Conus  ebraeus  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed. 1,  p. 715
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: India
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virroconus Species:-ebraeus
Synonyms:-
quadratus Perry, 1811; judaeus Bergh, 1896
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific except Red Sea; also W. coast of Central America.
Habitat:-On intertidal benches and subtidal coral reef platforms, to about 3 m; abundant in both types of habitat, with peak density of population nearer to the shore or halfway across intertidal habitats. On patches of sand bound by algal turf, in sand-filled depressions and crevices, on limestone benches with algal turf, and among or beneath dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl broadly to broadly ventricosely conical, occasionally slightly pyriform; outline variously convex adapically, straight or slightly concave toward base. Shoulder angulate or subangulate, strongly to obsoletely tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Larval shell multispiral. Postnuclear spire whorls strongly to weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 2 increasing to 4-5 often weak spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, smooth or granulose ribs on basal half.
Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with pink, mainly in juvenile specimens. Last whorl with 3-4 spiral rows of black blotches between base and subshoulder area; blotches squarish to more or less axially elongate, sometimes branching axially or spirally. Apex often pink. Later sutural ramps with rather regularly set black radial blotches. Aperture white to bluish white, external pattern often visible within.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-62 mm
RW 0.22-0.57 g/mm
(L 27-46 mm)
RD 0.69-0.78
PMD 0.78-0.95
RSH 0.06-0.20
Discussion:-C. ebraeus and C. chaldaeus are very closely related species. According to Bergh (1895), C. ebraeus and C. judaeus do not differ in external and internal morphology, except for the armature of the radular teeth (C. judaeus: tooth with an adapical barb opposing a sharp blade; serration present).
DNA studies appear to show C. ebraeus and C.  judaeus have same physical form of shell but their DNA shows distinct separation.

 

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Conus  eburneus   Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau (1798,  Pl. 324,  fig. 1)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 640
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798,  Pl. 324 fig. 1)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-eburneus
Synonyms:-
quadratulus Röding, 1798; alternatus Link, 1807; crassus Sowerby ii, 1858; turbinatus Sowerby ii, 1858; polyglotta Weinkauff, 1874
Geographic Range:-E. Africa except for Red Sea to Ryukyu Is., Polynesia, and to Australia; absent from Hawaii.
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 65 m, mostly in 1-25 m. C. eburneus lives primarly in and on sand bottoms of subtidal reef flats, in sand-filled channels, large patches of sand and among weed on sandy or muddy substrate.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly or ventricosely conical, occasionally conoid-cylindrical; outline convex to bulbous at subshoulder area and straight below; base truncate. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire low, outline concave to straight or sigmoid. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 0.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 2 narrow but deeply incised spiral grooves in early whorls and 2-5 grooves in later whorls; intervening ribs and subsutural ridge often pronounced, occasionally weak on last ramps. Last whorl with distinct to weak spiral ribs and ribbons on basal fourth to half.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of variably spaced, reddish brown to black squarish spots, rectangular bars or comma-shaped streaks. 3 yellow, orange or tan bands may underly spiral rows, below shoulder and on both sides of centre. Typical form often with less densely spaced markings; occasionally, colour bands obsolete or covering large parts of last whorl. In form polyglotta, black bars or comma-like markings tend to fuse into solid narrow spiral bands and wavy axial streaks. Form crassus has red-brown markings and usually lacks spiral colour bands. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with reddish brown or blackish brown spots, axial streaks or blotches; intensity of spire pattern matching that of last whorl pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-79 mm
RW 0.23-1.20 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.73
PMD 0.74-0.92
RSH 0.02-0.10
Discussion:-C. eburneus resembles C. litteratus and sometimes C. leopardus. C. litteratus differs in its larger size, sharply angulate shoulder, bluish brown pointed base, and less pronounced spiral sculpture of sutural ramps and last whorl; its last whorl is less convex below the shoulder and tends to be narrower. C. leopardus attains much larger size, usually has a more angulate shoulder and weak basal ribs (in contrast to more pronounced ribs and ribbons). Both species differ from C. eburneus in the colouration of the animal. RKK consider C. crassus Sowerby to be a form or perhaps an ecotype of  C. eburneus, but this remains a matter of dispute without conclusive evidence. Colour pattern intergrades are not known where both co-exist in the same locality with overlapping depth ranges; the slight differences in shell morphometry do not separate them. We consider C. eburneus var. polyglotta a colour form, as described by Weinkauff (1874).

 

 

Conus  eburneus  f. crassus Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. Iii, p. 25,  pl. 12 (198), f. 254-5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Fiji. Lectotype (Walls) in BMNH
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus eburneus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-eburneus crassus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji, New Britain
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 65 m, mostly in 1-25 m. C. eburneus lives primarly in and on sand bottoms of subtidal reef flats, in sand-filled channels, large patches of sand and among weed on sandy or muddy substrate.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. eburneus
C. e. crassus: Sides strongly convex below shoulder then concave; producing pyriform outline; spire higher and conical; spiral ridges developed; often has bright reddish brown or orange spots; black spots also found; Fiji to New Britain; uncommon

Shell Morphometry
L 35-63 mm
RW 0.23-0.73 g/mm
RD crassus 0.63-0.72
PMD crassus 0.81-0.89
RSH 0.02-0.10

Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  eburneus  f.  polyglotta  Weinkauff,  1874

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Cited Figure Thes Conch.,  pl. 12,  f. 248

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Jahrb. Dtsch. Malak. Ges. I, p. 244
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus eburneus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-eburneus polyglotta forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; C.  Pacific
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. eburneus
C. e. polyglotta: Spots tend to fuse into long dashes or spiral bands in some or all rows; orange bands also fuse to give dark appearance; mainly Philippines
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  echinophilus  Petuch,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CAS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Veliger xviii,  no. 2,  p. 180,  f. 1-3, 7
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Near N'Gor Village, Cape Verde, Senegal, West Africa (14deg 43' N. 17deg 33' W)
Type Data: Holotype in CAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 11 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-echinophilus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Senegal, W. Africa
Habitat:-Cracks in rocky substrate near sea urchins.
Description:-Source: Original Description
Shell small, compact consisting of 6 whorls. Spire elevated comprising one third of total body length.Body whorl with 13-16 prominent raised spiral cords. Some of these are marked with alternating black and white dashes. Spire with 3 deeply impressed spiral sulci. Color light blue with a variable number of long dark brown or green flammules. Middle of body whorl encircled with white band. Spire blue with some dark brown flammules.
Source Pin and Tack
Shell solid, biconical, of 6-7 whorls. Shoulder relatively large, well rounded. Sides slightly convex, just a little bit narrowing at the base. Lip slightly enveloping, rounded upwards, and oblique in respect to the shoulder. Spire of medium height, regular. Suture quite deep. Aperture slightly flaring towards the base. Starting from the base, 10 to 12 small spiral cords climb as far as half or even two thirds of the last whorl. These cords are well rounded and, at least the first ones, perfectly evident to the naked eye.
Last whorl dark or bright brown (Somone) in colour. Against this background, at the inferior third of the world, a narrow white band is visible, and, around this band, white axial spots that sometimes reach the shoulder. Almost the entire surface of the last whorl is generally characterised by purple dashes alternating with small white ones. The spire is usually faded, but in some rare specimens the axial spots stay visible on almost all the whorls.
The interior of the aperture is purple, with two white bands: a larger one by the inferior third, the other very high by the shoulder. The lip is bordered inside by a narrow white band. In the specimens coming from Somone the interior is bluish and the edge is purplish.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  echo  Lauer, 1988

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in coll. C. Macca Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Rossiniana xlv,  p. 9, figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: North Somalia; See echo, Macca
Type Data: Holotype in coll. C. Macca deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41.5 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-echo
Synonyms:-
echo Macca, 1991
Geographic Range:-N & E Somalia
Habitat:-No data.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical in adult specimens, rather ovate in subadults; outline convex adapically, straight (right side) to slightly concave (left side) below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline concave. Maximum diameter of larval shell 1.1-1.2 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 4 weak spiral grooves or obsolete spiral sculpture in late whorls. Last whorl nearly smooth.
Colour orange to reddish or blackish brown. Last whorl pattern ranging from a few scattered white tents to 2 spiral tentmark zones, below centre and at base, and several axial groups of tents sometimes fusing into streaks. Darker spiral lines sparsely articulated with small white tents may occur within the dark zones. Basal part of columella white or orange-brown. Apex pink. Late sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-69 mm
RW 0.21-0.48 g/mm
RD 0.58-0.61
PMD 0.75-0.86
RSH 0.05-0.11
Medium sized and solid; ventricosely conical, ovate subadults; convex then straight,left concave; aperture wider at base; shoulder angulate; spire low concave; smooth whorl; orange to reddish brown with pattern ranging from few scattered white tents to 2 spiral tent zones at centre and base with several axial groups tending to fuse; Darker spiral lines articulated with small tents may occur in dark zones; apex pink; spire as body; aperture white.

