Conus  cabraloi  Cossignani,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 82, p. 23 - 24
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Praia Cabral, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 12,8 x 7,2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-cabraloi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:-
The specimens studied were found at 0.1 to 0,5 meters deep, among rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Shell pyriform small ( 9 to 15 mm ) with spire moderately high, slightly concave dome-shaped protoconch; sutures barely noticeable, rounded shoulder. On last whorl, spiral grooves around characterize predominantly the anterior part while more than 25 spiral brown lines mark the shell that has dark greenish-brown background. A lighter spiral band runs medially around whorl, divided into two parts by a dark reddish line; staining tends to brown-red-green in siphonal area. The aperture is moderately wide with internal coloring purplish-brown, lighter in the adapical area; the lip joins in harmony with the shoulder without creating a significant step.

Discussion:-

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus crotchii  Reeve, 1849

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Conus  cabritii  Bernardi, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Probable holotype Image MNHN

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 7, p. 377,  pl. xiii, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-exiguus cabritii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South of New Caledonia
Habitat:-In S. New Caledonia, C. exiguus known from coral, rubble, and coarse sand with algae in 13-53 m, often inhabiting channels of the barrier reef with strong water currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae C. exiguus
C. e. cabritii widely distributed small 22-33mm conical to conoid.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  cacao  Ferrario, 1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Piu' Grande Enciclopedia Tutto Mondo 1,  p. 146
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bay of Estuary of La Somone River, Senegal
Type Data: Lectotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36.6 x 20.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or possibly a synonym form of Conus mercator Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-mercator cacao forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-Amongst rocks at shallow depths
Description:-Source Pin and Tack
Shell solid, turbinated, with 8-9 whorls. Spire usually eroded, not high but regularly conical, with well-marked suture. Shoulder medium wide but well rounded. Sides slightly convex. Some small cords not really marked at the base. Lip a little enveloping, almost straight. The last whorl is brown, more or less dark, or, rarely, greenish, characterised by two spiral bands formed by several white spots obliquely situated. The two bands, one on the inferior third and the other towards the shoulder, can be of either similar or different width and sometimes join each other (but never by the base) or are linked through series of less close spots. On the shoulder a series of larger white spots is sometimes present. The spire is white, the interior of the aperture purple with two whitish bands, one at the shoulder and the other at the inferior third. A narrow brown band borders the interior of the outer lip. The periostracum is light enough to let the ornamentation of the last whorl show through.
Discussion:-Variations Near Dakar Bel-Air the background colour of the last whorl is a very pale yellow and the spots are rather bluish. The spots can even disappear, in which case the last whorl is almost entirely bluish with a white band towards the inferior third (but this bluish variation has disappeared from Dakar Bel-Air, another victim of the strong pollution originating from the port near-by and its factories). At Pointe Sarene C. cacao shows a relatively wider and less rounded shoulder, and the background colour is usually lighter.
The shell of C. cacao differs from that of C. mercator by its solidity, the narrower shoulder, the sides not narrowing at the base, the low but regular, not concave and mucronated spire.

 

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Conus  cagarralensis  Cossignani,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 82, p. 21
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Pedra do Lume, Sal, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 17,1 x 10,4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-cagarralensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:-
The specimens studied were found at 0.2 to 2 meters deep, among rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Shell small ( 14 to 21 mm) , pear-shaped, with moderately high spire, slightly concave , usually encrusted it is difficult to assess the protoconch ; tops of the whorls are crossed by two slight grooves; the spire is mainly white; the shoulder has a pronounced angle , the profile of last whorl is somewhat convex in the adapical area and slightly concave in the anterior area. The aperture is not narrow and internal staining is brown in the adapical area and white in the siphonal area; very characteristic is the pattern  around the last whorl comprising 7 alternating bands of light and dark fawn color with reticulation pattern which reveals a white mesh.

 

Discussion:-

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus longilineus  Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980.

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Conus  caillaudi  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNN Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Chris Zand

Picture Link: Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 285,  pl. 55, f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cargados Carajos Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-caillaudi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Indian Ocean: Mascarene Is., Mascarene Plateau, Chagos Archipelago and Red Sea.
Habitat:-Subtidal. Specimen from Banka Saya de Malha dredged in 160 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, usually moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly conical to conical, broadest in shells from the Red Sea; outline straight, slightly convex adapically. Shoulder angulate, to subangulate in Reunion, tuberculate to undulate. Spire of low to moderate height; outline variably concave, sometimes slightly sigmoid (Reunion). Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate to undulate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves; Red Sea shells with 4-6 faint spiral grooves on last 2 ramps. Last whorl with weak spiral grooves at base, occasionally followed adapically by widely spaced pairs of faint spiral ribs.
Ground colour yellowish tan to brown. Last whorl with fine, evenly spaced reddish brown spiral lines; adjacent lines often differing in width. Base and basal part of columella either white or somewhat darker than rest of last whorl. Apex cream or violet. Teleoconch sutural ramps with reddish brown axial markings. Aperture white or pale violet. Specimens from Reunion differ in having broader reddish brown spiral lines on last whorl; the abapical lines narrower but variable in width. Base and basal part of columella creamy white. Specimen from Banka Saya de Malha lacks any pattern elements. In specimens from Red Sea, last whorl with a variably broad white spiral band at centre, flanked by a broad tan band on each side; additional narrow white zone below shoulder interspersed with widely spaced brown axial dashes. Base and basal part of columella dark brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 29-52 mm
RW -0.20 g/mm
(ca. L 40-45 mm)
RD 0.47-0.62
PMD 0.84-0.94
RSH 0.08-0.16
Discussion:-This poorly known species is unmistakable within the genus because of its combination of spirally lineate colour pattern and undulate to tuberculate shoulder. Whether the specimens of Banka Saya de Malha and Red Sea belonging to this species or not, is not fully resolved, because they have broader last whorls lacking a spirally lineate pattern.

 

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Conus  cakobaui  Moolenbeek,  Röckel,  Bouchet,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Original Description

Picture Link: Paratypes

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 37
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Somo Somo Strait Vanua levu, Fiji
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.9 x 8.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-cakobaui
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji, Tonga
Habitat:-Found at depths of 400-700 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell small, thin and narrowly conical. Protoconch smooth, paucispiral, of 1.5 convex whorls, diameter 1025 um. Teleoconch of 7.5 whorls with rather deep suture, spire rather high, profile nearly t1at, slightly stepped adapically, shoulder angulate. First 3 teleoconch whorls with fine tubercles, gradually disappearing on subsequent whorls. Last whorl with 4 fine spiral grooves on periphery and about 15 on the base, no axial sculpture other than incremental lines. Colour: Protoconch transparent white. First teleoconch whorls creamy white with a brown spiral band on the periphery , extending over the row of tubercles or just adapically of it. On later whorls, this brown band is interrupted by white areas. Last whorl white with an irregular brown pattern. Tip of base white. Periostracum thjn light brown translucent.There is some variation in the material with regard to the colour of the last whorl. In some specimens the brown markings form a zigzag pattern, in others they tend to form axial stripes. The largest specimen (height 24.9 mm, width 10.3 mm) is more slender than the holotype. All are from deep water and all have paucispiral protoconchs indicating non- planktotrophic larval development

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  caledonicus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 634
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles; the Pacific coasts of New Caledonia, (erroneous), corrected (C, M & W) St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, (Windward Islands).
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli caledonicus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Lesser Antilles; Windward Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  calhetae  Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 41,  pl. 1,  f. 7, pl. 2,  f. 7, pl. 5,  f.
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Calheta, Isla de Maio, Cape Verde Is.; 1 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26.8 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus navarroi Rolan, 1986; described as a subspecies

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-navarroi calhetae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maio, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Collected in shallow depth (less than 1 m), among stones, where there is a little scattered sand.
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension oscillates from 20 to 27 mm. The silhouette is not very extended and has a shoulder well formed. Spire is it somewhat raised, of straight profile, with whorls not stepped, without grooves and of brown and dark green color with white areas. The coloring of the variable seashell, presenting a ground color of azure gray in two bands situated, the first one, under the shoulder and, the second, on the lower half of the last whorl. On this ground coloring another overriding pattern is formed by a series of white areas distributed, especially, in two spiral bands, the first one, above the base and, the second, between this and the shoulder. Among them, there are irregular lines of brown color arranged in an axial sense. Variability is minimum for the pattern and modifications exist only for the quantity of spots and brown lines. Aperture with a lip of light color and, subsequently, a zone appears which becomes whiter slowly as it advances toward inside. Columella lilac or violet. Periostracum very fine, transparent and of yellow color.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  calhetinensis  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 84, p. 22 - 23
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Baia di Calhetinha, Ilhéu do Galeăo, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 11,2 x 5,5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-calhetinensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- T
he specimens studied were found in 0.3 to 3 meters deep, on and under rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Pyriform shell of very small size, for the genus, slightly elongated, with a range from 8 to 12 mm in height, with elongated protoconch intact; with moderately high spire, slightly concave , sutures slightly stepped. The aperture is large with internally brown-tawny colouring and shows two thin lighter spiral bands, one in the adapical end  and another below the middle. The aperture opening starts in line with the whorl and makes a sweeping curve that straightens below the mid point. The shell has a greenish-brown coloration with two spiral bands on body whorl, the lower is more evident characterized by small irregular white maculations; the adapical band is barely visible and is found on the shoulder. 13 spiral grooves starting from the lower band are found on the columellar part of the shell.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  californicus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 42,  sp. 224
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: California
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.5 x 12.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CALIFORNICONINAE
Genus:-Californiconus Species:-californicus
Synonyms:-
californicus! Hinds, 1844; ravus Gould, 1853
Geographic Range:-California
Habitat:-Found intertidally to 30 mm in sand and gravel
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light in weight, with dull finish; ovate, the upper sides distinctly convex; basal ridges weakening to shoulder; shoulder broadly rounded, not distinct from spire; spire moderate, the sides convex, bluntly pointed; whorls weakly stepped, the sutures irregular posteriorly; body whorl dirty bluish white with strong tan overtones; basal third darker tan while shoulder lighter showing blue white; spiral ridges marked by brown lines; occasionly reticulate pattern; spire white blotched heavily tan; aperture wide; outer lip thin convex; mouth tan paler with dark violet patch; columella narrow, long, set off  by rounded ridge
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  calliginosus  Shikama, 1979  Nomen nudum, only listed for reference

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokosuka Cy. Mus. (26)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Taiwan
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Kawamura (NMST) and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 51.3 x 21.3 mm
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as a form after 1960
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:-
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-240 m; in Philippines
Description:-Although a nomen nudum this name is widely used for a patternless form.

