Conus  fantasmalis  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link
: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 37, pl. 1,  f. 8, pl. 2,  f. 8, pl. 5,  f
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Navio Quebrado, Isla de Maio, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x16.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-fantasmalis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maio, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found hidden in rocks.
Description:-Source Original Description Iberus
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension of the copies studied varied between 20 and 30mm. The silhouette is peculiar with a last whorl somewhat shortened, with its wide upper part and the shoulder rounded. The spire is pointed and somewhat extended with a slightly concave profile. The whorls of the spire are not stepped, are striated and have the same color as the shell. Quite uniform dark brown coloring with the exception of two spiral bands situated, the most marked one, on the lower half of the last whorl and, the less apparent, under the shoulder. There is not much variability among the specimens studied. Aperture with the clear interior, presenting in its upper part a light violet color. The lip is dark. Columella white. Periostracum fine, yellow and transparent.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  felitae  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link
: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 45,  pl. 1, f. 18,  pl. 2, f. 18,  pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Mordiera, Isla del Sal, Cape Verde Is.; 0,5 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12.7 x 6.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-felitae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in shallow depth (less than one meter) in rocky zone with sand and rubble of dead coral
Description:-Source Original description Iberus
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension is between 10 to 14 mm. The largest specimen studied is of 17 mm. The silhouette is slender, extended and relatively narrow. Spire sharp, somewhat elevated, striated, of white color with some brown or greenish areas. The shell has a coloring that, in a first impression, appears of cream to green olive. The pattern is formed by an assembly of white zigzag areas on a green ground. The bands are not delimited well, although there is a central zone with greater quantity of white. In some copies (especially small) there are continuous spiral lines of brown. There is a certain variability in the intensity of the color inside an almost constant pattern. Dark aperture in its interior, with two lighter spiral bands. Columella constantly of color light violet. Periostracum dense, a little transparent and rough.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  felix  Fenzan,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Acta Conch. 11,  pls.1 & 2
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Umkomaas, Mkomazi River mouth
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.2 x 15.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:- Species:-felix
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal SA
Habitat:-Dredged at 90-100 meters offshore on substrate of rubble overgrown by sponges and soft coral
Description:-Source Original description
The holotype has a moderately small (length = 25-35mm) shell with a broadly conical shape. Protoconch is paucispiral. Spire whorls are slightly stepped. Sutural ramps of the teleoconch have 2-3 spiral grooves and more numerous, incised fine radial striae that cross grooves on the ramps. The spire suture is dark brown, while the ramps are much lighter orange or white in alternating patches. Shoulder is weakly undulating on the last whorl, but smooth and rounded. Edge of the sutural ramps higher up on the spire is sharper and angled up to make the ramps slightly concave. The body whorl has straight sides, is colored orange, and has two pale bands dividing the body whorl. Texture of the body whorl is smooth with a shiny, waxy surface. The aperture is also straight. There is an orange tinge to the interior that becomes lighter further inside. The anterior tip of the shell is bright violet or purple. There are 7 -8 grooves on the anterior tip of the body whorl.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  fenzani  Petuch & Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 40
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Gulf of Chiriqui, W Panama
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.1 x 21.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of  Conus poormani  Berry, 1968
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-poormani fenzani forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Panama
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Body whorl glossy, with silky texture; sides concave, becoming straight at anterior end; color pure white, with 2 rows of scattered, widely-spaced oval or heart-shaped reddish-brown spots; one row of spots anterior to body whorl mid-line and one row of spots anterior to body whorl mid-line. Spire scalariform, with concave, slightly canaliculate whorls; shoulder sharply-angled. Aperture  interior pure white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus fergusoni  Sowerby iii, 1873