Discussion:-C. echo, previously considered a form or subspecies of C. pennaceus (Lauer, 1988), rather deserves recognition as a valid species (Macca, 1991). C. pennaceus differs in its distinctly narrower larval shell (0.7-0.8 mm) and its usually domed early postnuclear whorls.

 

Conus  echo  Macca, 1991

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Studio Editoriale Programma,  p. 1, f. 1-8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East of Bosaso, region of Bari, Somalia
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 58 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- an invalid name, a homonym of C. echo Lauer, 1988
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym of C. echo Lauer, 1988
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

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Conus  edaphus  Dall, 1910

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxxviii,  p. 223
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Clarion Is., Revillagigedo Is.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.5 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus tessulatus Born, 1778; raised to a valid species by Tucker, Tenorio & Chaney, 2011
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-tessulatus edaphus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Gulf of California to Panama
Habitat:-At depths of 5-30 m on coarse sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. tessulatus
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, sometimes ventricosely or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex at subshoulder area, straight below. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter 0.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps with 1 increasing to 2-4 spiral grooves, often 2 major grooves and additional spiral striae. Last whorl with variously spaced, weak or incised, often punctate spiral grooves on abapical third.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of orange to reddish brown rectangular spots or bars, often alternating with white markings. Dark markings usually cluster or fuse into spiral bands on each side of centre. Base light violet. Larval whorls grey to light orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with radial markings matching bars on last whorl in size and colour. Aperture white, often suffused with violet or pink.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-82 mm
RW 0.13-0.83 g/mm
(L 30-67 mm)
RD 0.58-0.75
PMD 0.78-0.92
RSH 0.03-0.17
Discussion:- The Panamic shell C. edaphus is considered a valid species in the Iconography. It differs from the typical C. tessulatus by its darker coloration of brick red to purple and its shape which is wider with a lower spire.

 

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Conus  ednae   Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH   D. Sargent

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 218-219; p. 171, fig. 11.6, C & D
Ocean geography: Western Pacific
Type Locality: off Farol de Săo Tome, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH. deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:- PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sandericonus Species:-ednae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Western Atlantic, Brazil
Habitat:-Trawled from 50 m depth
Description:-Source Original Description
Shiny, polished shell, slightly truncated in outline, with proportionally wide shoulder; early whorls of spire excerted and scalariform, with later whorls becoming distinctly flattened; shoulder sharply angled, edged with large rounded carina, producing distinctly canaliculated spire whorls; spire whorls ornamented with 3 thin spiral threads; anterior third of body whorl ornamented with numerous very low, faint spiral cords; shell color pale pinkish-white with 3 wide bands of pale orange amorphous flammules, one around edge of shoulder, one around midbody, and one around anterior third; 4 widely separated rows of pale orange-tan dots present on body whorl, with one row along anterior side of orange shoulder band, 2 rows on either side of midbody band, and one row along posterior side of anterior band; spire pinkish-white, with numerous evenly spaced orange crescent-shaped flammules; aperture uniformly narrow; interior of aperture white; protoconch proportionally large, rounded, composed of 2 whorls, tan in color.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  edpetuchi   Monnier, Limpalaër, Roux & Berschauer, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 47, p. 51 -59, fig. 2 & 3
Ocean geography: Brazil
Type Locality: Off Cabo de Santa Marta Grande, Santa Catarina State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 60. 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILTHIDAE SubFamily:- CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-edpetuchi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
The new species is moderately large and the spire varies between 24 and 35% of the total length of the shell. The shape is very narrowly conical fusiform / aculeiform with a very high slightly concave turriculate spire, narrow shoulders, spiral ribs. The teleoconch whorls are piled and detached with about 5 to 6 spiral grooves on the sutural ramps. At two thirds (from top to base of the shell) of each teleoconch whorl a prominent subsutural ridge is undulated with around 25 to 30 small irregular beadlike nodules. The adult shells have about 13 to 15 whorls.The anal notch is deep and U-shaped and the origin of the lip has a receding profile.

The last whorl has sigmoid sides, convex between the slightly sucarinated shoulder margin and the mid last whorl then concave between the mid last whorl and the base. The surface of the entire is covered by numerous very tight spiral ribs (about 60) separated by deep axially very finely axially striated grooves. The aperture is very long, almost straight to slightly sinusoidal and does not widen anteriorly

The siphonal lip outline is straight. The ground color of the shell is white. The pattern of the last whorl is made of spiral bands of irregular interrupted spiral brown blotches ( giving the appearance axial flammules). The width of these bands is higly variable and vary from 1 mm to more than 1 cm. The spire is white with the same color blotches rather regularly scattered.
Discussion:- On the market as Conus mcgintyi which is apparently a different species.


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Conus  eduardi  Delsaerdt,  1997

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in coll. Dr P. G. Stimpson  Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Gloria Maris xxxv,  no. 4-5 , p. 57, f. 1,  pl.,  f. 2 &  3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Red Sea, S. of Quseir, Egypt
Type Data: Holotype in coll. Dr P. G. Stimpson. deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 109.6 x 41.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a subspecies of Conus milneedwardsi
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-eduardi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
The holotype is a solid shell with elevated stepped spire; number of whorls is 12; last whorl slightly convex, moderately glossy and smooth. A pattern of white tent marks arranged in four bands ; on shoulder, base and two bands in middle. Three orange brown spiral bands, interrupted by axially arranged white tent marks. Aperture white.
Discussion:-Similar to forms of C. milneedwardsi and C. bengalensis
Distinguishing features of the species are the broad angle of the spire; a slightly concave sutural ramp with only radial threads; a smooth last whorl and its pattern.

 

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Conus  edwardpauli   Petuch, 1998

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH C. Meyer

Published in: La Conchiglia xxx, no. 287,  p. 32,  figs. 13 & 14
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Moro Tupo Is., San Blas Is., Panama; 3-5 m
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus kulkulcan Petuch, 1980
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-kulkulcan edwardpauli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Panama (E)
Habitat:-In sand under coral rubble, 3-5m depth on coral reefs
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for subgenus, squat, stout, shiny, with higher protracted spire, stepped; shoulder sharply angled, carinated; shoulder carina undulating, obsoletely coronated, ornamented with 12-15 low, oblong knobs per whorl; anterior end encircled with 6-8 large cords; spire whorls ornamented with 5-6 very fine spiral threads; shell color, bright pinkish-salmon with narrow, pale whitish-pink band around mid-body; occasional specimens (such as paratype) deep purple-blue in color, but having the same color pattern as normal salmon-pink individuals; row of evenly spaced, large tan patches present on mid-body, often coincident with pale mid-body band; protoconch and early whorls darker salmon color (also on blue individuals); edge of shoulder carina marked with widely spaced tan flammules; low shoulder knobs white; interior of aperture deep rose color.
Discussion:-With its sharp, carinated shoulder and stocky appearance, C. edwardpauli is most similar to C. colombianus Petuch, 1987 from the Islas del Rosario and Golfo de Morrosquillo area of Colombia. The new species differs in being a narrower shell that is less broad across the shoulder, in having a higher, more protracted spire, and in lacking a color pattern of longitudinal brown flammules on the anterior third of the shell.

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Conus  eldredi  Morrison, 1955

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. xlv,  no. 1,  p. 32
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Annaa, Tuamoto

Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued (C. mappa)
Type Size: 53.5  x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C.  mappa Crosse, 1858
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Gastridium Species:-eldredi
Synonyms:- mappa Crosse, 1858
Geographic Range:-Central Pacific, from Guam to Wake Id. and Marshall Is. and to Cook Is. and Tuamotu Archipelago; probably also in Solomon Is.
Habitat:-Shallow water.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Description: Moderately large, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ovate, narrowly ovate, cylindrical or narrowly cylindrical; outline varies from moderately convex to almost straight and parallel-sided centrally; left side concave at basal third. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to subangulate, tuberculate. Spire low, outline straight to slightly convex. Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, concave in late whorls; late ramps with 4 increasing to 10-12 fine spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced weak spiral ribs at base and shoulder and with widely spaced, irregularly punctate shallow grooves centrally.
Ground colour white, suffused with pink and violet. Last whorl with a fine but usually incomplete network of light brown to dark reddish brown lines and often triangular spots; interrupted brown spiral lines and streaks may be present; reticulate pattern usually fusing in a discontinuous spiral band at centre and within basal third. Apex white. Late postnuclear sutural ramps with sparse brown radial lines and streaks on a pink ground; marginal tubercles
usually white. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 57-65 mm
RW 0.09-0.17 g/mm
RD 0.47-0.52
PMD 0.49-0.70
RSH 0.10-0.12
Discussion:-C. eldredi is very closely related to C. geographus. The latter species attains much larger size and rarely has a pink ground colour; it differs in a lower spire (RSH 0.04-0.10) with a slightly concave outline, in stronger tubercles on the late sutural ramps, and in a smoother surface of the last whorl. The position of maximum diameter is generally closer to the shoulder in C. geographus (0.62-0.76) than in C. eldredi. Although further study of sympatric occurences is necessary, we consider that these differences justify separation at species level.
C. fragillissimus Petuch 1979 Ethiopia Red Sea More pointed apex less coronations; yellower brown; yellowish aperture; Abbot & Dance page 247
C.  eldredi pinkish often called rosea; smaller weaker tubercules and rougher texture from weak ribs at base and shoulder and punctate grooves centrally.