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Conus  cancellatus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 712
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Hawaii [erroneous]. Dry Tortugas, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus
Synonyms:-
austini Rehder & Abbott, 1951; finkli Petuch, 1987; tristensis Petuch, 1987; brunneobandatus Petuch, 1992
Geographic Range:-E.  Florida, USA - Venezuela; Antigua
Habitat:-Deep Water
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 35 to 55 mm (80 mm in Brazilian specimens near the southern limit of the range) with slightly concave rather high spire (especially in Brazilian specimens), and slightly pyriform to straight sides of the body whorl. A wide-shouldered shell with distinctly pyriform sides of the body whorl is probably an atypical specimen of C. cancellatus. Shoulder angulate, body whorl with low rounded wavy spiral ridges of irregular size and numerous axial grooves or sometimes plicae which gives the shell a cancellate appearance. Spire whorls slightly stepped (often more stepped in Brazilian specimens), tops of the whorls straight to slightly concave with about 5 low spiral ridges crossed by concave growth lines. Nucleus: 2 whorls; axial sculpture on the sides of the first 3 to 4 postnuclear whorls, sides of the early whorls smaller than the tops.
Nearly all specimens of C. cancellatus are white or creamy white, with a yellowish apex. Some specimens have light brown bands or traces of brown bands around mid-body and below the shoulder, a pattern reminiscent of that of C. stimpsoni. Such specimens also have brown maculations on the spire whorls.
Discussion:-Notes: Walls created confusion using the name cancellatus for specimens of the Indo Pacific species C. pagodus and the name atractus for specimens of cancellatus.

 

 

Conus  cancellatus f. austini  Rehder & Abbott, 1951

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 41,  p. 22,  f. 7
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Southwest of Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida; 40-46 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.5 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name austini.

 

Conus cancellatus f.  brunneobandatus  Petuch, 1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Alan Kohn

Published in: La Conchiglia xxiii. no. 264,  p. 37,  figs. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Tobejuba Boca Araguao, Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela; 25 m.
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus brunneobandatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Guyana, Brazil
Habitat:-On mud bottoms in 20-35 m. depths
Description:-Source original description
Shell distinctly turnip-shaped, with wide broad shoulder, deeply concave sides, and narrow, tapering anterior end; shoulder sharply-angled, with well developed, keel-like carina; spire elevated, slightly scalariform; body whorl shiny, ornamented with 30-32 large, evenly-spaced spiral cords, giving shell rough appearence; aperture narrow; body whorl white, encircled with continuous, wide, light brown or tan band; brown band often encircles only midbody region, but in some specimens (such as holotype) extends from shoulder to below midbody; anterior tip of shell white; spire whorls white with scattered tan flammules; protoconch and early whorls pale orange-tan; interior of aperture white; periostracum thin, brown, velvety.
Discussion:-The author states that Conus brunneobandatus occurs with, and is most often misidentified as Conus cancellatus Hwass, 1792. This is smaller species with a more truncated, turnip-shaped body. The wide brown band of this species C. cancellatus, even in specimens with brown markings. The new species also has a much finer body whorl sculpturing than does C. cancellatus, with some specimens having virtually smooth shells devoid of coarse spiral cords.

 

 

Conus cancellatus f. finkli  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 111. pl. 25,  f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Gulf of Venezuela, off Punto Fijo, Falcon, Venezuela; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus finkli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Colombia, Venezuela
Habitat:-Found at depths around 35m.
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell elongated, slightly turnip- shaped in outline; spire elevated, slightly concave on sides; body whorl ornamented with 25 evenly-spaced raised cords; cords on anterior canal with fine threads in- between; spire whorls ornamented with one large spiral cord, medially placed; color pure white with only one band of widely-spaced, reddish- brown crescent-shaped flammules around mid-body; spire whorls with widely-scattered, large, reddish-brown flammules; interior of aperture white; periostracum thick, dark brown,with rows of small hairs and with rows of large tufts around shoulder.
Discussion:-
Conus finkli is an almost white shell shell. As far as is known, C. finkli is confined to the Gulf of Venezuela, in upwelling areas of cold water.
Diaz (1990) considers C. finkli a synonym of C. austini, but finkli always has flammules on the spire, pinkish early whorls, and doesn't develop axial sculpture as strongly.

 

 

Conus cancellatus f.  tristensis Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 113,  pl. 16, f. 9, 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Golfo de Triste, off Tucacas, Carabobo State, Venezuela; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or possibly a synonym (a form) of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus tristensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Caribbean, Venezuela
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell stocky with compressed body, wide across shoulder and tapering rapidly toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled, slightly carinated; spire low, flattened; body whorl sculptured with 18 prominent, raised spiral cords; spiral cords pustulated; spire whorls sculptured with six incised spiral sulci; shell color pure white with small, scattered pale orange- brown flammules; spire whorls with regularly-spaced, amorphous brown flammules; early whorls pale orange; periostracum thick, with rows of erect hairs that correspond to raised, pustulated cords on body whorl.
Discussion:-Petuch states that the cords on the body whorl are pustulated, giving a rough texture to the shell Conus tristensis resembles no other living Caribbean species. This is not apparent from the type specimen which has a similar structure to C. cancellatus with the spiral ridges separated more widely.

 

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Conus  canonicus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Neotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 749
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maldive Islands; restricted (C, M & W) to the Maldives, (Indian Ocean), neotype locality not mentioned
Type Data: Neotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-canonicus
Synonyms:-
rubescens Bonnet, 1864; condensus  Sowerby ii, 1866
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to French Polynesia; absent from Marshall Is. and Hawaii.
Habitat:-Intertidal and uppermost subtidal; on subtidal coral reef flats, in sand under coral rocks, in coral rubble with or without sand and on limestone pavement, often close to living corals.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conoid-cylindrical, sometimes ventricosely conical, conical, or cylindrical; outline convex at adapical fourth, slightly convex to straight and parallel-sided below, with straightly tapering sides at basal third; left side constricted above base. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave or slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 2.75 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 4-5.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly convex to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 9-10 weak spiral grooves or more spiral striae. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs basally, sometimes extending beyond centre.
Ground colour white, often suffused with pink or blue. Last whorl with yellowish brown spots and flecks and with a network of fine brown lines edging tiny to moderately large, round to tentlike ground colour markings. Similarly sized tents may be arranged in groups. Yellowish brown spots and flecks interspersed with broad dark brown axial lines, sometimes also with spiral lines, usually forming 2 interrupted spiral bands, within basal third and just above centre. Larval whorls pale pink. Early postnuclear sutural ramps pale pink. First 2-4 ramps immaculate, following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture pink, sometimes suffused with orange or violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-70 mm
RW 0.17-0.44 g/mm
(L 35-60 mm)
RD 0.53-0.64
PMD 0.74-0.86
RSH 0.06-0.22
Discussion:-C. canonicus is similar to C. abbas, C. textile, C. legatus and C. aureus;
C. canonicus has often been referred erroneously to as C. tigrinus, a synonym of C. textile.
C. condensus, is an elongate specimen of C. canonicus.

 

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Conus  capitanellus  Fulton, 1938

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. xxiii,  part 1,  p. 55,  pl. 3,  f. 1. & 1 a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Kii, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Stellaconus Species:-capitanellus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines and in New Caledonia.
Habitat:-Found at depths of 80-500 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical, sometimes broadly conical; outline variably convex at adapical third to two-thirds, straight below. Shoulder angulate, rarely outwardly curved. Spire usually low, outline concave to almost straight. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1 mm. First 1-2.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or weakly concave, with 1-3 increasing to 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few weak spiral ribs or ribs and ribbons at base.
Ground colour white, occasionally tinged with yellow to tan in places. Last whorl with a broad brown spiral band on each side of centre and brown axial streaks from base to shoulder ramp. Larval whorls yellow to white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial streaks. Aperture white, slightly translucent except in large adults.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-40 mm
RW 0.13-0.19 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.71
PMD 0.81-0.94
RSH 0.07-0.13
Some rare specimens weakly granulose;
Discussion:-C. capitanellus is similar to C. capitaneus and C. plinthis; these  species attain much larger size, and its last whorl is less convex in outline, bears spiral rows of coarse and minute brown dots and has a dark brown base.

 

----------

 

Conus  capitaneus  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 713
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Type locality Asia, restricted (C, M & W) to Larantuka, Flores, Indonesia.
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-capitaneus
Synonyms:- ferrugineus Bosc, 1801; ceciliae Crosse, 1858
Geographic Range:-Natal and E. Africa to Hawaii, Samoa and Tonga, Japan to Australia; absent from Red Sea
Habitat:-Intertidal and entire subtidal; in Philippines to about 240 m; most common on slightly subtidal reef flats and stretches of sand passing into reef flats, occurring on sand under coral rocks, on coral rock with coralline algal encrustation or in holes and crevices.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex near shoulder, less so or straight below; left side concave near base. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate. Spire low, outline slightly sigmoid, straight or concave. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. First 0.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, smooth within following 0.5 whorl. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat to slightly convex, with 2 increasing to 5-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, often weak spiral ribs at base; in subadults, ribs followed by variably spaced spiral rows of punctations sometimes retained basally in small adults.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with broad, brown or olive spiral bands, leaving white bands at shoulder and centre. Central band edged with dark brown markings, some of which cross the band; subshoulder band crossed by dark brown streaks. Spiral colour bands interspersed by spiral rows of dark brown coarse dots or axial streaks of varying length. Numerous spiral rows of minute brown dots extend from base to shoulder, often sparse within white bands and densely clustered anteriorly, producing a dark brown base; dots become axially rather than spirally aligned during growth. Larval whorls yellow; adjacent sutural ramps greenish yellow. Later sutural ramps white, with variably broad, brown to black radial blotches, some of which extend as streaks to subshoulder area. Aperture white. Pattern consistent from juveniles of about 15 mm to the adult stage.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-98 mm
RW 0.33-0.80 g/mm
((L 55-85))
RD 0.65-0.75
PMD 0.82-0.92
RSH 0.05-0.12
C. mustelinus the midbody band has discrete oval black black spots not connected across midbody; more elongate, narrower shoulder, higher more convex spire; seldom more than 2-3 rows large spots.
C. ceciliae used for large specimens, brightly colored, retaining heavy juvenile structures.
Discussion:-

 

Conus capitaneus  f.  ceciliae  Crosse, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 7,  p. 381,  pl. xiv,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus capitaneus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-capitaneus ceciliae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal and entire subtidal; in Philippines to about 240 m; most common on slightly subtidal reef flats and stretches of sand passing into reef flats, occurring on sand under coral rocks, on coral rock with coralline algal encrustation or in holes and crevices.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. ceciliae is based on a subadult specimen of C. capitaneus with spiral rows of deep punctations on the last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  capreolus  Röckel, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Arch. Moll. cxv. (4/6),  p. 267,  pl. 1,  f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: About 50 km from east coast of E. Indian state of Visakhapatnam; 50 m
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40.7 x 18.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-capreolus
Synonyms:-
semisulcatus Sowerby, 1870
Geographic Range:-E.  India - Andaman Sea
Habitat:-Reported from 50 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl conical, outline almost straight; subadult shells slightly convex adapically, large shells with a concave right side. Shoulder sharply angulate. Spire of moderate height, early whorls stepped, outline regularly concave. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 5-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, later whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with pronounced closely set radial threads; early ramps with 1-2 increasing to 3 fine spiral grooves, later ramps with finer spiral striation. Last whorl with a few spiral grooves at base, separated by ribs anteriorly and by ribbons posteriorly.
Ground colour white, suffused with violet and cream on last whorl. Last whorl with fawn axial streaks, varying from separate to fused in an almost solid brown colouration. Larval whorls white. Early teleoconch sutural ramps usually tan, later ramps grade to largely white. Aperture cream white, shaded with very pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 36-65 mm
RW 0.11-0.22 g/mm
RD 0.55-0.58
PMD 0.87-0.96
RSH 0.13-0.19
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  capricorni   van  Mol, Tursch & Kempf, 1967

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Ann. Inst. Oceanogr. 45,  p. 238,  f. 3,  pl. 10,  f. 1 a-b
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Porto Alegre, Brazil; 141-135 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.2 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Incertae cedis:- uncertain (incertae cedis), probably a fossil form of C. cancellatus Hwass by Filmer, 1792; regarded as a valid species by Petuch & Myers, 2014
Habitat: Deep water
Description: Translated from the French original description.