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. No. 41,  p. 145,  pl. 15,  f. 1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. No. 41,  p. 145,  pl. 15,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Panama
Type Data: There is a cited figure: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., No. 41,  p. 145,  pl. 15,  f. 1
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Pyruconus Species:-fergusoni
Synonyms:- fulvocinctus Crosse, 1872; consanguineus Smith, 1880
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W Mexico - Peru; Galapagos
Habitat:-Intertidally in mud and up to 200 m
Description:-Source Walls
Heavy with a low gloss, low conical, the sides convex posteriorly, sometimes almost parallel for a short distance then tapering to the base; body with numerous low crowded spiral ridges on the anterior third in adults, these rapidly becoming obsolete except for scattered spiral ridges and many distinct axial threads and growth marks; juveniles with spiral structure above midbody; shoulder roundly angled in adults, but with a weak carina, convex above; spire low or moderate, in adults with straight or slightly convex sides and bluntly pointed; juveniles with somewhat relatively higher spire that is sharply pointed and has concave sides and weakly stepped whorls; early whorls distinctly nodulose, then becoming undulate ,later whorls weakly carinate; tops of whorls with very faint traces of 3-5 spiral ridges crossed by numerous very weak axial threads, the sculpture all weak, even in juveniles, often not apparent in adults. Color of shell white in large adults;juveniles with two orange to orange brown bands above and below midpoint ;pattern becomes less distinct with growth and usually by 7.5cm there is only a weak broad band above midbody; base white ; juveniles and small adults sometimes with scattered large rounded brown spots in vaguely axial series, usually absent; spire white with orange tones, especially in juveniles; early whorls faintly tan; aperture wide uniform; outer lip sharp, straight, mouth white; columnella long, narrow mostly internal
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  fernandesi  Tenorio,  Afonso,  Rolán,   2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 5-8
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Porto Novo, Sao Antao, CV
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-fernandesi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sao Antao,Cape Verde islands
Habitat:-On algae on rocks at 2-4 m
Description:-Source Original Description
Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical; strongly angulated shoulder; spire dark brown with alternating white blotches; sutural ramps flat, striated with 4-6 spiral grooves leaving ribbons of variable width; last whorl smooth except for 5-6 equally spaced fine spiral ribs in the basal portion and around the columella region; color of the last whorl is dark brown, but usually lighter colored than the spire, with an olive green shade, covered by close interrupted spiral lines alternating white and brown; in almost all specimens a lighter-colored narrow band appears below the midpoint of the last whorl; this bandconcists of small white blotches, sometimes tent-shaped , alternating with a reddish brown coloration; other fainter bands are often present at the midpoint of the last whorl and below the shoulder; aperture dark near the inner lip and white towards the interior, with a pale blotch in the inner part; colemella white
Discussion:-C. fernandesi is similar to C. kersteni but is darker with slightly more convex sides and subsutural ramps are not so strongly ribbed.

 

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Conus  ferrugineus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 649
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Guinea, (West Africa), (erroneous), corrected (Delsaerdt) New Guinea
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-ferrugineus
Synonyms:-
chenui Crosse, 1857; mirmillo Crosse, 1865; loebbeckeanus Weinkauff, 1873; sophiae Brazier, 1875
Geographic Range:-Indonesia to Marquesas, Queensland to N.W. Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on sand, often under coral or on sand with algae
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conical; outline convex at adapical fourth or third, less so or straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly convex to slightly concave. Larval shell of about 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 0.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, grading to smooth within adjacent 2.5 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, often slightly concave in late whorls; with 1 increasing to 4-6 or sometimes 8 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be weak and fine on last 2 ramps. Last whorl with often granulose spiral ribs on basal third, occasionally extending to shoulder.
Ground colour usually cream to yellowish brown. Last whorl with a variably broad yellowish tan to brown spiral band on each side of centre, either solid or interrupted, sometimes blending with adjacent areas to produce an almost uniform colouration. Bands may be gradually reduced and replaced by rows of irregular dark brown axial markings sometimes extending to shoulder. Well separated, dotted, dashed or solid brown spiral lines often extend from base to shoulder. Base and siphonal fasciole contrastingly darker brown than adjacent area. Apex pale yellow. Later sutural ramps with axial or radial dark brown markings. Aperture uniformly white to cream.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-75 mm
RW 0.20-0.75 g/mm
(L 40-70 mm)
RD 0.54-0.65
PMD 0.78-0.88
RSH 0.06-0.16
Discussion:-C. ferrugineus is most similar to C. planorbis, from which it is not distinguishable by size and shape of the shell. C. ferrugineus is usually called C. planorbis Born. However, the lectotype of C. planorbis has a faded violet blotch at the anterior end of its aperture, a character also stated in Born's description. Röckel (1981) considered C. vulpinus and C. ferrugineus to refer to the same species, because the lectotypes of both C. vulpinus and C. ferrugineus are white inside, and he selected the former as the name for the species. However, Hwass himself stated in his diagnosis of C. vulpinus intus violacea, and we cannot exclude, that the lectotype lost its violet blotch by fading. RKK therefore provisionally assign C. vulpinus to C. planorbis.
C. chenui refers to a colour form of C. ferrugineus with spiral rows of dark axial markings replacing the brown spiral bands on the last whorl. Originally described from New Caledonia, it is also known from Philippines, co- occurring and intergrading with the typical form in both regions.
C. sophiae is based on a variant with granulose spiral ribs to the shoulder.