 

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Conus  elegans  Sowerby iii, 1895

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. I,  p. 215,  pl. 13, f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Persian Gulf
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-elegans
Synonyms:-
torensis Sturany, 1904; ramalhoi Coomans. Moolenbeek & Wils, 1986
Geographic Range:-Gulf of Suez, Somalia, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman to the Makran coast of Pakistan; W. Australia (C. e. elegans)
Habitat:-Upper subtidal to about 60 m. C. e. elegans in 8-49 m in the Persian Gulf and in 9- 11 m along the Makran coast.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium sized, light to moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical, to narrowly conical in subadults; outline slightly convex adapically, straight (right side) or slightly concave (left side) below. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire of moderate height to high, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 1.75-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 5-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; suture deep and wide in first 2 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture weak on latest ramps. Last whorl with punctate spiral grooves and flat ribbons between, mostly restricted to basal half, occasionally extending to shoulder. Surface sculpture weaker in C. e. ramalhoi.
Ground colour white to beige in C. e. elegans, light violet in C. e. ramalhoi. In C. e. elegans, last whorl encircled with rows of orange to brown dots, irregular blotches and axial streaks, often forming interrupted spiral bands below shoulder and on both sides of centre. In C. e. ramalhoi, last whorl sometimes with a few brown blotches near centre and up to 16 evenly spaced spiral rows of variably numerous and arranged reddish brown dots, from base to shoulder. Larval shell white or light brown. In C. e. elegans, late sutural ramps usually with irregular brown blotches; sometimes brown subsutural dots present (Somalia). In C. e. ramalhoi, postnuclear sutural ramps with scattered light brown blotches; late ramps often with regularly spaced brown dots at both margins, regularly set below suture. Aperture white or light brown (Somalia) in C. e. elegans and orange to violet-brown in C. e. ramalhoi.
Shell Morphometry

L 24-40 mm
RW 0.02-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.41-0.47
PMD 0.77-0.85
(- 0.93 in subadults)
RSH 0.18-0.28
C. e.  ramalhoi Mozambique, Natal; surface sculpture weak; light violet base; usually with few brown blotches near centre and about 16 evenly spaced spiral rows of variably numerous reddish brown dots; aperture orange to violet brown;
Discussion:-C. aculeiformis differs from C. elegans in its lower spire (RSH 0.17-0.22), non-tuberculate postnuclear whorls, and its more conical last whorl (PMD 0.86- 0.95); its larval shell is broader (0.9-1 mm) and has more whorls (3-3.25). C. longurionis has also a broader larval shell (0.9-1 mm) of generally more whorls (2.25-3) and a more conical last whorl (PMD 0.83-0.90); its postnuclear sutural ramps are separated by deeper and wider sutures and have only 1 central spiral groove in first 3-5 or more whorls; the surface sculpture of its last whorl is more prominent. C. hopwoodi has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.37-0.43), often lower spire (RSH 0.18-0.24), and a broader larval shell (1 mm) with more whorls (3); its first 3 postnuclear sutural ramps bear 1 strong spiral groove rather than 2-3 fine grooves. C. milesi has a higher spire (RSH 0.29-0.38), a broader and more conical last whorl (RD 0.49-0.59; PMD 0.88-0.95), and its shoulder is tuberculate.

 

 

Conus elegans  ramalhoi  Coomans, Moolenbeek  & Wils, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Basteria 50,  p. 103,  fig. 705
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Angoche, Mozambique; on muddy sand.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.7 x 10.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus elegans Sowerby iii, 1895
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-elegans ramalhoi subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal to Mozambique.
Habitat:-C. e. ramalhoi in shallow water, on sheltered muddy sand flats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. elegans
Surface sculpture weaker in C. e. ramalhoi.
Ground colour light violet in C. e. ramalhoi. In  C. e. ramalhoi, last whorl sometimes with a few brown blotches near centre and up to 16 evenly spaced spiral rows of variably numerous and arranged reddish brown dots, from base to shoulder. Larval shell white or light brown. In C. e. ramalhoi, postnuclear sutural ramps with scattered light brown blotches; late ramps often with regularly spaced brown dots at both margins, regularly set below suture. Aperture orange to violet-brown in C. e. ramalhoi.
Shell Morphometry
L 24-40 mm
RW 0.02-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.41-0.47
PMD 0.77-0.85
(- 0.93 in subadults)
RSH 0.18-0.28
C. e. ramalhoi: Mozambique, Natal; surface sculpture weak; light violet base; usually with few brown blotches near centre and about 16 evenly spaced spiral rows of variably numerous reddish brown dots; aperture orange to violet brown
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  eleutheraensis  Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype FMNH    D. Sargent

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Mollusks; p. 216-217; p. 85, fig. 6.8, G
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic
Type Locality: Between northern and southern part of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: A valid species
Taxonomy: There are no junior synonyms
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Magelliconus Species:-eleutheraensis
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Found among coral and shell rubble on the beach at the base of the eroded cut (the “Windows”)
Description:-elongated, straight-sided; spire low, subpyramidal; shoulder proportionally broad, heavily ornamented with 11-12 large rounde, prominent knobs; body whorl shiny and polished, ornamented with 8-10 large, widely spaced, heavy beaded spiral cords; shell colored bright orange-red or red (in fresh live specimens), with scattered large white flammules and blotches; most shoulder knobs white, separated by red areas; spire white, with scattered amorphous large red and orange flammules; protoconch and early whorls bright red; aperture very narrow, with violet interior; anterior tip pale purple, encircled with 8 very fine spiral threads.

Discussion

 

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Conus elisae  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Lectotype  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Coq. Viv. 2,  pl. 64, figs 1 & 1a, (1849, Cog. Viv. 2,  p. 341, no. 305)

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Not known, designated (Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils) Zanzibar, (Tanzania)

Type Data: Type series was in collection A. Boivin, present whereabouts unknown

Type Size: 52 x ? mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A synonym of Conus pennaceus

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus f. elisae

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-East Africa Zanzibar: Mozambique

Habitat:-

Description:  The lectotype of C. elisae is matched by specimens from N. Mozambique. Shells corresponding with the lectotype of C. elisae in the fine dark axially lineate pattern occur in colonies that also include shells with a partially reticulate and partially lineate pattern.

 

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Conus  elokismenos   Kilburn,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype. C. aratus Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus. Lxxxix,  no. 2,  p. 50
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Tongaat-Umhlanga Rocks, Natal (C. aratus Kilburn,1973)
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued (C. aratus)
Type Size: 60 x 21.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. aratus Kilburn, 1973
Taxonomy: Described as a subspecies of Conus orbignyi Audouin, 18311973; raised to the status of a valid species by Puillandre et al., 2011
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:- elokismenos
Synonyms:-
aratus Kilburn, 1973
Geographic Range:-Natal to Madagascar and Reunion, Solomons and Vanuatu
Habitat:-Found at 270-310 m in mud
Description:- It differs from the C. orbignyi in having a more ventricose last whorl, with a less sculptured surface especially in the adapical fourth. The spiral ribbons are wider than in C. orbignyi, bearing spiral striae rather than grooves. The spiral sculpture of C. elokismenos is also weaker on late ramps than in C. orbignyi. There are also some distinctive features in the pattern of C. orbignyi elokismenos, such as the frequent presence of axial streaks in the adapical region.

Discussion:

Source: Genetic divergence and geographic variation in the deepwater  Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea)

There are three morphological and geographical distinct populations. The specimens from Vanuatu are morphological distinct from the Solomon Islands and Madagascar specimens, being less nodulose, and with a more restrained pattern of brown markings in the body whorl, without the distinctive bold dashes on the ribbons characteristic of both the Solomon Islands and Madagascar specimens. We could deal with three distinct subspecies but the authors tentatively, we designate the diverse morphological forms as the C. elokismenos complex.