Spire fairly low profile right, acuminate, nucleus very high - at least three rounds, opaque, smooth, brownish. Early rounds has very angular shoulder; the portion situated below the shoulder mark is strong axial ribs cut by fine spiral grooves.

Sculpture: the axial ribs the first rounds go to fifth rounds.

The shoulder is always shrouded. The tops of the towers is decorated with four spiral grooves well marked, cut by fine growth lines. Narrow suture canaliculated. Above slightly concave towers.

Last whorl: shoulder fairlyregular. Profile slightly convex. Sculpture: completely covered by numerous spiral grooves well marked, stronger at the base.

Aperture: narrow, incentives edges.

Coloration: two series of spiral brown spots and  series of whitish blotches.

Periostracum: yellowish brown, opaque

Discussion: Most often on the marked as Conus villepinii.

 

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Conus  caracteristicus  G. Fischer, 1807

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1788: 54,  pl. 182,  figs. 1760, 1761)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Mus. Demidoff iii, p. 139
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None; not mentioned, designated (C, M & W) Java Sea, (Indonesia)
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1788: 54,  pl. 182 figs. 1760, 1761)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-caracteristicus
Synonyms:-
muscosus Lamarck, 1810; characteristicus Dillwyn, 1817; masoni Nevill & Nevill, 1874; brevis Smith, 1877
Geographic Range:-Bay of Bengal to Philippines and to Japan
Habitat:-Subtidal, to 30 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly conical; outline convex below shoulder, straight towards base. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height; early whorls projecting from an otherwise flat spire. First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 deep spiral grooves increasing to 3-4 major grooves and several spiral striae. Last whorl with weak or strong, alternating fine and coarse spiral ribs near base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with often wavy, brown to reddish brown axial dashes, lines and blotches, with small triangular flecks, and near base with spirally aligned spots. Pattern elements clustered in 3 spiral zones, below shoulder and on both sides of centre; adapical zones accentuated by an underlaying salmon or brown band. Teleoconch sutural ramps crossed by brown blotches. Aperture yellow.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-88 mm
RW 0.40-1.30 g/mm
RD 0.65-0.76
PMD 0.85-0.92
RSH 0.04-0.18
Discussion:-C. caracteristicus resembles C. zeylanicus, which co- occurs in the E. Indian Ocean. However, it differs from the latter in its coarser colour pattern without pink or violet tones, strictly conical last whorl, and more pronounced spiral sculpture of the sutural ramps.

 

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Conus  carcellesi Martins, 1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNRJ MNRJ

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Notas Mus. La Plata Zool.. X,  no. 88,  p. 260., pl. f. A-G2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.
Type Data: Holotype in MNRJ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus carcellesi subsp.
Synonyms:-
iheringi Frenguelli, 1946
Geographic Range:-Urugauy, Argentina
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-70 m.
Description:-Source Vink
C. lemniscatus closely resembles C. clerii, but in general is somewhat smaller, length up to 50 mm. Typical specimens are more slender with a more straight-sided spire. The body whorl is straight to convex with spiral ridges near the base, which in some spcimens may cover the body whorl. Shoulder roundly angulate, early spire whorls convex, later spire whorls flat to slightly concave and not stepped in typical C. lemniscatus. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls. The first 2 postnuclear whorls, normally smooth, may show irregular coronation (but not the regular axial sculpture of C. clerii). The colour pattern is like that of C. clerii; in most specimens of typical C. lemniscatus the axial flames are lighter coloured and cover larger areas so that the spiral lines of dark squares become prominent. However, there are specimens of c. clerii with the same colour pattern, and the only way to distinguish the two species without any doubt is by comparing the early spire whorls
The colour pattern of the subspecies is similar to that of C. lemniscatus, but the pattern of axial flames is predominant.
Discussion:-Da Motta (1981) considered C. carcellesi a full species, and drew attention to a number of morphological differences: the shell is smaller, 30 to 45 mm, and wider, with a more convex body whorl and a relatively higher spire, which is rather straight and often stepped. These differences can be found in main population.
Tucker comments:- samples that I examined are that the spire of L. l. lemniscatus is not as elevated as the spire of L. l. carcellesi. Without belaboring the details, I found that these differences are statistically significant in the sample I have at hand. Consequently, I agree with Vink in recognizing L. l. carcellesi as a subspecies of  L. lemniscatus.

 

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Conus  cardinalis  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773: pl. 61, fig. 680)
Picture Link: Possible Holotype MNHG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 632
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Designated Martinique.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773: pl. 61, fig. 680)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-cardinalis
Synonyms:-
flavescens Kiener, 1845; dianthus Sowerby iii, 1882; according to Filmer:  harasewychi Petuch, 1987; jacarusoi Petuch, 1998; ortneri Petuch, 1998; rosalindensis Petuch, 1998; donnae Petuch, 1998; theodorei Petuch, 2000; lucaya Petuch, 2000
Geographic Range:-Florida, USA; Costa Rica; Dominican Republic; Panama; Turks and Caicos; Jamaica
Habitat:-Shallow reefs around 20 m
Description:-Source Walls
Moderate weight,thick, with good gloss in fresh specimens; pyriform or low conical, shoulder wide tapering strongly to base; broad spiral ridges basally sometimes granulose and extending posteriorly; spire low, sides straight, sometimes weakly stepped; spire whorls with large low indistinct coronations; body whorl red pink or pale red brown, occasionly olive/ dark brown;Narrow white spiral bands at base, midbody, shoulder, usually comprising white blotches containing brown spots and streaks; occasionly larger brown spots and axial flammules; spire with alternating blotches of white and red brown suffused pink; aperture moderate uniform; outer lip convex, fragile; mouth fades violet to pinkish rose; columella not visible;
The type specimen (27 x 16 mm) is reddish-salmon with a white mid-body band and a rather low white spire. The shoulder is coronated with 14 rather large nodules. There are widely spaced, somewhat pustulous, weak spiral ridges on the body whorl. Small reddish dots are present on some ridges, a few white patches exist on the upper half of the body whorl.

Discussion: I prefer to see the Petuch species as valid. See there.

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Conus  cardonensis  Vink,  1990

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Enc. Méth. 1,  p. 702, no. 92, (1798, Tab. Enc. pl. 331, figs 2 & 8)

Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean

Type Locality: Punta Cardon, Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela

Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 20.9 x 11.9 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-puncticulatus cardonensis subspecies

Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-Venezuela and Colombia

Habitat:-Mud, 0 – 10 mtrs

Description:-

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus cargilei  Coltro,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11,  p. 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 75 km NNE Abrolhos Arch., off Alcobaca, Bahia State, Brazil (15deg 57 S, 38deg 01 W)
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-archetypus cargilei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on rubble and coral sand bottom at 20-35 meters on offshore reefs on southern Bahia State, Brazil
Description:-Source: Original description
Description: Length: 16 to 25 mm, concave-sided moderately elevated spire (1/6 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth with a sharp angle. Body whorl elongated, straight to slightly convex with 8-9 incised lines on the base on adult specimens. Juvenile specimens have entire body covered by incised lines. Apex pink or pink-orange, nucleus 2 to 2.5 whorls, smooth. Spire with 5 up 7 whorls, with two or three (light) weak spiral ridges, white and brown dots. Color body extremely variable, from completely black, to dark brown with lines, grey and green, red- brown, etc. The black or black and white specimens are colorful when juveniles. Deep purple aperture with shell color margin.
Discussion:-The most variable shell from the Abrolhos Archipelago, it is probably related to the Conus archetypus Crosse complex of species. As most of the other related species, has an ornamented top and an extremely variation of patterns and colors. The new species could be confused with the very similar C. beddomei and C. brasilensis, but C. cargilei is more elongated and has straighter sides than C. beddomei and C. brasiliensis, or even any other species from the complex. The shape and proportions of the shell are very characteristic, and there are not found intermediates between C. cargilei and any other species that belong to the same complex.

 

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Conus  caribbaeus  Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 23,  pl. 11, f. 4 & 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Palm Beach Co., Florida
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus flavescens Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-flavescens caribbaeus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida, Bahamas
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Vink
A slender shell, rarely exceeding 25 mm. in length, although specimens of more than 30 mm. exist. Sides of the body whorl slightly convex with a rather broad base, spire moderate and rather straight-sided with mamillate protoconch. Shoulder angulate, body whorl smooth except for 10 to 12 incised lines near the base. Tops of whorls without distinct spiral threads. Nucleus: 2 whorls; early whorls with rough sutures that sometimes may appear nodulous. Operculum longish and small, about 1/6 of aperture height, periostracum thin and yellowish. Colour pattern rather variable with most patterns found in any population. Specimens from the Bahamas are lighter in colour. Typical C. flavescens is pale brownish yellow or reddish brown with irregular white spots mostly around mid-body and around the base of the spire, but sometimes also covering the whole body whorl. The spots are irregular, and in the words of Reeve have 'the appearance of spaces casually left in the deposit of the pale yellow colour'. The white spots around mid-body may also form a complete band and some shells are completely uniform white, yellowish or pinkish. There are also specimens with spiral rows of dark brown dashes on a background which can be uniform white or white with axial brown maculations.
C. caribbaeus is considered an albino colour form.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  carinatus  Swainson, 1822

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Ill,  ii,  pl. 112
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Swainson (1822,  Pl. 112)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus carinatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. carinatus: Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical or ventricosely conical. Ground colour white to tan. Colour pattern comparatively uniform, consisting of spiral bands and lines and axial streaks in various shades of brown. Known from Philippines (Sulu Sea, S.Luzon).
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus carioca  Petuch, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in INHS

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. Xcix,  no. 1,  p. 9, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; trawled in 100 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MORG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species; according to Filmer a synonym form of Conus sanderi Wils & Moolenbeek, 1979
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-carioca
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 150 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongate, straight- sided, smooth and shiny, shoulder sharp-edged, carinated; spire flattened but slightly protracted in early whorls; color white with revolving bands of bright orange and orange-pink; orange bands overlaid with rows of pale brown dots and dashes; mid-body with white band; central white band bordered on both sides by bands of dark brown flammules; spire pale orange with crescent-shaped brown flammules; interior of aperture pale salmon; periostracum thin, smooth, translucent brown; operculum small, oval in shape.
Note: Petuch did not compare C. carioca with C. sanderi from Barbados but it appears to be the larger Brazilian form with a distinctive bright orange pattern.
Discussion:-

 

----------

Conus carmeli  Tenison-Woods, 1877

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in TMH Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Pap. Pr. Rept. Roy. Soc. Tasmania for 1876,  p. 134
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tasmania
Type Data: Holotype in TMH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone carmeli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bass Strait Tasmania to Ceduna ( S. Australia).
Habitat:-
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. anemone
Specimens described as C. carmeli have biconic shells (RD 0.57-0.75) with a spire of moderate height to high. They differ from other forms of C. anemone in spire height (mean 0.28 vs. 0.14), larger number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls (6-8), and yellowish brown aperture.