 

 

Conus  ferrugineus f. chenui  Crosse, 1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 6,  p. 381, pl. xi.,  f. 3-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.1 x 26.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus ferrugineus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-ferrugineus chenui forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Philippines.
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on sand, often under coral or on sand with algae.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. ferrugineus
C. f. chenui spiral rows of dark brown axial markings New Caledonia/Philippines
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus ferrugineus f.  sophiae Brazier, 1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1,  p. 7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bannietta Isle, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, (reef).
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 22.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ferrugineus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-ferrugineus sophiae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on sand, often under coral or on sand with algae.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. ferrugineus
C. f. sophiae granulose spiral ribs to shoulder

 

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Conus  fiadeiroi  Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link
: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 2, p. 12-13, Pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Porto de Derrubado, North Coast of Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde Archipelago
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26,6 x15.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-fiadeiroi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-In crevices and under stones
Description:-
Shell solid, with a ventricosely conical profile and with a low spire. Shoulder angulate. Last whorl outline slightly convex. Spire

profile concave. Sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with fine cords. Protoconch is paucispiral, as in all the members of Africonus.

Ground color dark brown over most of shell surface, with a light irregular band usually present at 1/3 of the base, and another

band formed by isolated white blotches below the shoulder. Spire darker brown with alternating white blotches. The brownpatterned

parts of the shell often display fine darker brown spiral lines, sometimes partially replaced by fine axial hairlines. These

fine lines give the impression of a coarse web pattern in some specimens, being more finely reticulated in others. Aperture is

white with a light purplish shade. Periostracum is thin and smooth with a light brown color..
Discussion:- DNA analysis support the status of valid species.

 

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Conus  figulinus  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1 p. 715
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65 x 42 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-figulinus
Synonyms:-
buxeus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean: Natal to India and Indonesia (absent from the Red Sea); Pacific: Japan to the Philippines and Queensland to Fiji
Habitat:-Intertidal and uppermost subtidal; in semi- sheltered or protected sites, living on fine to very fine sand of flats, often among vegetation.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical or slightly pyriform; outline convex adapically, straight or slightly concave towards base; left side consistently sigmoid. Shoulder rounded. Spire usually low, outline variably sigmoid or concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with many spiral striae. Last whorl with variably pronounced and spaced spiral grooves on basal third, separating ribs and ribbons.
Ground colour varies from yellowish or orangish cream through reddish to greyish or blackish brown. Last whorl with variably spaced, solid or occasionally dashed or dotted spiral lines of brown or black; lines usually absent from a narrow band below shoulder edge; subshoulder band may contrast in colour from adjacent area of last whorl, ranging from yellow to dark reddish brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps orange-brown to blackish brown, darker than last whorl; occasionally with variably broad, irregularly set radial streaks. Aperture white or bluish white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-135 mm
RW 0.30-1.50 g/mm
RD 0.52-0.74
PMD 0.74-0.84
RSH 0.05-0.13
Discussion:-C. figulinus is most closely related to C. betulinus and C. loroisii. C. betulinus attains larger size and has a broader last whorl; the spiral rows on its last whorl contain intermittent white markings and its sutural ramps bear dark radial blotches. Some specimens of C. figulinus from Natal, Mozambique and Madagascar have dashed or dotted lines without the intermittent white markings and with irregular dark streaks on the sutural ramps.

 

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Conus  fijiensis  Moolenbeek,  Röckel,  Bouchet, 2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Robert Moolenbeek

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 38
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South East of Vitu Levu, Fiji
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.8 x 6.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:-fijiensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji, Tonga
Habitat:-Found at depths of 150-600 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of medium to small size for the genus, thin, narrowly conical, slightly pyriform, spire slightly concave with slightly stepped whorls. Last whorl with 32 grooves, interrupted by broad incremental scars. Colour of last whorl white with two ill-defined brown bands, an irregular pattern of axially elongated brown blotches, and one fine, semicontinuous, brown line in the center of many groove interspaces; spire white with regular, radiating brown patches, 5 on last whorl, a little darker near shoulder. Aperture white. The colour pattern shows little variation among the material examined.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  fijisulcatus   Moolenbeek,  Röckel,  Bouchet,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Robert Moolenbeek