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Conus  emaciatus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  Suppl. pl. v, sp. 248
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippine Is.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37.9 x 20.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-emaciatus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea and Central Indian Ocean to Polynesia
Habitat:-On intertidal benches and shallow subtidal reef flats; inhabiting sand bottoms, bare limestone or beachrock, and dead coral heads and rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical; outline convex at adapical third, slightly concave at centre and straight below. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire usually low, outline concave to convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex; later ramps with 3 increasing to 5 weak major spiral grooves, more often turning into numerous striae on latest ramps. Last whorl with rather regularly spaced, often finely granulose spiral ribs with closely set spiral striae betweenfrom base to adapical third.
Colour yellowish grey to orange and yellow. Last whorl often slightly paler near centre and at shoulder. Base and larval whorls purplish blue. Aperture white except for the basal area, occasionally tinged with violet deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-69 mm
RW 0.17-0.61 g/mm
RD 0.56-0.62
PMD 0.89-0.94
RSH 0.03-0.14
Discussion:-C. emaciatus is similar to C. virgo, which differs in its larger size (L 55-150 mm) and its more straight-sided last whorl with a weaker spiral sculpture.

 

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Conus  emarginatus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype  Gray, 1839  pl. 36, f. 22

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, pl. 43,  sp. 232
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Matzalan, Mexico; Pacific Ocean (C. arcuatus Gray, 1839).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Gray 1839, pl. 36,  f.  22
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. arcuatus Gray, 1839
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Kohniconus Species:-emarginatus
Synonyms:-
cinctus Valenciennes, 1832; arcuatus Gray, 1839
Geographic Range:-Baja California to Peru
Habitat:-Found intertidally at depths of 20-150 m
Description:-Source Walls as C. recurvus
Light in weight, with a high gloss; low biconical, the upper sides convex then tapering to narrow base; body whorl with narrow basal spiral ridges separated by narrow grooves with axial threads; shoulder broad carinate, concave above; spire moderately high, sharply pointed, concave sides; whorls slightly stepped concave above; first 6 whorls with distinct nodules; body whorl white covered with numerous wavy deep reddish brown axial flammules which may be continuous from shoulder to base or broken into three bands; sometimes flammules are fused and connected giving reticulate effect; base white; spire and shoulder white with axial curved reddish brown lines continuing flammules; early whorls pale tan; aperture moderately wide, uniform; outer lip thin, strongly sloping below shoulder, straight; mouth white. columella not visible;
Discussion:-For many years, dealers and authors used name C. recurvus for this shell.

 

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Conus emersoni  Hanna, 1963

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in AMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. no. 35,  p. 25,  pl. 1,  f. 2
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: San Lucas, Baja California; 300 fathoms. Not clear whether fossil or recent.
Type Data: Holotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 18.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-emersoni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Baja Sur and Galapagos
Habitat:-Found at depths below 300 m
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
The shoulders are angular and carinate. Color pattern is rather simple. It consists of three or four zones of tan or reddish brown color blotches. These color markings are longitudinal to square brown blotches or bars. The interior of the aperture is white. The spire is only lightly marked by scattered brown markings. It may also be white with no brown coloration.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  empressae  Lorenz,  2002

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in WAMP Original Description

 

Published in: Schrift. zur Malakoz. 18,  p. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sea of Flores, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in WAMP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-empressae
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Australia, Philippines
Habitat:-Found at depths of 25-40 m in ledges in coral walls
Description:-Source Original description
Rather small. solid and heavy. Last whorl straight and conical; smooth except for three to five widely spaced, indistinct spiral ribs in the anterior columellar part. Spire slightly projecting. with a sigmoid outline. Protoconch pointed, with two smooth larval whorls and the first three whorls of the teleoconch showing weak tubercles. The spiral suture is rather deep and narrow. The post-nuclear sutural ramp shows four shallow spiral grooves but no subsutural ridge. The aperture is narrow and straight. The shell's ground colour is white (all shells had a quickly fading hue of pink when they were collected). The protoconch and the first four post-nuclear whorls are white; the later whorls are rich purple to brown, without conspicuous streaks or blotches. The last whorl is tinted with pink to brown with a paler greyish pink zone mid-dorsally and anteriorly. The entire last whorl is covered with fine, evenly spaced brown transverse lines. Within the darker tinted areas of the shell, these lines are uninterrupted, whereas in the paler colored zones (in the mid-dorsal area and anteriorly) they are interrupted by short gaps, but there are no intermitted white dashes; the gaps are of the same greyish- pink colour as the background. The anterior basal part of the columella is white.
Discussion:-Conus empressae is most similar to certain color varieties of Conus boeticus.

 

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Conus  encaustus   Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in collection Prevost Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl. 14, f.  2

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 54, pl. 14, f.  2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Marquesas (C, M, &W)
Type Data: Syntype was in collection Prevost and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-encaustus
Synonyms:- praetextus Reeve, 1848
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-In 0.5-6 m; on reefs, sand, boulders and beneath rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small, usually moderately solid. Last whorl generally conical to broadly conical, straight to slightly convex in outline. Shoulder angulate, prominently tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, somewhat convex to concave in outline. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Basal half of last whorl with spaced spiral ribs and adjacent punctuate grooves, occasionally extending to shoulder.
Ground colour bluish white. Last whorl with 2 interrupted to solid, olive brown or reddish brown spiral bands, leaving ground- colour bands at shoulder edge and well above as well as just below centre. Shoulder band usually narrow and suffused with pale red. Numerous closely spaced spiral rows of alternating white and brown dashes or dots from base to subshoulder area or shoulder. Teleoconch sutural ramps with fine brown axial lines and with dark brown dashes along the outer edge between tubercles. Aperture violet-brown, with pale bands centrally and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-35 mm
RW 0.15-0.37 g/mm
RD 0.68-0.74
PMD 0.83-0.94
RSH 0.07-0.16
Discussion:-C. encaustus is closely allied to the allopatric species C. abbreviatus and C. miliaris. C. abbreviatus may attain larger size (up to 58 mm) and tends to have a higher spire and a broader last whorl; it is more convex in outline and lacks the pronounced, olive or brownish spiral banding, the intermittent white dashes or dots within the lines around last whorl and the brown lining at the shoulder edges of C. encaustus. C. miliaris tends to have a broader, often ventricosely conical last whorl, lacks the pronounced brown lining of the shoulder edges, and has the white and brown elements less regularly arranged within the spiral rows. The colour of typical C. miliaris lacks grey, bluish and olive tones.

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Conus  episcopatus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 1, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mahe Is., Seychelles.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 82 x 36.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-episcopatus
Synonyms:-
pupillaris Da Motta, 1982
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific excl. Hawaii
Habitat:-In shallow water to 40 m; on the lagoon and ocean sides of coral reefs, in sand and coral rubble, often beneath coral rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl usually narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical, sometimes narrowly cylindrical; outline variably convex at adapical third, nearly straight below; left side sometimes slightly concave at base. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to almost indistinct. Spire of low to moderate height; outline slightly concave to slightly convex, with domed early postnuclear whorls. Larval shell multispiral and projecting, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. About first 4 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 2-4 fine spiral grooves in first 3-4 whorls, turning into numerous obsolete spiral striae in following whorls. Last whorl with rather closely spaced, fine spiral ribs basally and fine to obsolete spiral threads above.
Ground colour white, often suffused with pink in shells from R�union and W. Thailand. Last whorl overlaid with light do dark brown leaving numerous medium-sized to large, separate or overlapping tentlike ground-colour markings; tents concentrated in 3-4 axial bands from base to shoulder and in 3 spiral bands, below shoulder, below centre, and near base. Brown colour zones intersperced with spiral rows of alternating dark brown dashes and very small white markings. Small subadult specimens usually with alternating brown and white axial bands, the latter sparsely crossed by brown reticulated lines. Larval whorls and 1-2 adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate pinkish violet. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white to bluish white, sometimes cream to yellow.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-114 mm
RW 0.30-1.05 g/mm
(L 55-95 mm)
RD 0.42-0.58
PMD 0.71-0.84
RSH 0.09-0.15
Discussion:-C. episcopatus is so similar to C. magnificus in shell characters and body colouration that they cannot always be unequivocally distinguished and are often considered conspecific. The latter species differs in having a finer reticulate pattern on the last whorl with a larger proportion of small ground-colour tents and in a usually higher spire (RSH 0.13-0.19). In the Pacific, where both species occur sympatrically, C. episcopatus lacks pink shades in the ground colour and the surface of its shell has a lower gloss. We therefore provisionally favour the status of separate species. C. aulicus can be distinguished by its acute and pure white apex and by its cylindrical or ovate last whorl (PMD 0.63- 0.75). For a long time, C. episcopatus was referred to as C. episcopus Hwass, actually a synonym of C. pennaceus (Kohn, 1964). The name C. episcopus var. oblongus (based on a subadult specimen) was pre-occupied, and C. episcopus var. elongata is a nomen nudum (Coomens et al., 1986). Therefore C. episcopatus is the first available name for this species

 

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Conus  episcopus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Lectotype  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Enc. Méth. 1: p. 142, (1798, Tab. Enc. pl. 345, fig. 2)

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: East Indies, restricted (C, M & W) to Mauritius

Type Data: Lectotype in MNHG

Type Size: 58 x 33 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A synonym of Conus pennaceus

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus f. episcopus

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-Mauritius

Habitat:- occurs in less than 10 m.

