 

Conus australis  f. duplicatus Sowerby i, 1823

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Sowerby i (1823, pl. 267,  fig. 5)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gen. Rec. & Foss. Shells.  pt. xvi,  pl. 267,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Solomon Is.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Sowerby i (1823, pl. 267,  fig. 5)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus australis Holten, 1802
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Graphiconus  Species:-australis duplicatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Deep Water
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. australis
C. duplicatus matches deep subtidal shells from the Philippines in shape and sculpture (Röckel, 1987b).RKK therefore consider it an ecological form of C. a. australis, characterized by strong, paired ribs on the last whorl, weak spiral colour bands, predominant short axial lines and dashes, and a rather straight last whorl outline.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus australis gabryae  Röckel  & Korn, 1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3,  p. 13,  pl. 2,  f. 11-20
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Russell Is., Solomon Archipelago.
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 62.7 x 26.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Graphiconus  Species:-gabryae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Solomon Islands
Habitat:-120-180 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae. gabryae was considered a subspecies of australis.
C. a. gabryae smaller. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, also narrowly conoid-cylindrical in subadults. Shoulder angulate. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with granulose ribbons or pairs of granulose ribs from base to shoulder; shells with strongly granulose prominent spiral elevations intergrade with shells with a preponderance of axially striate incisions. Otherwise, C. a. gabryae matching C. a. australis in shell morphology.

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Conus  austroviola  Röckel  &  Korn,  1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3, p. 8, pl. 1, f. 1-12
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Darwin, northern Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 21.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-austroviola
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-N Australia
Habitat:-Found about 8-12 m under rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl usually narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly ovate; outline slightly convex at upper two-thirds, tapering towards base. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of moderate height; outline almost straight or slightly domed with an elevated apex. Larval shell of 2.0-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9 mm. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; later whorls distinctly stepped. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with several widely spaced spiral ribs toward base, more closely spaced at base.
Ground colour bluish grey to dark violet-brown. Last whorl encircled with a variable number of darker brown bands, usually leaving intervening ground-colour bands near centre and below shoulder. Median area bearing dark brown markings varying in size and number. Overlying variably spaced solid, dotted or dashed brown spiral lines from base to shoulder. Larval whorls light brown. First postnuclear sutural ramps pale brown to pale violet; following ramps bluish grey, with brown radial blotches. Aperture white or violet behind a translucent marginal zone.
Discussion:-In 1977, Cernohorsky renamed C. violaceus Reeve as C. viola (q.v.) and gave a new description on the basis of the type specimens in the BMNH. He included shells from northern Australia in this taxon and referred to them as the banded form or dark coloured specimens of C. viola. In 1992, Röckel & Korn described this form as C. austroviola. It differs from C. viola in the following characters: C. viola has a smaller shell with its last whorl colour pattern dominated by reddish violet instead of dull brownish tones, a smaller number of tuberculate spire whorls (first 0.5-3.5), a greater number (about 3) variably red or pale yellow larval whorls, and less pronounced spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps.

 

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Conus  axelrodi  Walls, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Pariah no. 2,  p. 1, pl. (on p. 5)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Palawan, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16 x 9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-axelrodi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan, Philippines, Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Taiwan to New Guinea
Source Walls
Thick, light in weight, with a low gloss;low conical,the upper sides strongly convex; body whorl with narrow spiral ridges at base extended by broad rounded spiral ridges to shoulder seperated by deep narrow grooves; entire whorl granulose, crossed by fine axial threads; shoulder broad, sharply angulate with many small but sharp coronations; concave above; spire moderate/tall sharply pointed, the sides straight/concave,the whorls often slightly stepped; early whorls nodulose, later ones with small strong erect coronations;body whorl yellow; grey; pink; tan with many small brown dots on spiral ridges; spire like body with scattered large brown spots; early whorls pink; aperture moderately narrow posteriorly widening; outer often very thick at edge, convex, posterior edge below shoulder; mouth white tinted yellow/pink; columella narrow hidden
Shell Morphometry
L 15-20 mm
RW 0.05-0.06 g/mm
RD 0.69-0.79
PMD 0.77-0.90
RSH 0.16-0.30
Discussion:-C. axelrodi is similar to the Caribbean C. puncticulatus. C. puncticulatus and its close relatives C. jaspideus (Caribbean) and C. perplexus (E. Pacific) are all clearly distinguished by their non-tuberculate postnuclear whorls, smooth sutural ramps, and spiral ribbons rather than ribs on the last whorl. C. axelrodi has often been identified as  C. papillosus Kiener (e.g. Richard, 1990). It conforms generally to the description of that species; however, the original figure of C. papillosus, now lost, is 25 mm long, and it is more likely a specimen of C. puncticulatus Hwass (Vink, 1990).

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update December 2015