 

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Conus carnalis  Sowerby iii, 1879

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 796,  pl. 48,  f. 2
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Santa Maria Bay, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Pseudonoduloconus Species:-carnalis
Synonyms:-
amethystinus Trovăo, 1975
Geographic Range:-Angola, Limagens to Lucira Bay
Habitat:-From 2 to 15 m, under rocks, often attached to the rocks
Description:-Source Rolán & Röckel 2000
Shell description: Moderately small to medium sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical third, and straight below. Left side slightly concave basally. Aperture narrow to moderate. Shoulder rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave and smooth, sometimes with 2 weak spiral grooves. Periostracum dark brown, thick and opaque.
Ground colour white or light purple, last whorl and spire violet, orange or yellow, leaving a light central band. Aperture light and or translucent.
Shell morphometry:
L 35-63 mm
RD 0.62-0.65
RSH 0.10-0.16
PMD 0.74-0.80
RW 0.20 g/mm.
Discussion:-

 

----------

Conus  carvalhoi  Petuch & Berschauer, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM  D. Berschauer

 

Published in: Festivus Vol.: 49, p. 321-322; Fig. 3A-B
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic

Type Locality: between Maras Cay and Cayo Mayor, Miskito Cays, Nicaragua
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.7 x 8.9 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-carvalhoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Nicaragua
Habitat:-
  The species prefers clean carbonate sand in shallow water, averaging 10-12 m depth. Here it occurs on open sand sea floors with coral rubble and small patch reefs of living coral
Description:-Source Original Description

Shell of average size for genus, fusiform, with slightly rounded sides; shoulder sharply-angled, edged with large, thin, prominent

carina; spire elevated, subpyramidal, distinctly stepped and scalariform; spire whorls slightly concave and obsoletely canaliculate; body whorl

shiny, completely ornamented with 16-18 deeply-incised spiral sulci, with sulci becoming more deeply-impressed toward anterior end; body whorl pale pinkish-white, overlaid with wide bands and large amorphous patches of darker pink or pinkish-tan; white band generally present around mid-body, separating wide color bands and flammules; spire whorls white, marked with proportionally-large, widelyscattered dark pinkish-tan oval flammules; some flammules extend over shoulder carina and connect with large patches and bands on body whorl; aperture proportionally wide, widening slightly toward anterior end; interior of aperture pale pink; protoconch pale pink in color, proportionally large, bulbous, domelike, composed of 2 whorls; periostracum thin, smooth,

transparent yellow.

 

----------

 

Conus castaneofasciatus  Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Rep. Figure Kiener Coq Viv pl.84 f.2. (CMW)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii, fasc. 18,  p. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype was in MHNG and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 80 x 40.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus amadis Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-amadis castaneofasciatus subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Reported from intertidal mudflats to about 18 m, in sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. amadis
Discussion:-forma castaneofasciatus applies to shells from the Andaman Sea that are brown except for 1-2 lighter, reticulated spiral bands, at centre and sometimes below shoulder. The latter shells differ from those from India and Sri Lanka by their smaller.

 

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Conus  castaneus  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p. 209, pl. 104,  f. 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus cingulatus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name castaneus

 

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Conus  catus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  Tahiti

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 707
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Santo Domingo Isle, Martinique, (erroneous) and Ile de France, (Mauritius), restricted (Kohn) to Mauritius.
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-catus
Synonyms:-
nubilus Röding, 1798; discrepans Sowerby ii, 1833; purus Pease, 1863; reflectus Sowerby iii, 1877; granulosa Barros E. Cunha, 1933; rubrapapillosa Dautzenberg, 1937; fuscoolivaceus Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 20 m; in protected and exposed sites on benches, rocky shores and subtidal coral reef flats, occupying crevices, pockets or patches of sand with or without vegetation, bare limestone, algal turf and coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid; relative weight of similarly sized specimens may vary by 40%. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical; outline variably convex adapically and mostly straight below; left side occasionally sigmoid. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter 0.6-0.7 mm. First 2-3 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 4-8 spiral grooves; latest ramps with additional subsutural spiral striae. Last whorl variable in spiral sculpture. Shells with well separated, weak spiral ribs on basal third vary continuously with shells having strong, variably broad ribs or ribbons, usually minutely to strongly granulose and often with 1-2 fine smooth ribs in between, from base to shoulder. Form nigropunctatus with a slightly less solid shell. Last whorl entricosely conical or conoidcylindrical. Spire outline either straight or slightly convex. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Late sutural ramps with 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl consistently with a few well separate spiral ribs near base.
Ground colour white to bluish grey. Pattern of last whorl variable in colour, arrangement and extent. Colour ranges from yellowish brown to olive-brown, blackish brown and orange or red. Shells with sparse small flecks on each side of centre intergrade with solidly dark shells except for a narrow spiral ground-colour band at centre. Surface pattern emphasized by bluish grey or brownish violet background clouds. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, either containing intermittent white markings or fusing into solid dark lines. Rows variably spaced and ranging from complete absence to dominant pattern element. Larval whorls usually red, less frequently white to brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps with radial streaks or confluent blotches that match pattern elements of last whorl in colour. Aperture white or cream.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-52 mm
RW 0.15-0.50 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.78
PMD 0.78-0.87
RSH 0.10-0.19
Discussion:-C. catus is allied to C. achatinus, C. monachus and C. striolatus. C. achatinus attains larger size, has a less solid shell and more tuberculate postnuclear whorls. It has usually a narrower last whorl (RD 0.54-0.69) and its periostracum has tufted spiral ridges and fringed shoulders. C. striolatus tends to have a more ovate last whorl (PMD 0.7 1-0.80) than C. catus and lacks tuberculate early postnuclear whorls. Both C. achatinus and C. striolatus can also be distinguished from C. catus by their animals having a large saddle-shaped black blotch on the anterior dorsum of the foot. C. monachus has a less solid shell, attains larger size but has a relatively narrower last whorl, and usually has a more angulate shoulder as well as weaker spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps. Moreover, it is set apart by its nebulose pattern and its darker larval shell.

 

 

Conus catus f.  fuscoolivaceus  Dautzenberg, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii, fasc. 18,  p. 62,  pl. I,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tjilaoet Eureun, W. Java
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30.4 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus catus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-catus fuscoolivaceus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal reefs
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. catus
C. fuscoolivaceus is mainly dark brown with black spiral lines and scattered patches of white; spire is rounded and quite high.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus catus f.  rubrapapillosa  Dautzenberg, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 62,  pl. I,  f. 7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tjilaoet Eureun, W. Java
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus catus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-catus rubrapapillosa forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal reefs
Description:-Source Living Conidae     C. catus
A type specimen which is all a medium brown.Figure shows pinkish brown specimen slightly mottled.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus caysalensis  Raybaudi  L.  &  Prati,  1994

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figure Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: World Shells viii,  p. 9,  figs.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas.
Type Data: Holotype was in IMT and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 18 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species; according to Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus explorator Vink, 1990
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:- caysalensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-20 m
Description:-Source Original Description
A small fragile shell of adult size 16-22 mm. Slightly simoid shape; straight near shoulders, becoming convex and then concave near base. Unpronounced spire with considerable number of nodules on whorl tops and projecting on shoulder. Suture evident with convex top to whorls. Small protruding protoconch pink to light red in colour. Body whorl crossed by 13-14 thin finely granulose spiral ridges. Bright red ground colour with irregular white flammules on spire and heavier pattern on whorl often coalescing to form axial white zigzags.
Discussion:-Most similar to C.  richardbinghami. C. caysalensis is lighter, smaller with taller spire and coronate shoulder; it also has granulose riblets on body whorl.

----------

Conus cazalisoi  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2018

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 98; p. 14-15
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: near the area of Morro d'Areia - Boa Vista Island
Type Data: Holotype in MMM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 11.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Described as Africonus but is obviously a Trovaoconus
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Trovaoconus Species:-cazalisoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-
Found between 8-10m on sand between the rocks 100 meters from the coast
Description:-Source Original
Subtriangular shell of medium-small size (17-30 mm) for the genus, with a moderately raised spire with an almost straight profile, and imperceptible sutures, with shoulder that is softly rounded. The wide aperture and the columellar margin follow the course of the outer lip which slightly widens.The protoconch is usually broken and not very large, cupoliform, slightly raised of almost white  colour, well embedded in the spire. The last whorl has a whitish color with caramel brown-fawn marbled pattern, more evident in the middle area; weak grooves and spirals characterize the basal area of the whorl and the columellar area of which the base is coloured with cerulean. Wide and straight siphonal channel

Discussion:-

 

 

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Conus  cebuensis  Wils,  1990

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris 29 (2),  p. 25, figs 4 - 6

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Punta Engano, Mactan Is, Cebu, Philippines

Type Data: Syntype in IRSN deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 37.1 x 19.2 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies of Conus proximus, according to Filmer a form

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Textilia Species:-proximus cebuensis

Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-Philippines

Habitat:- Shallow to deeper water, 2 - 40 m

Description:- Gloria Maris: Shell solid, slightly glossy of medium size, average 35-40 mm. Spire medium to low, nearly straight and a little concave near the apex, which is acute. The 9 whorls have two spiral cords and are weakly coronated. Sides of the bodywhorl are convex just below the shoulder, the middle part is straight and slightly compressed above the base. Bodywhorl ornamented with numerous elevated spiral cords, smooth intersticed. The surface is cream to light pinkish in fresh specimens. Spiral cords interrupted brown to blackish brown, some irregular white spots. Inside aperture is blue-white.

Discussion:- Less slender than the nominate, more stout and convex beneath the shoulder; spire weakly coronated instead of strong pronounced. Less spiral cords.

 

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Conus cebuganus  da Motta & Martin, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Carf. Phil. Shell News 4 (3),  p. 1,  fig. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Visayan Sea between Malapascua Is. & Bantayan Is., Philippines; 20-40 fathoms.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym, juvenile of Conus australis Holten, 1802
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-australis cebuganus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-40 m
Description:-
Discussion:-
C. cebuganus is considered the juvenile form of C. australis.