Description: C. episcopus is characterized by a comparatively light shell with a ventricosely conical to ovate last whorl. The colour is brown to blackish brown, and the very small to moderately large white tents may be regularly arranged on the last whorl or have larger tents concentrated below shoulder, at centre and at base.

 

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Conus  epistomioides  Weinkauff,  1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LMD Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2 Lief. 233,  p. 315,  pl. 57,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Africa(dubious)
Type Data: Lectotype in LMD deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomioides forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C.magus
The type is a subadult specimen of C. magus; white with tan/yellow blotches and some white dots in blotches.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  epistomium  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. i. Conus pl. 42,  sp. 227
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius (erroneus)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.2 x 21.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomium forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mauritius
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae     C. magus
-C. epistomium : Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical; Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Pattern, similar to that of C. raphanus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  equestris  Röding,  1798

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Museum Boltenianum 2: I-VIII,  p. 38.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 47 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus bandanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-bandanus equestris forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Moluccas, Indonesia
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to 90 m ; mostly encountered in 5-20 m. On coral reef, in reef lagoons; in sand, on weedy sand, rocks, and rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. bandanus
In form equestris, colour bands with larger blackish brown blotches, interspersed with white tents of various sizes.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  ericmonnieri  Petuch & Myers,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 33 with pic., Figure 2 G, H & I
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Vitoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-ericmonnieri
Synonyms:-
Geographic Range:-Restricted to the coasts of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil Brazil
Habitat:-From 60 m depth
Description:-
Shell very large for genus (averaging 45 mm), slender and elongated, tapering toward anterior end, with slightly concave sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered with large, posteriorly-pointing, rounded carina; spire proportionally low, broadly pyramidal, with distinctly stepped whorls; spire whorls slightly canaliculate; body whorl smooth, shiny, and polished, with 10 deeply-incised sulci around anterior tip; spire whorls smooth, ornamented with very faint, closely-packed crescent-shaped growth lines; body whorl color bright pinkish-salmon, overlaid with 2 wide bands of large rectangular or amorphous dark orange-tan patches, one around posterior half and one around anterior end; pinkish-salmon base color and orange-tan patches, in turn, overlaid with 24-26 rows of evenly-spaced elongated orange-brown and white dots and dashes; shoulder carina marked with widely-spaced large orange-brown spots, usually 10-12 per whorl; spire whorls white or pinkish white, with widely scattered, thin orange-brown flammules; some spire flammules connect with dark spots on carina; aperture narrow, widening slightly toward anterior end; interior of aperture bright pink; protoconch and early whorls orange; protoconch protracted, composed of 2 whorls; periostracum thin, smooth, and translucent yellow.
Discussion:- Until recently, this large and conspicuous cone was referred to, primarily by shell dealers, as “Conus mindanus agassizii Dall, 1889”. That species, although congeneric, is a smaller and much more slender and elongated shell with a higher spire.

 

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Conus  ermineus  Born, 1778

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMW Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind.,  p. 141
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: not mentioned in 1778, (1780 copied from Martini 1773, 'in Indis')
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMW deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Chelyconus Species:-ermineus
Synonyms:- eques Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; portoricanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; testudinarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; barathrum Röding, 1798; crucifer Röding, 1798; cutisanguina Röding, 1798; coerulescens Schroter, 1803; narcissus Lamarck, 1810; coerulescens Dillwyn, 1817; aspersus Sowerby ii, 1833; caerulans Kuster, 1837; inquinatus Reeve, 1849; perryae Clench, 1942; piraticus Clench, 1942
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde Is; NW Africa; E. Mexico - Surinam; St. Vincent; till Camocim, Ceará, Brazil (Pers. Comm. Damaso Monteiro)
Habitat:-Offshore in depths to 100 m
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy with a low gloss; low conical, the sides convex posteriorly; basally low spiral ridges; shoulder roundly angled, variable width, usually distinct from spire; spire low moderate sometimes domed, sharply pointed; early whorls carinate, eroded; body whorl pale bluish white to light blue; dark brown dashes in spiral rows usually visible in pale portion; usually with three broad bands of chocolate blotches, these fused spirally and axially but leaving midbody pale and poorly marked; blotches marked with large white markings sometimes fusing to axial white blotches; blotching sometimes reduced or absent; paler pattern shells appear pinkish/violet; base white; spire white with brown spots; apex often pink; aperture wide, uniform; outer lip sharp, sometimes thick convex; mouth bluish white to pale violet, sometimes pinkish; columella long, narrow, offset by slight ridge;
Hugely variable shell with variant patterns:
1) Common African, some USA. Heavy brown blotches above midbody largely fused to produce largely brown shell above midbody band infiltrated by axial flammules; brownish areas with white tents and marks fusing into blotches; scattered short spiral lines/dashes; spire heavily marked with axial brown blotches; This is the typical form.
2) As pattern 1 but clearer blue blotches developed and reducing brown to spiral bands at shoulder, midbody -scalloped; and wide one below midbody; mouth with broad violet bands; form coerulescens
3) Distinctly whitish shells with wide shoulders the blotches very small and often only distinct above midbody; the two bands being jagged brown spots; usually rows of spiral brown dashes lines well developed especially basally; Mainly American; This form is named fm aspersus
4) Rounded shell moderately high spire bluish white with pinkish tones the blotches visible as tan areas above midbody and at shoulder; dashes almost absent; Southern Antilles; form testudinarius
The Western Atlantic shells may turn out to be a separate species
5) Wide shoulder form mainly white with two broken brown bands and many streaks of brown scattered over whorl fm caerulans.
Discussion:-The only cone species to be found on both sides of the Atlantic. The Western Atlantic specimens may turn out to be a separate species but most colour forms are found in both geographies. Highly variable in shape and pattern and therefore it is difficult to separate out the specimens into the different colour forms.

 

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Conus  ernesti  Petuch, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2),  p. 67,  f. 28 & 29
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off  Portobelo, Panama
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  philippii Kiener, 1845
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-philippii ernesti forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Panama East
Habitat:- 65 metres
Description:-Source: original description
Shell slender, tapering rapidly toward anterior tip; shoulder wide, sharply angled; spire high, elevated, scalariform; shell smooth, polished, with deeply- impressed spiral sulci around anterior end; aperture straight, narrow; shell color white with 12-20 rows of small brown dots and dashes; rows of dots often aligned to form large brown vertical flammule; dotted pattern overlaid with variable amounts of amorphous lighter brown patches; clear band, with only one or two rows of dots, present around midbody; some specimens (holotype) with brown patches coalescing into 2 broad bands, one above, and one below, midbody; anterior tip of shell white; spire whorls white with numerous, evenly-spaced crescent-shaped flammules; early whorls brown; interior of aperture white;
Discussion:-Conus ernesti is most similar to Conus cingulatus Lamarck, 1810 from the Caribbean coast of Colombia, but differs in being a smaller, brighter colored shell with a much higher, scalariform spire. The lower-spired Conus cingulatus is a rough-textured shell, with the body whorl being heavily sculptured with incised sulci and raised spiral threads, Conus ernesti, on the other hand, is a smooth polished shell with incised sulci only on the anterior end. The dark purple- brown C. cingulatus has a purple aperture, whereas the white and light brown C. ernesti has a white aperture. The new species is also similar to C. garciai da Motta, 1982 from the Caribbean coast of Honduras, but differs in being a much smaller shell with rows of brown dots. Like C. cingulatus, C. garciai is also a rough-textured shell, heavily ornamented with raised threads, and differs greatly from the smooth C. ernesti. Together, C. garciai, C. ernesti, and C. cingulatus form an interesting species complex, with each being restricted to a separate molluscan assemblage.