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 43-46
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Natewa Bay, Vanua Levu, Fiji
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 54.9 x 25.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:- Asprella Species:-fijisulcatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji
Habitat:-Found at depths of 150-350 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell medium to large, broadly conical, moderately solid. Spire rather high and straight. Body whorl straight, slightly convex near the shoulder, with 3-4 repair scars. Upper part smooth other 3/4 with about 30 spiral grooves. In these grooves fine axial riblets. On the lower spiral ribs fine nodules. Colour brown with a few white spirals most pronounced at middle. Some adult specimens are more uniformly brown; however, all have a white band on the shoulder and a white base. The sculpture of spiral grooves is variable; most juveniles have more pronounced spiral grooves and more nodules on the spiral ribs. Base white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  filamentosus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  Suppl. pl. vi,  sp. 260
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Designated Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.5 x 13.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  spectrum Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-spectrum filamentosus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines and Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m, mainly on sand
Description:-Source Filmer review 2011
C. filamentosus is a small shell. The color of the spire is cream to white with largish yellowish to very pale orange blotches. The shoulder is angulate. The body whorl is slightly convex below the shoulder then almost straight until it becomes very vaguely concave towards the base. The body whorl is shiny with numerous spiral grooves from base to shoulder. The ground color is cream to white with variable yellowish to very pale orange blotches which tend to form two or three vague bands. The interior of the aperture is pure white.
Discussion:
C. filamentosus differs only marginally from C. conspersus it is smaller straighter sided, more slender and contains stronger more extensive spiral grooves suggesting it is a sub-adult form. It is therefore considered a synonym (sub-adult form) of C. conspersus.

 

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Conus  filicinctus  Schepman,  1913

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Naturalis Leiden Bill Fenzan

Published in: Prosobr. Siboga Exp.,  pt. 5. Toxoglossa mo,  p. 384. pl. 25, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madura Bay
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.5 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of  Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-

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Conus  filmeri  Röckel  &  Rolán,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Argonauta xiii, No. 2,  p. 35, f. 77-80
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Saco Mar. S. Angola
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.1 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-filmeri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-In calm water at two meters depth under rocks, buried in fine sand.
Description:-Source Original description
Small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical, large specimens pyriform. Outline convex at ad apical third, almost straight or slightly concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulated. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to straight in smaller specimens, concave in larger specimens. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with numerous spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with light spiral grooves at base.
Colour pure white bigger shells but juvenile specimens can have a brown line in the suture and some very slight cream colour in some parts of the last whorl. Periostracum greyish brown, thick and opaque
Shell morphometry:
L 23-33 mm
RD 0.68-0.72
RSH 0.09-0.14
PMD 0.74-0.80
RW 0.18g/mm (larger shells)
Discussion:-The most similar shell is the holotype of Conus dealbatus A. Adams, 1853 (Fig. 81), preserved in the NHMUK. It is like Conus filmeri, pure white and has a pyriform shape. But it can be distinguished by its narrower last whorl (RD 0.61 vs. 0.68-0.72) and its deep spiral grooves at base. In addition, specimens of Conus filmeri of similar small size (L about 24.5 mm) are less pyriform and more ventricosely conical. The holotype of Conus dealbatus seems to be a fossil or subfossil shell. Other endemic Conus species from Angola differ obviously in their pattern and shape (rounded shoulder, less pyriform).

 

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Conus  finkli  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 111,  pl. 25,  f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Gulf of Venezuela, off Punto Fijo, Falcon, Venezuela; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym form of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus finkli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Colombia, Venezuela
Habitat:-Found at depths around 35 m.
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell elongated, slightly turnip- shaped in outline; spire elevated, slightly concave on sides; body whorl ornamented with 25 evenly-spaced raised cords; cords on anterior canal with fine threads in- between; spire whorls ornamented with one large spiral cord, medially placed; color pure white with only one band of widely-spaced, reddish- brown crescent-shaped flammules around mid-body; spire whorls with widely-scattered, large, reddish-brown flammules; interior of aperture white; periostracum thick, dark brown,with rows of small hairs and with rows of large tufts around shoulder.
Discussion:-
Conus finkli is an almost white shell shell. As far as is known, C. finkli is confined to the Gulf of Venezuela, in upwelling areas of cold water.
Diaz (1990) considers C. finkli a synonym of C. austini, but finkli always has flammules on the spire, pinkish early whorls, and doesn't develop axial sculpture as strongly