 

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Conus ceciliae  Crosse, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 7,  p. 381,  pl. xiv,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus capitaneus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-capitaneus ceciliae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal and entire subtidal; in Philippines to about 240 m; most common on slightly subtidal reef flats and stretches of sand passing into reef flats, occurring on sand under coral rocks, on coral rock with coralline algal encrustation or in holes and crevices.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. ceciliae is based on a subadult specimen of C. capitaneus with spiral rows of deep punctations on the last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  cedonulli   Linnaeus,  1767

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Seba (1758,  pl. 48, fig. 8)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 12th ed., 1, pt. 2 p. 1167
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: South American Ocean, restricted (Vink & von Cosel) to St. Vincent, (Windward Islands).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Seba (1758,  pl. 48, fig. 8)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli
Synonyms:-
insularis Gmelin, 1791; caledonicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; dominicanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; grenadensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; amiralis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; martinicanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; cedonulli Perry, 1811; sanguineus Kiener, 1845; holemani Nowell-Usticke, 1968
Geographic Range:-St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea
Habitat:-Found on black volcanic sand or coral sand floors with some vegetation at depths of 2 to 50 m
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 30 to 60 mm., with moderately elevated spire, concave-sided in adult specimens. Body whorl straight to slightly convex with greatest width just somewhat below the shoulder. Surface with beaded spiral threads, mainly near the base, larger part of shell smooth (in some specimens the shades of the markings make it seem granulated). Shoulder of body whorl smooth, spire whorls canaliculate. Nucleus: 1 1/2 whorls, first post nuclear whorls coronated. Animal bright red, operculum small and elliptical, about 1/8 of aperture height (operculum shown by Walls (1979:200) is not from C. cedonulli). Radula tooth described and pictured by Vink & Cosel (1985: pl.11, fig. 1 a-t). Periostracum thin, yellowish. C. cedonulli lack a free swimming veliger phase and hatch at least in the late pediveliger (veliconcha) stage (Vink & Cosel, 1985:563). This has resulted in populations with differentiated pattern in adjacent geographic areas which must be recognized as subspecies: C. cedonulli insularis and C. cedonulli dominicanus, besides typical C.cedonulli.
C. cedonulli, together with C. mappa, C. aurantius, C. curassaviensis, C. archon, C. pseudaurantius, fossil C. consobrinus and possibly C. scopulorum belong to the Conus cedonulli complex, a species complex with mostly allopatric members at various stages of speciation presumable originating from a common ancestor.
Typical C. cedonulli has a background colour that can vary from orange brown, mahogany brown or reddish brown like burgundy wine to more olive-green or to black (when faded these shells turn bright yellow orange, black specimens become reddish brown). On this background there are numerous irregular purplish white patches mainly at and below midbody. In addition 26 to 30 spiral lines of white and brown dots in the whitish area and of purplish white circles in the dark areas. The purplish white circles are outlined with dark brown and interconnected by spiral threads of dark brown, some on the upper half are larger at regular intervals, forming small patches comparable to those on the mid-region and below. The purplish white areas may also coalesce into irregular spiral bands or form zigzag shaped markings. In very few specimens whitish markings are totally absent.
Discussion:-C. cedonulli could be confused with C. mappa ( which usually has a higher, more stepped and often less concave spire, and an internal restriction on the columella within the aperture), C. curassaviensis (which is smaller with more convex sides of the body whorl and a relatively higher, slightly concave spire) and C. pseudaurantius (which like C. aurantius has a knobbed shoulder of the body whorl and a more slender outline).
Vink & Cosel (1985, p. 558) provided a key to 3 different forms.
Shell 40-60 mm high, broad, moderately heavy, mahogany brown to black, with irregular purplish white patches, zigzag markings or spiral bands, rarely uniform
dark, light colored areas small in relation to whole shell surface. Subrecent specimens lighter colored...C. cedonulli cedonulli.
Shell 40-60 mm high, broad, light to moderately heavy, yellowish white or pinkish rosy, with mostly isolated orange, brown or dark brown patches, the lighter orange ones always with darker outline. Light colored areas large in relation to whole shell surface...C. cedonulli
insularis.
Shell 40-60 mm high, broad, heavy to very heavy, bluish white with numerous small orange to brown patches, axial flames or zigzag markings, often coalescing spirally and arranged in 2 or 3 spiral bands. Patches usually not with darker outlines... C. cedonulli dominicanus.

 

 

Conus  cedonulli f. caledonicus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 634
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles; the Pacific coasts of New Caledonia, (erroneous), corrected (C, M & W) St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, (Windward Islands).
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli caledonicus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Lesser Antilles; Windward Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  cedonulli dominicanus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 603
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dominica, Lesser Antilles; coasts of the Island of Dominica, (Leeward Islands), (erroneous), corrected (Vink & von Cosel) to Mustique, Grenadines, Lesser Antilles.
Type Data: Lectotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.4 x 21.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli dominicanus subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Known from Grenada and the islands of the Grenadines
Habitat:-Occurring on sand or coral floors partly with sea grass at depth of 2 to 20 m
Description:-Source Vink  C. cedonulli
C. cedonulli dominicanus is bluish white to grey with numerous small dark brown or orange- brown to reddish brown patches or axial flames, mainly arranged in a broad band on the upper part of the body whorl and a narrow band .near the base. Sometimes the lower part of the broad band on the upper part of the body whorl is partly or completely separated from the rest, forming a narrow third band of small patches. Body whorl covered with slightly granulated close- set spiral lines of brown and white dots in the dark areas and of brown dots in the white areas. The brownish and white areas and dots are not outlines by dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus cedonulli f.  holemani  Nowell-Usticke, 1968

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in AMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Caribbean Cones from St. Croix and Lesser Antilles p. 21,  pl. III,  f. 1011
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: St. Vincent, West Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64 x 34.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name holemani

 

 

Conus  cedonulli insularis  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773,  pl. 62, fig. 683)

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1,  pt,  p. 3389
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773,  pl. 62, fig. 683)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli insularis subsp.
Synonyms:-
geographicus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-known from St. Lucia and from off Barbados
Habitat:-Occurring on sand and rubble floors at depths of 20 to 160 m.
Description:-Source Vink   C. cedonulli.
C. cedonulli insularis differs from typical C. cedonulli in having the mahogany brown or black background more or less broken into isolated irregular brown to yellow brown or black patches arranged in two spiral rows on a whitish, yellowish or pinkish background, the patches in the lower row sometimes coalescing into a spiral band. In subrecent shells the patches are pale yellow with darker outline or reddish brown without outline; these latter patches have been black in fresh specimens. Specimens from Barbados have slightly larger orange brown patches and are more slender.
Discussion:-Tucker comments: Vink in the West Atlantic series gave no means to distinguish Tenorioconus cedonulli insularis from S. c. dominicanus. The brownish and white areas in S. c. dominicanus are not outlined by dark brown. They are outlined by darker color in both S. c. cedonulli and S. c. insularis (Vink and Cosel, 1985)

 

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Conus  centurio  Born, 1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMW Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind.,  p. 133
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: not known, designated (Clench) Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo, (Dominican Republic).
Type Data: Holotype in NHMW deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35.5 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Kohniconus Species:-centurio
Synonyms:-
bifasciatus Gmelin, 1791; tribunus Gmelin, 1791; woolseyi Smith M, 1946; caribaensis Nowell-Usticke, 1968; cruzensis Nowell-Usticke, 1968
Geographic Range:-Colombia - E Brazil; Jamaica, Barbados
Habitat:-Moderate depths 25-50 m.
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy with a high gloss; low biconical, the sides straight, tapering to narrow base;

basal ridging; shoulder broad, carinate,concave above; spire low/moderate, sides straight/convex; whorls concave,margins carinate; body whorl white covered with wide zigzag flammules of yellow tan to deep chestnut,widely spaced; flammules tend to merge into three spiral bands of large blotches; flammules often broken leaving rows dashes anteriorly; base white to yellow tan; spire white with brown lines and blotches; aperture wide, uniform; mouth white; columella very narrow mostly internal. Spire varies from low to high and stepped;
Discussion:-Similar to C.  delesserti which is narrower,the first 4-5 nodules nodulose seperated by brown dots;color patten more broken;three bands of bright salmon replacing brown bands.
Nowell Usticke defined two forms from Barbados in 1968 (invalid) and later tried to move them invalidly to subspecies status (cruziensis and caribaensis).
C. c. cruziensis differs in having a lower spire and pattern where yellow banding is very weak or missing and markings are zigzag crossing white space between bands.Colour is dull brownish orange with markings of same.
C.c. caribaensis is smaller and narrower specimen with moderate spire; the colour is brownish orange with pale brown zigzags on 3 weak yellow bands.

 

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Conus  cepasi  Trovao, 1975

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Bol. Cent. Port. Activ. Subaq. iv.,  ser. 1, p. 3, f. 1 a-f
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Angola (14deg 27' S. 12deg 20' E)
Type Data: Holotype in CPAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.6 x 26.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-cepasi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Under rocks buried in sand at very low tide, sometimes in depths of about 1 m
Description:-Source Röckel, 2000
Moderately small to medium sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate; outline convex at adapical half to third, straight below. Left side concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline convex to sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with a few weak spiral grooves near base.
Ground colour white or cream or light orange, with numerous orange-brown axial hairlines, occasionally with light brown spiral bands near shoulder and both sides of centre. Aperture white.
Shell morphometry:
L 26-40 mm
RD 0.64-0.70
RSH 0.11-0.17
PMD 0.68-0.77
RW 0.28-0.31 g/mm
Discussion:-
C. naranjus is similar but is smaller with orange ground colour sometimes with dotted spiral lines.

 

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Conus cerinus  Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl. pl. iii, sp. 283
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mindanao, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  boeticus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-boeticus cerinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Not Known.
Description:-Source Visaya, Filmer
C. cerinus Reeve, 1848 is an ovate, convex sided and rather solid shell with a rounded and vaguely undulate shoulder. The body whorl has irregular spiral cords, which are more pronounced at the base. The shell is ivory-white to cream with brown blotches axially aligned and forming two broken brown bands at either side of the center these blotches may cross the space between the bands. There are some sparse, fine brown spots forming broken spiral lines. The aperture is rather broad at the base, narrower at the shoulder and curved. The anal notch is shallow and the lip is thick. The columella is white and the interior is pinkish-white.
Discussion:-Not many specimens of C. cerinus are known. From those that are known the shell of C. cerinus differs from the shell of C. boeticus only by its more convex sides and higher spire.

 

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Conus cernicus  H. Adams, 1869

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figure Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.  Pl 19, f.1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1869 272,  pl. xix, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Barkly Is., Mauritius
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Barclay and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 25 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus balteatus Sowerby ii, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-balteatus cernicus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mascarenes, Somalia
Habitat:-Reported in 20-30 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae     C. balteatus
C.  cernicus has more rounded shoulder, lower coronations and spire usually blotched heavily with dark brown, and speckled with white.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  cernohorskyi  da Motta,  1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 2,  p. 2, figs. 10 & 13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Borogon, Samar Oriental, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.4 x 26.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus cernohorskyi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. magus

C. cernohorskyi: moderately small to medium- sized, moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; surface comparatively rough. Larval whorls consistently pink. The type specimen is probably sub adult; white with axial flammules of dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  ceruttii  Cargile, 1997

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia 29,  p. 48,  figs.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Isla Grande de Maiz, Nicaragua; 10-25 m
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-ceruttii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Nicaragua, Honduras
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-25 meters
Description:-Source Original description
Last whorl is conical with a slightly convex outline, more so above mid-body. The shoulder is angulate or sharply angulate, with no sculpture. The spire is moderate in height, concave in outline, and has a slightly stepped appearance. The last whorl  is smooth and glossy above, except for the fine axial threads; the basal third has numerous unevenly spaced, axially striate grooves.
The color of the body whorl of juvenile shells  is generally pale pink, violet, orange, or yellow, with a discontinuous band of white axial streaks or blotches at the mid-body, base, and shoulder, the latter continuous with flammules on the spire. With maturity the color trends to bright reddish orange, and white markings become well defined, axially elongate zigzag and serpentine shapes. Spire whorls have flammules or blotches of white spirally alternating with the color of the body whorl. The apex is white on Nicaraguan specimens, but pale brown on specimens from Cay Gorda. The aperture is white to pale violet inside, and translucent near the lip.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  cervus  Lamarck, 1822