 

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Conus  erythraeensis  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus pl. 24, p. 137
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.3 x 16.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-erythraeensis
Synonyms:- dillwynii Reeve, 1849; induratus Reeve, 1849; adustus Sowerby ii, 1858; couderti Bernardi, 1860; quadratomaculatus Sowerby ii, 1866; erythraeensis Weinkauff, 1873
Geographic Range:-Central and S. Red Sea; Aden to Kuria-Muria Is., Oman
Habitat:-Shallow water, to about 15 m. Shells from the Arabian coast from Jeddah to N. Yemen in very quiet shallow lagoons, in sand and amongst eel-grass roots.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, usually moderately light to moderately solid; shells from Port Sudan somewhat lighter than shells from other localities. Last whorl conical to broadly or ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to two-thirds, straight below; left side may be concave near base. Shoulder angulate. Spire low to high, outline concave to almost straight. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.6-0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave adaxially, with 1-2 increasing to 3-4 or sometimes 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably wide spiral grooves toward base; ribbons between narrow or grading to ribs at base.
Ground colour white to bluish white. Last whorl with spiral rows of light reddish or dark brown dots, spots or bars that may fuse into flecks, axial blotches and spiral bands, below shoulder, within adapical and abapical third. Larval whorls white to brown; about 2 adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps of the same colour. Following sutural ramps variably maculated with light to dark brown radial streaks, spots or blotches. Aperture brown, white, violet or brownish violet, sometimes brown only deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 16-35 mm
RW 0.05-0.15
(L 16-31 mm)
RD 0.60-0.75
PMD 0.80-0.90
RSH 0.09-0.26
C.  dillwyni is distinctly red spotted with few irregular blotches;
C.  induratus has shallow grooving almost to shoulder; pale blue ground;
C.  quadramaculatus has heavier blotching in bands above below midbody;
C.  couderti has two spiral irregular wide bands of brown on white/fawn with rows of darks dashes.
Discussion:-C. erythraeensis is similar to C. jickelii, C. angioiorum, and C. nigromaculatus. C. jickelii grows larger (50 mm vs. 35 mm), has a generally narrower last whorl, (RD 0.58-0.64), and a generally lower spire (RSH 0.09- 0.16); its spiral rows of brown markings are arranged in groups rather than evenly distributed over the last whorl, and the markings are larger. C. angioiorum also attains larger size and has a generally narrower last whorl (RD 0.56-0.64), its shoulder is subangulate, and the spiral rows of brown markings on its last whorl are also arranged in groups rather than being evenly distributed. Shells almost identical to the lectotype of C. erythraeensis occur along the coast of Eritrea and in the Dahlak Archipelago.
C. adustus, C. couderti, and C. quadratomaculatus refer to colour variants probably from this area.
C. induratus as represented by Reeve's original figure is nearly identical to a local form of C. erythraeensis from Port Sudan; shells of this form are somewhat less solid than those of the other forms and have a pale blue ground colour.
Shells described as C. dillwynii may belong to a C. erythraeensis population living from Jeddah southwards to Yemen; they differ from the type specimens of C. dillwynii only in a slightly more concave spire outline, slightly more convex outline of the last whorl and somewhat more pronounced spiral grooves on the sutural ramps. Specimens attain adult length of 24-35 mm (types of C. dillwynii: 27-31 mm; range of C. erythraeensis: 16-29 mm) and cannot be separated from C. erythraeensis at the species level. Unnamed local forms of C. erythraeensis are known from Aden and from Massawa, Eritrea. Shells from the former area have somewhat narrower last whorls than those of the typical Eritrean form (RD 0.63-0.67 vs. 0.65-0.75), while specimens from Massawa reach only 16-24 mm in length (vs. 20-28 mm in typical Eritrean form), have beige to brown apices, and their apertures are white or light brown deep within. Shell morphometry (RD 0.63- 0.71: PMD 0.85-0.89: RSH 0.13-0.22), sculpture and colour pattern favour their inclusion in C. erythraeensis.

 

 

Conus  erythraeensis f. dillwynii  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I, Conus,  Emendns. p. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known (C. piperatus Reeve, 1844)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued (C. piperatus)
Type Size: 27.7 x 14.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. piperatus Reeve, 1844.
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus erythraeensis Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-erythraeensis dillwynii forma
Synonyms:-
piperatus Reeve, 1844
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; Aden; Zanzibar
Habitat:-Shallow water, to about 15 m. Shells from the Arabian coast from Jeddah to N. Yemen in very quiet shallow lagoons, in sand and amongst eel-grass roots.
Description:- C. dillwyni is distinctly red spotted with few irregular blotches;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  escondidai  Poppe  &  Tagaro, 2005

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1(4),  p. 40,  pl. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, offshore Dipolog, Mindanao, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51.6  x  25.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-escondidai
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-50 m to 100 m sandy bottom
Description:-Source Original Description
An average sized shell, broadly conical in shape and very heavy. RD = 0.65, PMD = 0.92. Protoconch eroded, spire high, with a slightly concave outline. 12 whorls. Sutural ramp straight. The suture is deeply incised and each whorl is nicely shouldered. On the sutural ramp, especially well visible by microscope on the last whorls, a fine sculpture of oblique axial ribs crossed by faint, very fine spiral ribs. Shoulder not sharp, slightly rounded. Body whorl almost smooth, with a porcellaneous texture. Lip thin but solid. No spiral ridges or whatsoever on the body whorl. Overall colour cream white with two broad spiral bands of yellow, irregular blotches.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  espingueirensis  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 94, p. 30 - 31
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Espingueira Bay, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 11 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Uncertain
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-espingueirensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- Collected between 0.5 m and 1.5 m deep on the san
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Small shell (7 to 12 mm) of pyriform profile elongated, almost biconical shape, with  moderately high, spire  slightly stepped with distinct sutures, almost straight; the coloring of the spire has white flammules alternated with speckles more dark greenish-gray flammules. The aperture is wide , internally  brown-reddish purple, with one cream-colored band. The shell has a greenish-gray base color with apattern of whitish macules, and flecks, whitish; a medial spiral band is created by a concentration of axial flammules. The siphonal channel is wide and open, and almost straight. 7-8 spiral grooves appear at the base.  Animals not studied.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  estivali  Moolenbeek  &  Richard, 1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paratype Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. clxvii,  p. 571, figs. 6 & 7  
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Chesterfield Islands, Coral Sea (19deg 53' S 158deg 38' E); 400 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10.4 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-estivali
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Coral Sea, New Caledonia
Habitat:-Found at depths of 350-450 meters
Description:-Source Original description
shell small, thin, and shiny. Last whorl conical, RD 0.67. Sides almost straight. Shoulder sharply angulate to carinate; spire of moderate height, outline straight. Protoconch of about 2 whorls. First postnuclear whorl with 0-1 spiral groove gradually increasing to 6 grooves on top of body whorl. Just above sutures a well developed ridge, giving the spire a stepped outline. Last whorl smooth with 10-11 hardly visible striae on the anterior part. Aperture narrow. almost uniform in width. Last whorl white with some diffuse white and light brown blotches and 6 fine brown spiral lines. Protoconch milky white. Spire with brown spots along the margins of the abapical ridge.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  eucoronatus   Sowerby iii,  1903

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in SAMC Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Mar. Inv. S. Afr.,  p. 217,  pl. 3,  f.  9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cape St. Blaize, Cape, South Africa.
Type Data: Lectotype in SAMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conaspella Species:-eucoronatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal to Somalia and S. Yemen; S. India (Gulf of Mannar) and Sri Lanka.
Habitat:-In 100-400 m, on sand and mud.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl generally pyriform, sometimes conical or ventricosely conical or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight to concave (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder angulate, with many small tubercles; deep exhalent notch. Spire of moderate height to high, outline straight. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 1.05 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls closely tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with 0-2 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves crossed by arcuate radial threads; grooves spirally striate and sometimes weak in latest whorls. Last whorl usually with strong, narrow or broad spiral ribbons from base to shoulder; grooves between rather broad, axially striate and often with an additional finer spiral rib. Spiral elevations crossed by distinct axial grooves, giving a costate or granulose appearance.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spirally arranged dark or light brown blotches, dashes, and dots and axial streaks and blotches. Pattern elements fuse into 2-3 spiral bands, below shoulder, at centre and near base. Shells from Somalia may have only irregularly scattered small brown blotches. Larval whorls grey to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial blotches or weakly patterned with brown spots between tubercles.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-50 mm
RW 0.09-0.27 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.80
PMD 0.82-0.94
RSH 0.17-0.28
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  euetrios  Sowerby iii, 1882

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 120,  pl. 5,  f. 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile euetrios forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. textile
C. textile var. euetrios
: Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, rather narrow (RD 0.53-0.61); spire comparatively high (RSH 0.14-0.20). Ground-colour white, suffused with brownish beige, violet and/or blue. Colour pattern (may be faded in the holotype) close to that of C. t. suzannae and C. t. form archiepiscopus with many small tents cut by two spiral band with axial wavy line pattern.. Shells from Reunion with a blue ground have been referred to as C. t. form euetrios var. cyanosus (Lauer, 1987). Form euetrios is reported from various localities in the W. Indian Ocean. Exact data on its distribution are missing on account of confusion with form archiepiscopus. The holotype of var. euetrios has a slightly narrower last whorl than the lectotype of C. archiepiscopus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  eugrammatus  Bartsch  &  Rheder,  1943

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 56,  p. 85
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Mokapu Islet, off northern Coast of Molokai, Hawaii
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 15.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-eugrammatus
Synonyms:- nasui Kaicher, 1977; lapulapui da Motta & Martin, 1982
Geographic Range:-SW Pacific; Hawaii
Habitat:-Offshore in 35-500 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium-sized, light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical; outline straight to slightly convex, concave on left side near base. Shoulder carinate, often slightly undulate. Spire of moderate height to high, stepped; outline concave, occasionally straight. Larval shell of 3.25-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1.1mm. First 4-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with arcuate radial threads and often obselete spiral striae; sometimes with 0-1 increasing to 2-5 weak spiral grooves, distinct in Hawaiian shells, Last whorl usually with axially striate spiral grooves separated by narrow ribbons and ribs from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with violet. Last whorl variably encircled with irregular rows of brown dots or dashes. Brown markings clustering or fusing into 2 spiral bands, at centre and near base; occasionally a third, interrupted band below shoulder. Larval whorls usually white. Early postnuclear sutural ramps with widely and regularly spaced brown dots at outer margin. Late ramps with sparse brown radial blotches; marginal dots irregularly set to absent. Aperture translucent, white or light violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 21-38 mm
RW 0.03-0.12 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.70
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.17-0.26
Discussion:-C. eugrammatus and C. wakayamaensis are extremely similar. We distinguish them primarily by colour pattern. C. wakayamaensis generally has more numerous and larger brown pigmented areas. Its spire has many irregular brown radial markings, and it lacks the widely and regularly spaced brown dots on the early postnuclear sutural ramps characteristic of C. eugrammatus. On the last whorl, C. wakayamaensis usually has 3 solid or interrupted brown spiral bands, while C. eugrammatus has 2-3 less regular and often less prominent bands. In addition, the spiral grooves on the last whorl are usually separated by broader ribbons in C. wakayamaensis. C. memiae is also very similar to C. eugrammatus, but it is smaller (to 32 mm) and its last whorl is often slightly pyriform. C. memiae usually has strong spiral grooves on the late sutural ramps, and its colour pattern is more complex, with narrower white spiral bands and spiral rows of brown dots and dashes often fusing into axial streaks and flecks. Shells described as C. lapulapui tend to be smaller, but are so similar in all other conchological characters to C. eugrammatus that we consider them to be conspecific.

 

 

Conus eugrammatus  f.  lapulapui  da Motta & Martin, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Carf. Phil. Shell News 4(3), p. 4,  fig. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Visayan Sea Between Malapascua Is. & Bantayan Is., Philippines; 20-40 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.5 x 11.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus eugrammatus Bartsch & Rheder, 1943
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-eugrammatus lapulapui forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Offshore in 35-500 m
Description:-
Da Motta states that it differs from C. eugrammatus which has more visible beading on early whorls and is sculptured with spiral threads(not axial) on whorl tops; C. eugrammatus is longer with straight sides compared with sides visibly convex and constricted towards base in C. lapulapui.

 

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Conus  eumitus  Tomlin, 1926

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Natal Govt. Mus. V, pt. 3,  p. 288,  pl. xvi,  f. 3,  May
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Scottburgh, Natal, SA
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 28.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile eumitus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal, Mozambique
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-
C. eumitus of authors refers to a more solid variant from Natal and Mozambique with an angulate to subangulate shoulder, a more conical and often broader last whorl, with wavy closely set axial lines and 2 prominent spiral colour bands; the aperture may be suffused with pink.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  evansi  Bondarev,  2001

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: La Conchiglia 33 (299),  p. 25, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Dahlak, Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40.9 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-evansi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea, Dahlak
Habitat:-50-60 m sand
Description:-Source Original description La conchiglia
Shell moderately sized, adults about 40.0 mm, moderately solid in adult (EW: 0.18-0.186) and light in weight when juvenile (RW: 0.02-0.04). Last whorl conical; outline straight or slightly convex adaptically and slightly concave to the base from the left side Aperture wider at the base than near shoulder; white inside and somewhat violet in the freshest specimens. Shoulder sharply angulale; exhalent notch present but not deep. Early 4-5 postnuclear whorls with distinct tuberculation; several later ones are broadly crenulatcd at the shoulder, others - (almost) smooth. Spire low in adults; moderate in subadults and juveniles; outline concave. Sutural ramp flat or slightly concave on the last whorl, with increasing number of spiral grooves, up 10 12, on the last whorl, crossed by weak radial threads. Larval shell translucent white; paucispiral (up to 2 whorls), maximum diameter 0.8-0.9mm Last whorl good gloss, with 17-19 pronounced axial striae, slightly wavy spiral grooves in the basal two-thirds; the spiral grooves become weaker from the base to sub-shoulder The grooves are disposed between spiral ribbons, which have tendency to grouping in series of 3 in basal part, growing wider adapically; and a series of 2 in the middle part of the last whorl, and singly more adapically, growing wider up to 1.5 mm. Ground color white; patterns consist of chestnut brown to light brown axial streaks and flames fusing into 3 interrupted to solid spiral bands with additional dots, spots and blotches just below the shoulder and above as well as below the center. Spire whorls covered with radial streaks, flames and blotches.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  eversoni  Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 74, pl. 10, figs. 12-14
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Utila Island, Bay Islands, Honduras; 20 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-eversoni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Honduras
Habitat:-Coral 20 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small, slender, tapered, with sharp-angled shoulder; spire flattened with elevated, mamillate protoconch; body whorl smooth, polished, with 10 spiral cords around anterior end; spire whorls with 4 spiral cords; shell color dark reddish- brown with variable number of spiral rows of dark brown, tiny dots; paler reddish-brown band around mid-body; spire whorls with numerous evenly-spaced, dark brown flammules; early whorls and protoconch pale tan; interior of aperture purple.
Discussion:- Conus eversoni is closest to Conus flamingo Petuch in shape and size, but differs in being a brown-colored shell with rows of tiny dots, in having a purple aperture, and in having sculptured spire whorls with spiral cords. The ecologies of the two species are very different, with Conus flamingo living on sand bottoms in about 80 m depth and C. eversoni living deep within the reef amongst living corals, in about 20 m depth. At present, C. eversoni has only been collected on coral reefs off Utila and Guanaja Islands (Pace collection), Bay Islands, Honduras.

 

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Conus  evorai   Monteiro,  Fernandes  &  Rolán,  1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: World Shells, no. 12,  p. 9,  pl. 1-4
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Praia Zeburaca, near Gatas Bay. N. E. Boavista Isl., Cape Verde Isls.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-evorai
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Small smooth shell (maximum recorded about 25 mm) with a rounded to strongly rounded shoulder and very slightly narrowing towards the anterior end, which gives it a faintly pyriform profile. The protoconch and earlier post-embryonic whorls are consistently eroded. thus preventing a clear examination. The best preserved ones show a few weak spiral cords which often almost disappear in the last whorl, but can be clearly visible even there in a few specimens. The spire is moderately convex. The general colour of the shell varies from golden to dark brown, but this brown ground colour is profusely smeared with white dots, giving the shell a reticulated appearance. These small white dots are occasionally denser along a faint and narrow band located at about one third of the total length of the shell, nearer to the anterior end. It is common for the described white dots to form regular axial lines along successive growth stages, making the shell look as though axially streaked. The interior of the aperture is white, with two dark purplish blotches in the inside (the smaller one, nearer to the anterior end. may be absent). The spire has the same ground colour as the body whorl, with a few white dots. The periostracum is thin and transparent.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  excavatus  Sowerby ii, 1866

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch.. iii,  p. 326, pl. 25 (286),  f. 616
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus fumigatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-fumigatus excavatus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; W Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. excavatus refers to slightly narrow form with pale pinkish brown bands of colour and three rows of dark brown dashes around white belt at midbody.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  excelsus  Sowerby iii,  1908

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8),  i,  p. 465, text-figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 88 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Turriconus Species:-excelsus
Synonyms:-
pulcherrimus Brazier, 1894; tannaensis Cotton, 1945; nakayasui Shikama & Habe, 1968
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines; Solomon Is., New Caledonia, and Queensland; Andaman Sea off Burma
Habitat:-Offshore reported in 100-400 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conical; outline slightly convex at subshoulder area, straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire unusually high and stepped, outline straight. Larval shell of about 3.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 1 mm. First 5-12 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Shells with an almost smooth last whorl intergrade with shells having variably spaced, axially striate spiral grooves from base to shoulder, separated by sometimes granulose ribbons.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with interlaced wavy brown axial lines and a continuous or interrupted brown spiral band on each side of centre that contains variously shaped white markings and spiral rows of alternating white spots and brown axial dashes. Larval whorls grey. Early teleoconch sutural ramps immaculate, later ramps with brown axial blotches of varying size. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-102 mm
RW 0.14-0.30 g/mm
(L 60-80 mm)
RD 0.54-0.60
PMD 0.81-0.91
RSH 0.37-0.43
Discussion:-C. excelsus cannot be mistaken for any other Conus species. T. nakayasui refers to a variant with reduced colour pattern; such specimens intergrade with extensively patterned ones.