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Hist. Nat. Anim. sans Vert. vii,  p. 510
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 94 x 44 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-cervus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Moluccas and New Caledonia; probably Marshall Is.
Habitat:-Offshore in 180-400 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Large and solid. Last whorl ovate to narrowly ovate; outline straight at adapical fourth, then convex, straight to slightly concave toward base. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell projecting, of about 3.5 whorls; maximum diameter 1- 1.1 mm. About first 3 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, slightly concave in late whorls, with 0-1 increasing to 6-10 spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few very weak spiral ribs at base or completely smooth.
Last whorl clouded with light brown except for numerous white dots, triangles and flecks; brown pattern fused into 3 darker spiral bands, below shoulder, above centre and within abapical third. Widely spaced spiral rows of irregularly alternating white and darker brown markings extend from base to shoulder. Siphonal fasciole white or suffused with pale brown. Larval whorls and 1.5-2.5 teleoconch sutural ramps light red. Following ramps light brown, radially mottled with white. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 90-116 mm
RW 0.30-0.80 g/mm
(L 90-113 mm)
RD 0.49-0.53
PMD 0.68-0.74
RSH 0.04-0.10
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  ceylanensis  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in Naturalis, Leiden  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 636
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: locality coasts of Ceylon Island, (Sri Lanka), neotype locality, Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka
Type Data: Neotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-musicus ceylanensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sri Lanka, Thailand
Habitat:-In 1-18 m, living on rock benches, subtidal reef flats, the reef rim and on lagoon pinnacles. Mostly found on sand-binding algal mats, limestone pavement, dead coral rocks or heads and in crevices of rocks or coral reefs. Somewhat more common in subtidal habitats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C musicus
Small, light to moderately light. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical; outline faintly to distinctly convex at adapical half and usually straight below. Aperture may have a transverse ridge at centre. Shoulder angulate to occasionally rounded, weakly to distinctly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, in later whorls with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak to distinct, granulose spiral ribs at base; sometimes extending to centre or even to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale grey. Last whorl with a grey, orange or reddish brown spiral band on each side of centre; bands occasionally obsolete or fusing into a single basal colour zone. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, varying in number and arrangement. Dark dots may alternate with white dashes or dots. Base and basal part of columella dark bluish violet. Later sutural ramps crossed by brown markings between shoulder tubercles. Aperture pale violet to dark bluish violet, usually with a ground-colour band at centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 14-30 mm
RW 0.03-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.77
PMD 0.78-0.93
RSH 0.02-0.15
Form ceylanensis characterized by variously coalescing brown to reddish brown axial blotches or wavy flames on central area of last whorl, occasionally interrupted by a narrow ground-colour band in the middle; spiral rows of brown dots or dashes restricted to adapical and abapical parts of last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus chaac  Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LACM

Published in: Festivus Vol. 49, Issue 3, p. 239, Fig. 1, A
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 2.5 m depth off Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo State, Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula)
Type Data: Lectotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14.5 x 8.0 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-chaac
Synonyms:-
Geographic Range:-Yucatan, Mexico
Habitat:- The new species prefers open hard limestone sea floors, covered with coral rubble and carbonate silt and devoid of vegetation, in 2-3 m depths
Description:-
Shell small for genus, stocky and rotund, broad across shoulder; spire distinctly pyramidal, with highly sloping whorls, and with whorls being rounded and convex; shoulder rounded, without distinct angle or carina; body whorl smooth and polished, ornamented with 10-12 deeply-incised and widely-separated spiral sulci around anterior half; shell color pale pinkish-tan, overlaid with dense network of amorphous small reddish-tan flammules; 2 broad bands of darker reddish-brown flammules encircle body whorl near mid-body, with narrow pale pink band separating both; spire whorls marked with dark reddish-tan, widely- separated and evenly-spaced crescent-shaped flammules; flammules on last spire whorl extend over shoulder angle; aperture proportionally wide, becoming larger toward anterior end; interior of aperture pale cream within interior; protoconch excerted, proportionally large, bulbous, mammilate, composed of 2 whorls, white in color.

 

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Conus  chaldaeus  Röding,  1798

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Knorr (1768,  Pl. 4 fig. 2)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Museum Boltenianum 2: I-VIII,  p. 42
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None,  designated (C, M & W) the Moluccas, Indonesia
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Knorr (1768,  Pl. 4 fig. 2)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virroconus Species:-chaldaeus
Synonyms:-
vermiculatus Lamarck, 1810; pemphigus Dall, 1910; kahiko Kohn, 1980
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific except for the Red Sea and Easter Id.; also W. coast of Central America.
Habitat:-On intertidal benches, less frequently on slightly subtidal reef platforms; often close to the seaward edge of its habitat. C. chaldaeus lives on sand, beachrock, and truncated reef limestone with or without a thin layer of sand or algal turf, in coral rubble with or without sand and on dead coral heads or rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually broadly ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically and straight below. Shoulder angulate to subangulate, strongly to weakly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Larval shell multispiral. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 3 increasing to 6-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with often strong, granulose spiral ribs basally, sometimes to shoulder.
Ground colour of last whorl white, suffused with pink mainly in juvenile specimens. Pattern of black axial streaks or flammules usually leaves 2 narrow white bands, at shoulder and near centre. Larval whorls white; apex often suffused with pink. Later sutural ramps white, variously blotched with black. Aperture bluish white behind a brownish black margin.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-59 mm
RW 0.20-0.40 g/mm
(L 25-40 mm)
RD 0.71-0.87
PMD 0.75-0.87
RSH 0.07-0.20
Discussion:-Only C. ebraeus closely resembles C. chaldaeus. They overlap broadly in shell morphometry, but C. ebraeus differs distinctly in colour pattern with usually 3-4 spiral rows of black markings on the last whorl and in fewer and weaker spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps. The granulose spiral ribs of the last whorl are stronger and extend over more of the shell in C. chaldaeus. The animals of both species may be very similar (Hawaii) or clearly separable (N. Papua New Guinea). They often occur sympatrically and may share the same habitat, sometimes even the same microhabitat. C. chaldaeus typically is less abundant and occurs closer to the seaward margin of its habitat.

 

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Conus  chenui  Crosse, 1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 6 p. 381,  pl. xi,  f. 3-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.1 x 26.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus ferrugineus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-ferrugineus chenui forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on sand, often under coral or on sand with algae.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. ferrugineus
C. f. chenui spiral rows of dark brown axial markings New Caledonia/Philippines
Discussion:- No data

 

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Conus  chiangi  Azuma,  1972

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in BRIT Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Venus 31,  p. 56, text f. 5 &  6.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South China Sea; ca. 200 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in BRIT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.8 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Taranteconus Species:-chiangi
Synonyms:-
lamellatus Suzuki, 1972
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines, New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 200-400 m, on dead coral and rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually conical; outline almost straight, slightly convex below shoulder. Shoulder and late postnuclear whorls with sharp, upward- pointing, hollow marginal spines, extending slightly below shoulder as costae. Spire of moderate height to high; outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 3-6 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture sometimes obsolete. Last whorl with spiral ribs separated by wider grooves, from base to shoulder; sometimes with collabral costae extending entire length of last whorl, especially toward outer lip.
Ground colour white to grey or beige. Last whorl with broad brownish grey and brown spiral bands leaving a broad, lighter central band. Overlying spiral rows of alternating brown and white dots and dashes on ribs from base to shoulder. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with fine radial brown lines or blotches extending across outer margins. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 16-25 mm
RW 0.05-0.09 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.71
PMD 0.86-0.95
RSH 0.15-0.26
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  chiapponorum  Lorenz,  F.,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Image MNHN

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1(2), p. 20
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ft Dauphin to Lavanono, Madagascar.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-chiapponorum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southern Madagascar
Habitat:-Probably upper sublitoral zone.
Description:-Source Original description.
The holotype is a fresh specimen with a slightly eroded apex, hut complete hody sculpture and color pattern. It is rather heavy- shelled, narrow, ventricosely conical, with straight sides and a rounded shoulder. The spire is shallow and slightly concave. The ground color is pinkish-white with greenish- brown mottling, the interior is purple. There are numerous fine transverse lines with irregular intermitted white specks. These lines vary in thickness and are unevenly distributed over the last whorl. The shoulder has a pink to purple ground color, profusely mottled and striped with white and brown. There is a slightly paler transverse band in the anterior third. In paratype 3, the dotted transverse bands are confined to this band, the rest of the brown-tinted body whorl leaves only few pinkish-white freckles. Paratype 4 has a taller spire than the others, the darker dorsal freckling is sparser than in the others.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  chinoi  Shikama,  1970

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Published in: Venus vol. xxix,  no. 4,  p. 115,  text f. 1-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ogokuda, Shionomisaki, Wakayama Pref., Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 17.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus distans Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name chinoi

Discussion: Desription based on a juvenile specimen of Conus distans  Hwass, 1792

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Conus  cholmondeleyi  Melvill,  1900

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMMU Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchol. ix,  no. 10, pp. 305, 309,  text-fig.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MMMU deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile cholmondeleyi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae. C. textile.
C.  cholmondeyi conoid cylindrical to ventrociosely conical; ground color white to brownish beige or violet, streaked with blue;very dark pattern with fine lines almost parallel not producing tents with bluish flammules giving dark grey color;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus chusaki  da Motta,  1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Natural Study (Thai). 2,  no. 1,  seq. 7, p. 8. figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Raya Is., Phuket, Thailand; 80-120 ft
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65 x 30 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus floridus Sowerby ii, 1858 which is a synonym of Conus striatus L. 1758
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name chusaki

 

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Conus  chytreus  Tryon, 1884

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Man. Conch. vi,  p. 17,  pl. 27,  f. 1
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Designated (CMW) Lucira Bay, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.6 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-chytreus
Synonyms:-
lucirensis Paes-da Franca, 1957
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Zone of calm shallow water, to 1 m depth, buried in fine sand with shell grits.
Description:-Source Röckel & Rolan 2000
Shell description: Small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl ovate to broadly ovate, slightly pyriform. Outline convex at ad apical half and slightly concave below. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight or sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, usually with numerous spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with about 10 spiral ribs at base. Ground colour white, shoulder with a wide brown band down to sub shoulder area, last whorl with continuous brown spiral lines. Lines may be fine or broad, spaced or closely arranged. Base usually brown. Aperture white inside.Periostracum thin, smooth, translucent.
Shell morphometry:
L 19-32 mm
RD 0.62-0.71
RSH 0.08-0.16
PMD 0.69-0.72
RW 0.14 g/mm
Discussion:-Discussion: Melvill (1883) described C. chytreus erroneously as variant of the Indopacific C. figulinus because of the presence of spiral lines on last whorl. Coomans et al (1983) stated a similarity to C. variegatus, but the colour of the aperture is different and C. variegatus has a pattern with spiral rows of brown dots or dashes, alternating with white. The radular teeth have evident differences: DP/PA is usually smaller than 2 in C. chytreus and 2 or more in C. variegatus. Also the D in S are more prominent and numerous in the upper part of C. chytreus and the opposite in C. variegatus.
C. chytreus has a similar shape and pattern to C. fuscolineatus, but its spiral lines are continuous and not interrupted, its ground colour is white and the shell is also white inside the aperture.

 

----------

 

Conus  ciderryi  da Motta,  1985

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 4,  p. 4. pl. 1,  f. 3 a-b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled in Strait of Taiwan
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 14.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-ciderryi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan; Vietnam
Habitat:-Deeper subtidal
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical, outline almost straight. Shoulder angulate, undulate or weakly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls. maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 4-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, following whorls undulate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 2-5 spiral grooves. with additional striae in last whorls. Last whorl with rather widely spaced spiral grooves on basal half, more narrowly spaced near base.
Ground colour white, occasionally suffused with pale violet. Entire last whorl with spiral rows of alternating yellowish brown or pink and white bars, squarish spots and dots; an orangish violet spiral band or a spiral row of yellowish brown to brown flecks may occur on each side of centre. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with yellowish to orangish brown radial streaks that extend over outer margins. Aperture white
Shell Morphometry
L 30-42 mm
RW 0.08-0.12 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.63
PMD 0.95-0.97
RSH 0.08-0.24
Discussion:-C. ciderryi is most similar to C. inscriptus and C. moluccensis. Specimens from Vietnam have a broader last whorl and a dark-coloured base.

 

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Conus  cinereus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 673
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas; Asiatic Ocean, restricted (C, M & W) to Moluccas, Indonesia.
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-cinereus
Synonyms:-
cinereus Röding, 1798; caerulescens Lamarck, 1810; nisus Dillwyn, 1817; exaratus Reeve, 1844; gabrielii Kiener, 1845; gubba Kiener, 1845; bernardii Kiener, 1845; politus Weinkauff, 1875
Geographic Range:-Japan to Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is., New Caledonia, and Vanuatu.
Habitat:-Subtidal
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical, conoid-cylindrical or ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so or straight below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate or rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline deeply concave to straight or slightly sigrnoid. Larval shell of about 2.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with 1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves, usually weaker on late ramps and sometimes visible only on early ramps; spiral sculpture dominated by a strong subsutural groove. Basal fourth to half of last whorl with widely spaced axially striate spiral grooves and flat ribbons between; basal grooves wider and often with a spiral thread.
Colour light violet to greenish grey or shading from beige to orange or blackish brown; sometimes with tan and olive spiral bands. Last whorl with spiral rows of orange to dark brown and pale ground-colour dots and dashes; rows highly variable in number, sometimes absent, with alternating dark and light markings or all light or all dark markings. Dark shells either immaculate or with additional spirally aligned white or grey flecks; light shells with additional spirally aligned orangish to dark brown markings. Larval whorls ranging from pale to dark brown. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate, often similar in colour to larval shell. Later sutural ramps immaculate, or with dark axial markings, or with scattered white spots in very dark shells; sometimes outer margins with regularly set orange to brown dots. Aperture white, bluish white or violet behind a translucent outer margin and an adjacent narrow orange or brown zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-57 mm
RW 0.06-0.30 g/mm
RD 0.47-0.60
PMD 0.75-0.86
RSH 0.09-0.20
Discussion:-C. cinereus resembles C. lienardi. and C. oishii. C. lienardi differs in its rather angulate shoulder, complete or reduced reticulate pattern on last whorl and spire, and in the absence of any spirally aligned dots and dashes; its early postnuclear whorls are tuberculate.

C. cinereus is a polytypic species, and variability may be high within populations; this has led to a number of synonyms: - C. caerulescens and C. exaratus refer to subadult specimens, which have spiral grooves from base to shoulder. - C. bernardii is a reddish brown colour variant with spirally arrayed grey or white markings at shoulder, within adapical third and near centre. It occurs sympatrically with the typical form in Philippines and Indonesia. - C. politus refers to a blackish brown form with hieroglyphic-shaped white markings on the last whorl, occurring in Philippines. - C. gubba was described as having a uniformly blackish brown adult shell, and a juvenile shell with white flecks. It seems to be restricted to Manus Id., Papua New Guinea. It cannot be separated from C. cinereus by shape or sculpture of the shell but its distinctive colouration and limited distribution may justify subspecies status. Shells from Java have a broader last whorl than those from other localities.

 

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Conus  cinereus f. bernardii   Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.,  pl. 100, f. 2

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 220,  pl. 100,  f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Holotype was in MNHN and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 46 x 20 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus cinereus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-cinereus bernardii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Indonesia
Habitat:-Subtidal
Description:- C. bernardii is a reddish brown colour variant with spirally arrayed grey or white markings at shoulder, within adapical third and near the centre.

 

 

Conus cinereus f.  gubba  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection Gubba Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.,  pl. 104,  f. 1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 289,  pl. 104,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Gubba and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 38mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus cinereus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-cinereus gubba forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Manus Island, PNG
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. cinereus
C. gubba was described as having a uniformly blackish brown adult shell, and a juvenile shell with white flecks. It seems to be restricted to Manus Id., Papua New Guinea. It cannot be separated from C. cinereus by shape or sculpture of the shell but its distinctive colouration and limited distribution may justify subspecies status.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  cingulatus  Lamarck,  1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 274
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: Neotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-cingulatus
Synonyms:-
castaneus Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Venezuela, Colombia
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:-Source Vink
A slender shell, 30 to 50 mm, with moderately high, concave to straight-sided spire. Shoulder angulate, body whorl straight to slightly convex with a narrow base. Spiral grooves, which are axially punctated, over the entire body whorl.
The grooves are wider apart and weaker near midbody, and on some specimens there are only grooves near the base. Tops of the whorls with 2 to 3 very weak spiral ridges. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; in fresh specimens irregular axial sculpture on the sides of the first 3 postnuclear whorls. Body whorl cream coloured variegated with dark brown axial streaks and spiral lines of small dashes, which are darker brown than the axial streaks. There is a light form without spiral lines of dashes (or with these spiral lines inconspicuous) which is mainly found off Venezuela. These shells have only grooves near the base. A dark form, uniform dark brown with a few irregular, often rectangular white markings was given the name C. castaneus.
Variant C. castaneus is dark brown shell with brown spiral lines visible in background and a few whitish or yellowish tents and blotches break through;reduced body sculpture;
Discussion:-C. cingulatus could be confused with C. garciai (which is larger and broader with spiral cords rather than flat ribs between grooves, and of which the juveniles are more turnip-shaped.

 

----------

 

Conus circae  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in Cuming collection, Thes. Conch. pl. 21 (207),  f. 513 & 514

Picture link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. ii, p. 39, pl. 21 (207),  f. 513 & 514. and pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype was in Cuming collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 52 x 26 fig.
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus circae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Solomons
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C.magus
C. circae: Type figures show conical shaped form white with tan or orange brown background with dark brown blotches and broken dark brown spiral lines.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus circumactus  Iredale, 1929

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Swainson 1822,  Pl.  110 (C.cinctus)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Queensl. Mus. 9,  p. 281
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known (C.cinctus Swainson, 1822)
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Swainson, Pl. 110
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. cinctus Swainson, 1822.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-circumactus
Synonyms:-
cinctus Swainson, 1822; hammatus Bartsch & Rehder, 1943
Geographic Range:-Natal and Mozambique to Hawaii
Habitat:-Usually in 10-240 m, down to 600 m in Hawaii; on sand, sand mixed with rubble, or on coralline gravel, either in semi-sheltered habitats or exposed to strong tidal currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. circumactus
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to half, less so or straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Early postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves, occasionally obsolete on late ramps. Last whorl with smooth and granulose spiral ribs near base to two-thirds and spiral rows of punctations above; granulose ribs with several smooth ribs between, primarily toward base.
Ground colour white, variably suffused with violet. Last whorl with a broad yellowish tan to brown spiral band on each side of centre; colour bands variably wide, solid or interrupted, sometimes covering most of last whorl. Widely spaced spiral rows of brown dots and dashes from base to shoulder, varying from pronounced to obsolete and from numerous to absent. Base and siphonal fasciole purple. Larval whorls light brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial streaks, occasionally extending to subshoulder area. Aperture white except for purple anterior end; occasionally with a violet marginal band to shoulder and exhalent notch.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-75 mm
RW 0.19-0.63 g/mm
((L 35-57 mm))
RD 0.58-0.63
PMD 0.80-0.93
RSH 0.04-0.14
C.  hammatus has been used for deepwater specimens; The type is orange brown with purple base and convex sides.
C.  connectens named after specimen with indistinct banding; now considered erroneous.
Discussion:-The closest relative of C. circumactus is C. swainsoni from New Caledonia. Estival and Cosel (1986) considered C. connectens A. Adams, 1855 an earlier name for C. circumactus. Coomans et al, (1985a) considered the type specimen of C. connectens indeterminable, but Röckel (1988b) concluded that it is a specimen of C. daucus Hwass from the Western Atlantic. In any case it seems not to be an earlier name for C. circumactus. Coomans et al. (1985a) separate this species into C. circumactus s.s. and C. hammatus, but these two forms intergrade in colour pattern, shape and sculpture in both Indian and Pacific Ocean populations (Estival & v. Cosel, 1986). In agreement with Estival & v. Cosel (1986) RKK consider C. hammatus to apply to deep-water shells of C. circumactus, although this requires further study. Indian Ocean specimens of C. circumactus are more uniformly coloured than most shells from the Pacific Ocean and often have the late sutural ramps more concave and with weaker spiral sculpture.

 

----------

 

Conus  circumcisus  Born, 1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind., p. 147
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: not known, designated (C, M & W) Moluccas, Indonesia
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 71 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-circumcisus
Synonyms:-
affinis Gmelin, 1791; laevis Gmelin, 1791; dux Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; purpuratus Röding, 1798; terebellum Röding, 1798; brazieri Sowerby iii, 1881
Geographic Range:-Moluccas and Philippines to Marshall Is. and to Solomon Is. and Vanuatu; probably in Society Is.
Habitat:-In 4-200 m; in sand, coral rubble, clefts of coral reefs or on lagoon pinnacles, beneath dead coral rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical, sometimes narrowly conical; outline varies from almost straight to almost evenly convex, adapical fourth usually convex. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire usually of moderate height, outline straight to domed. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex to slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 4 spiral grooves, usually faint in latest whorls. Last whorl with equidistant spiral ribs, often weak above centre and sometimes with fine granules.
Ground colour white, variably suffused with yellow or violet. Last whorl with light brown spiral bands, varying in number and width but usually leaving one ground colour band below centre. Shells with a plain banding pattern intergrade with speckled shells with darker brown blotches, with spiral rows of alternating white and dark brown dots, spots and dashes and sometimes with additional brown spiral lines. Rows of alternating dark and light markings usually diminish during growth, dark flecks and blotches do so sometimes. Base yellow or yellowish orange. Larval whorls white. Early teleoconch sutural ramps immaculate white; later ramps with brown axial markings, becoming darker but smaller and often sparse during growth. Aperture white or pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-100 mm
RW 0.17-0.70 g/mm
(L 55-90 mm)
RD 0.44-0.57
PMD 0.71-0.86
RSH 0.10-0.19
Discussion:-
C. brazieri is smooth unspotted pale pattern from Solomons, New Guinea;
C. laevis with large reddish brown blotches