 

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Conus  exiguus  Lamarck,  1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris),  xv,  p. 39
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Asia, restricted (C, M & W) to New Caledonia.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-exiguus
Synonyms:-
plumbeus Reeve, 1844; cabritii Bernardi, 1858; vayssetianus Crosse, 1872; taylorianus Smith, 1880; bougei Sowerby iii, 1907; optimus Sowerby iii, 1913
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia; Samoa
Habitat:-In S. New Caledonia, C. exiguus known from coral, rubble, and coarse sand with algae in 13-53 m, often inhabiting channels of the barrier reef with strong water currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium-sized, light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical, sometimes conoid-cylindrical in populations from very shallow water; outline convex, or slightly convex adapically and less convex to straight towards base. Shoulder angulate and tuberculate, subangulate and weakly tuberculate in populations from very shallow water. Spire of low to moderate height; outline concave to convex. In southern New Caledonia, larval shell of 2.0-2.25 whorls; maximum diameter 0.7 mm in northern New Caledonia to 1 mm in the south. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate to weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably spaced, shallow, punctate spiral grooves, sometimes from base to shoulder; spiral ribs usually granulose and restricted to abapical area or extending to centre or shoulder (form plumbeus). Largely smooth specimens often with distinct non-granulose spiral ribs at shoulder.
Last whorl various shades of brown, leaving variously shaped and sized white dots, spots, flecks or blotches, mostly located near shoulder and at centre, sometimes also at base. Brownish tones ranging from yellowish, orangish and olive-brown to dark reddish and blackish brown. Small individuals in northern New Caledonia with small spirally arrayed white markings either extending across entire last whorl or restricted to central area. The medium-sized individuals in southern New Caledonia lighter in colour, with small to large white markings often fusing into 2-3 spiral bands or reduced to a few scattered dots or spots. Shells from very shallow water darkest in colour, with large, partially white markings, axially or spirally arranged. Base sometimes light violet. Larval shell white to pale yellow, pink in medium-sized shells from the south. Postnuclear sutural ramps matching last whorl in colouration (including number and size of white markings). Aperture of various shades of violet (southern population) or bluish violet to brown (other populations).
Shell Morphometry
L 16-54 mm
RW 0.05-0.26 g/mm
(L 19-45 mm)
RD 0.57-0.67
PMD 0.83-0.95
RSH 0.09-0.20
C. e. plumbeus refers to completely granulose specimens;
C. e. optimus southern form with strictly conical shells of medium size;
C. e. cabritii widely distributed small 22-33 mm conical to conoid
C. e. bougei Northern form small 16-25 mm conical
Discussion:-C. exiguus as presented may be a composite or complex of more than one species, but the common characters of its members are so distinctive that confusion with Indo-Pacific congeners is unlikely. Previous authors suggested 2 to 5 (mostly 3) morphological species in this complex: 1, a southern form (cited as C. optimus by Estival) with strictly conical shells (RD 0.57-0.63; PMD 0.86-0.95) of medium size (35- 45 mm); 2, a relatively widely distributed form (C. cabritii of Estival) with moderately small (22-33 mm), conical to conoid- cylindrical shells (RD 0.57-0.67; PMD 0.83-0,92); 3, a northern form (C. bougei of Estival), of small shells (16-25 mm) with a conical last whorl (RD 0.60-0.65; PMD 0.85-0.90). Although we find that the shell characters of all intergrade, they may represent partially geographically differentiated populations. C. plumbeus refers to completely granulose shells of this species. The type specimens of C. vayssetianus, C. taylorianus and C. optimus cannot be conclusively assigned to any of these forms, but all are within the range of variation of C. exiguus. Specimens recently found in Western Samoa are similar to form bougei.

 

 

Conus exiguus f.  bougei   Sowerby iii,  1907

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. vii,  part 5,  p. 299,  pl. 25, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mouac Is., New Caledonia.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-exiguus bougei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia; Samoa
Habitat:-In S. New Caledonia, C. exiguus known from coral, rubble, and coarse sand with algae in 13-53 m, often inhabiting channels of the barrier reef with strong water currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C exiguus
C. e. bougei Northern form small 16-25mm conical.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  exiguus  f. cabritii  Bernardi, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Probable holotype Image MNHN

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 7,  p. 377,  pl. xiii, f.  2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-exiguus cabritii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South of New Caledonia
Habitat:-In S. New Caledonia, C. exiguus known from coral, rubble, and coarse sand with algae in 13-53 m, often inhabiting channels of the barrier reef with strong water currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae     C. exiguus
C. e. cabritii widely distributed small 22-33mm conical to conoid.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus exiguus  f. optimus  Sowerby iii, 1913

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8). xi,  p. 235, pl. iii,  f. 7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-exiguus optimus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In S. New Caledonia, C. exiguus known from coral, rubble, and coarse sand with algae in 13-53 m, often inhabiting channels of the barrier reef with strong water currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. exiguus
C. e. optimus southern form with strictly conical shells of medium size
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus eximius  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  Suppl. pl. vi, sp. 256
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.3 x 14.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-eximius
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bay of Bengal to Papua New Guinea, Philippines and Taiwan.
Habitat:-In 20-100 m; east of Madras, C. eximius was collected in 45 m on mud bottom.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to solid. Last whorl conical, sometimes ventricosely conical; outline slightly convex at adapical third to half, straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire low to high, outline concave to deeply concave. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves; grooves weaker and finer on latest ramps. Basal half of last whorl with variably spaced punctate spiral grooves separating ribs anteriorly and a few ribbons posteriorly.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with a broad, continuous or interrupted brown spiral band on each side of centre; often brown axial flames extend from posterior brown band to shoulder ramp. Some specimens with dashed darker brown spiral lines within and spiral rows of brown dots outside the colour bands; dots vary in number and arrangement. Pattern varies from largely white shells sparsely maculated with brown to largely brown shells with narrow white bands at base, centre and shoulder. Larval whorls white to pale brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial markings. Aperture white
Shell Morphometry
L 30-58 mm
RW 0.08-0.40 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.68
PMD 0.82-0.94
RSH 0.08-0.26
Three patterns
1) all white with few faint yellow brown spots ;
2) white with two bands of isolated brown blotches connected by rows brown spots;
3) brown with axial flammules cutting midbody band and many whitish dashes;
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  explorator  Vink, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii,  no. 250-252,  p. 42. figs. 38a –d,  2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Discovery Bay, Jamaica; 14 m
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14.3 x 8.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-explorator
Synonyms:-
According to Filmer a synonym of Conus
caysalensis Raybaudi L. & Prati, 1994
Geographic Range:-Jamaica
Habitat:-Found at depths of 15 m
Description:-Source Vink
Shell solid, low conical with slightly concave sided, nodulous spire and 13 to 15 rounded nodules on the shoulder of the body whorl; body whorl straight sided with about 15 minutely beaded and evenly spaced spiral threads; nucleus: 1.5 whorls; colour black-brown (orange-brown in faded specimens), often with white axial flames and with a white blotchy band at midbody and the shoulder; fine axial brown lines may be present on the midbody band; beads of spiral threads are normally lighter coloured than back-ground; early spire whorls with black-brown blotches, yellow-brown radiating hairlines on last whorl of spire; tops of whorls smooth with concave growth lines (only a faint spiral cord in some specimens); interior of aperture purplish, interrupted within by a white band (but base not purplish as in C. hieroglyphus).
Discussion:-C. explorator could be confused with C. hieroglyphus (which has a more rounded non coronated shoulder and a higher spire), C. havanensis {which has smaller and more pronounced modules on the shoulder and a more convex body whorl. C. kulkulcan (which has a different colour pattern, more numerous pustulated spiral cords and a straight spire) and C. magellanicus (which is more slender and which has no beaded spiral threads on the body whorl, but only rarely 8 to 10 very weak spiral ridges which are cropped near the base and wide-spaced on the rest of the shell).

 

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Conus  exquisitus  Sowerby iii, 1887

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. V, p. 274, pl. 36 (512*), f. 757
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: California ? (ex pisces).(erroneus)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-exquisitus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Antigua
Habitat:-Offshore reefs
Description:-Source Original description
A small cone, elongate, turbinate with spiral grooves obsolete posteriorly and more prominent anteriorly. Colour white with orange wavy axial flammules in two bands; Spire conical of moderate height; apex rosy red; early whorls with minute tubercles at margins, the last whorl with 20 small nodules at shoulder. Aperture narrow flesh colour; columella with slightly raised rosy callus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  exumaensis   Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH   D. Sargent

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 222-223; p. 85, fig. 6.8, C&D
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 
Type Locality: off Cape Eleuthera, southwestern side of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, along the southern Exuma Sound

Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15.2 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-exumaensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-In sand, 2 m depth
Description:-Source Original description
elongated shell, with high pyramidal stepped spire; shoulder sharply angled, carinated; body whorl with distinct indentation around midbody, producing characteristic convex outline; body whorl shiny and polished, sculptured with 10 incised spiral grooves around anterior two thirds of body whorl; anterior tip encircled with 3-5 small spiral threads; shell color white or cream-white with 8-10 evenly spaced tiny brown dots along edge of shoulder carina and spire whorls; aperture narrow, with interior being white or cream-white in color; protoconch proportionally large exserted, mamillate, composed of 2.5 whorls.
Discussion:-

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update  March 2017