 

----------

 

Conus  citrinus  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt,  p. 3389
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Curaçao
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773: pl. 61, fig. 681)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus regius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Stephanoconus Species:-regius citrinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Netherlands Antilles; Virgin Islands; C Brazil
Habitat:-Shallow to deep
Description:-Source Walls
C. r. citrinus is totally yellow or orange shell, the spire white or sometimes patterned
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  clarki  Rehder & Abbott, 1951

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Published in: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 41,  p. 22, f. 1-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 50 mi. SSW of Marsh Is., Iberia Co., Louisiana; 29 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus armiger Crosse, 1858
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name clarki

 

----------

 

Conus  clarus  Smith, 1881

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 5,  p. 442
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: West Australia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26.7 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Austroconus Species:-clarus
Synonyms:-
segravei Gatliff, J. H., 1891
Geographic Range:-S. Australia, W. Port Bay (Victoria) to Cape Leeuwin (W. Australia)
Habitat:-In 7-80 m; on sand substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline moderately convex adapically and less so toward base. Shoulder usually carinate, rarely angulate. Spire of moderate height to high, often stepped; outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.2 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate except for first 2-3 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2-3 increasing to 4-8 variably arranged spiral grooves, often weaker and with spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl smooth, except distinct spiral ribs on basal third, paired and grading to ribbons toward centre.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with fusing pale violet-brown or orange-brown clouds concentrated on both sides of a subcentral spiral ground-colour band. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with radial streaks matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture pink, violet, or orange-brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-54 mm
RW 0.06-0.26 g/mm
RD 0.57-0.67
PMD 0.80-0.85
RSH 0.15-0.32
Varies from white or pink shell to one with pink or orange flammules; spire usually has pattern;
Specimens with strong pink flammules were named segravei.
Discussion:-.

 

 

Conus clarus f.  segravei  Gatliff, J. H., 1891

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMVM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Vict. Nat. vii,  p. 179,  pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Shoreham, Victoria, Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in NMVM deposited and catalogued
Type Size :33 x 16.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus clarus Smith, 1881
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Austroconus Species:-clarus segravei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Victoria, Australia
Habitat:-In 7-80 m; on sand substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C.clarus
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline moderately convex adapically and less so toward base. Shoulder usually carinate, rarely angulate. Spire of moderate height to high, often stepped; outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.2 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate except for first 2-3 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2-3 increasing to 4-8 variably arranged spiral grooves, often weaker and with spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl smooth, except distinct spiral ribs on basal third, paired and grading to ribbons toward centre.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with fusing pale violet-brown or orange-brown clouds concentrated on both sides of a subcentral spiral ground-colour band. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with radial streaks matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture pink, violet, or orange-brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-54 mm
RW 0.06-0.26 g/mm
RD 0.57-0.67
PMD 0.80-0.85
RSH 0.15-0.32
Specimens with strong pink flammules were named segravei.
Gatliff states that shell is orange brown with irregular tent shaped white reticulations and encircled with many dotted lines of darker colour; narrow white band at shoulder and midbody.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  claudiae  Tenorio, M. J. and Afonso, M. L., 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (2),  p. 27
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Praia Real, North coast of Maio Island, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-claudiae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-N. Maio, Cape Verde
Habitat:-Found at 1-2 m in rocks and coral slabs
Description:-Source Original description
Small to moderately small shell. The profile is conical to broadly conical, with a moderate spire and a subangulated shoulder. Outline of the last whorl convex. Spire most often eroded, concave with flat or slightly convex sutural ramps presenting fine striae.
The ground color of the shell varies from pale yellow-green to light bluish grey. There is a reticulated pattern of white flecks and dark brown dots forming bands which are variable in number and width, usually three: a thin one on the shoulder, another at the height of the maximum diameter of the shell, and another broader one slightly below the midbody. The base is dark, often covered by reticulated pattern of white flecks and dark brown dots forming bands which are variable in number and width, usually three: a thin one on the shoulder, another at the height of the maximum diameter of the shell, and another broader one slightly below the midbody. The base is dark, often covered by reticulated pattern. In some cases, only white dots and flecks are present, with no traces of dark brown dots. The aperture is purplish brown, with two white bands, one in the middle portion and another one in the upper part. The inner lip is white, showing traces of the yellow near the edge.
Discussion:-

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus galeao  Rolán, 1990

 

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Conus  clenchi  Martins, 1943

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNRJ Mike Filmer

Published in: Bol. Mus. Nac.. Rio de Janeiro, Nova Serie. Zool., n p. 2 &  3, text f.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Barra do Furado, Municipio de Campos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; At shore line.
Type Data: Holotype in MNRJ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus clenchi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Urauguay, Argentina
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Vink
C. lemniscatus closely resembles c. clerii, but in general is somewhat smaller, length up to 50 mm. Typical specimens are more slender with a more straight-sided spire. The body whorl is straight to convex with spiral ridges near the base, which in some spcimens may cover the body whorl. Shoulder roundly angulate, early spire whorls convex, later spire whorls flat to slightly concave and not stepped in typical C. lemniscatus. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls. The first 2 postnuclear whorls, normally smooth, may show irregular coronation (but not the regular axial sculpture of c. clerii). The colour pattern is like that of C. clerii; in most specimens of typical C. lemniscatus the axial flames are lighter coloured and cover larger areas so that the spiral lines of dark squares become prominent. However, there are specimens of c. clerii with the same colour pattern, and the only way to distinguish the two species without any doubt is by comparing the early spire whorls
For many years C. lemniscatus was used erroneously for Indian Ocean shell now recognised as C. dictator. C clenchi was used for the Brasil specimens now known to be C. lemniscatus.
The type specimen of C. clenchi is orange with reduced white areas and distinctive bands of orange/brown.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  clerii  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conc h. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 43,  sp. 229
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cape St. Thomas, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.9 x 15.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-clerii
Synonyms:-
tostesi Petuch, 1986
Geographic Range:-Brazil - N Argentina
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Vink
A relatively light but strong shell, 30 to 60 mm, with low to moderate concave-sided spire. Body whorl rather straight with slightly pinched-in waist, and smooth except for faint spiral ridges near the base. Shoulder angulate to carinate, early spire whorls stepped and sharply angulate, later spire whorls, concave above and more roundly angulate. Nucleus: 11/2 whorls; first 3 to 4 postnuclear whorls with axial sculpture on the sides crossed by 2 spiral striae.Body whorl white variegated with dark brown or yellow brown axial flames (of- ten interrupted at mid-body) and spiral lines of small dark squares at regular intervals. The dark squares often coincide with the axial flames, making the pattern of flames predominant.
Discussion:-
Petuch described C. tostesi now considered a form or synonym. Conus tostesi, is closest to the sympatric C. clerii Reeve, 1844, but differs in being a much smaller, more elongate shell, by having a higher, scalariform spire, by being of a violet color instead of white, and by having a much larger, mamillate protoconch.

 

 

Conus clerii f.  tostesi  Petuch, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MOFU Paulo Mŕrcio Costa

Picture Link: Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcix. no. 1,  p. 11, f. 9 & 10
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cabo Frio, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; trawled in 100 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MOFU deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 35 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym form of Conus clerii Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:- tostesi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 15-100 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongate, thin fragile; spire protracted, slightly scalariform; body whorl shiny, with anterior one-third covered with numerous fine spiral threads; shoulder produced but slightly rounded; color pale violet to darker violet with three wide bands of reddish-brown, one just below shoulder, one around mid-body, and one around anterior end; banded color pattern overlaid by 10-14 rows of brown dots; anterior tip darker violet on some specimens; spire white with numerous crescent-shaped flammules; protoconch large, mamillate; periostracum thin, smooth translucent yellow.
Conus tostesi, is closest to the sympatric C. clerii Reeve, 1844, but differs in being a much smaller, more elongate shell, by having a higher, scalariform spire, by being of a violet color instead of white, and by having a much larger, mamillate protoconch.
This new Brazilian species actually shows a closer affinity to some of the rare Paolinian-Submagellanic species such as C. carcellesi Martins, 1945 and C. platenesis Frenguelli, 1946 from the Mar del Plata, (Frenguelli 1946). Conus tostesi differs from both of these species, however, by having a three-banded color pattern, finer body sculpture, and by lacking spiral grooves on the spire.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus cloveri  Walls, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Pariah no. 2,  p. 2,  pl. (on p. 5)
Ocean geography:East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Harbor near Anse Bernard, Dakar, Senegal
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.7 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-cloveri
Synonyms:-
soaresi Trovao, 1978
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy, with a low/good gloss; low conical, the posterior sides strongly convex; basal ridges; shoulder broad rounded, convex at top; spire moderately tall, sharply pointed, tip mucronate; side of spire convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly; body whorl creamy white covered with wavy brown narrow axial lines that overlap to produce fine tents; base white to pale tan; a distinct broad lighted midbody band with sharp edges, formed by lines being narrower and widely spaced; a broad white band below shoulder; spire white, without pattern or with short fine brown lines on later whorls; early whorls eroded white; aperture moderately wide, slightly wider anteriorly; outer lip thin, sharp, evenly convex; anal notch shallow or obsolete; mouth white with violet tones; columella very narrow.
Discussion:-Similar to C. mercator but has a more mucronate spire, tip set off from spire, pattern with colorless band below shoulder, and absence of spire pattern;
C. cloveri is very close to certain forms of C. mercator, but can be distinguished by its relatively less wide shoulder, its more regular and not mucronate spire, the straighter sides not narrowing at the base as in mercator. Moreover, the web of crossing creamy lines is always in the axial sense, while in C. mercator it is in the spiral direction.

 

----------

 

Conus  clytospira  Melvill & Standen, 1899

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7, p. 461,  45 f.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arabian Sea, about 125 miles W. S-W of Bombay, 45 fathoms
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 180 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus milneedwardsi Jousseaume, 1894
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi clytospira subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Pakistan - Sri Lanka
Habitat:-Founds at depths of 50-180 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; Last whorl narrowly conical; outline nearly straight. Shoulder angulate to sharply angulate. Spire stepped and usually high,; outline generally straight. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.9 mm. First 6-10 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to concave, with 0-1 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be very weak in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably weak, axially striate spiral grooves near base, separated by ribs at anterior end and by ribbons above; spiral grooves sometimes extending to shoulder in C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira.
Ground colour white, generally with 2 pink spiral bands on last whorl, just above centre and within basal third; bands most prominent in C. m. clytospira; latest sutural ramps sometimes suffused with pink in C. m. milneedwardsi. Last whorl generally with reddish brown reticulated lines forming small to large triangular, quadrangular and round markings, and with similarly coloured triangular spots to variably shaped blotches concentrated in 2-3 spiral bands, within basal third, just above centre and sometimes somewhat below shoulder. Larval shell white to grey. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture pink to orangish pink deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-174 mm
RW 0.15-0.53 g/mm
(L 60-110 mm)
RD -
(-C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.42 - 0.46PMD 0.86-0.94)
RSH -
(C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.28 - 0.33)
C. m. clytospira is morphologically very close to the former subspecies, differing in its smaller size (L 65-110 mm) and usually more prominent pink background bands around the last whorl, spiral grooves often extending to shoulder.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Last update  March 2018