 

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Conus  fischoederi  Röckel  & da Motta, 1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Bull. Inst. Malacol. Tokyo. 1,  no. 8,  p. 117,  pl. 40,  f. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Coron, Palawan, Philippines; 100 ft.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.7 x 16.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-fischoederi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines (Palawan, Sulu Sea)

Habitat:-Reported from about 30 m; living on coral rubble and patches of sand.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so or straight below; left side sigmoid. Shoulder subangulate. Spire of moderate height, outline slightly concave or slightly sigmoid. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 2 increasing to 4 spiral grooves; additional spiral striae on latest ramps. Last whorl with spiral ribs toward base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with medium-sized to large, orange to brown axial blotches, usually connected to an irregular meshwork that often outlines triangular white areas or tents. Shells with reduced reticular pattern intergrade with shells having last whorl overlaid with brown except for white blotches at centre and below shoulder. Dotted to solid orange to brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder but are often reduced. Postnuclear sutural ramps with radial blotches of orange to dark brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-49 mm
RW 0.10-0.22 g/mm
RD 0.54-0.62
PMD 0.77-0.85
RSH 0.11-0.17
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  flamingo  Petuch, 1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 93,  (2),  p. 299,  f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Dania, Broward Co., Florida; 47,5 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19 x 5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus flavescens Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-flavescens flamingo forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-East Florida
Habitat:-Found at depths 50-120 m
Description:-Source Original description
15-20 mm adult shell length, elongate with elevated spire; shoulder smooth with sharply raised edge; body whorl smooth, silky, with faintly raised cords near anterior end; spire whorls smooth; color bright cherry red to reddish-orange with varying amounts of white patterning- ranging from scattered, crescent-shaped white patches around mid-body (as in holotype) to large white zig-zags running entire length of shell; spire red with regularly-spaced white patches that extend over shoulder angle onto body whorl; interior of aperture red; protoconch very large, protracted, mamillate; periostracum thin, yellowish, translucent.
Discussion:-Remarks.-Only two other Florida cones could possibly be confused with Conus flamingo; these are C. amphiurgus and C. flavescens Sowerby, 1834. Young specimens of C. amphiurgus, though often bright red like C. flamingo, always have rows of dark-colored dots around the body whorl, a character totally lacking in the new species at any age. Conus amphiurgus has a wider shoulder, lacks the mamillate protoconch of C. flamingo, and has a larger adult shell length (ay. 50 mm). Conus flavescens has a mammillate protoconch like the new species ,but the protoconch is larger and more exerted. The coloring of C. flavescens is always in shades of yellow, pale brown, pale orange, or white, and often with a pattern of brown dots, dashes, and flammules. This type of color pattern is quite different from the solid bright red color and white crescents and zig-zags of C. flamingo. The colors of the living animals also help in separating the 3 species: Conus flavescens has a white animal, C. amphiurgus a bright orange-red animal, and C. flamingo an amber-colored animal.
Tucker is unsure whether flamingo is synonym of flavescens.
The question remains are Gradiconus flamingo and G. flavescens conspecific. I must admit that I probably erred in equating the two. However, that does not mean that I can distinguish them. The best way seems to be the anterior end coloration. In G. flamingo, the anterior end is brown colored. This coloration is usually darker than the coloration at midbody. In G. flavescens, the anterior end is colored the same shade as the body markings and often is mostly white.

 

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Conus  flammeacolor   Petuch,  1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxiii, no. 264,  p. 38,  f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: South of the Cayos Vivorillo, Honduras; 20 m
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-flammeacolor
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Tropical W Atlantic, Honduras
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20 -55 m
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell small for genus, relatively slender, tapering toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled, subcarinated; spire proportionally low, with early whorls projecting; aperture narrow; body whorl polished. shiny, ornamented with 15 spiral rows of tiny, very shallow pits; anterior tip of shell
encircled by numerous coarse spiral cords; spire whorls smooth; color uniformly bright red-orange with narrow band of alternating brown and white flammules encircling midbody; orange-red body whorl color overlaid with 15 spiral rows of tiny brown dots, with each dot corresponding to a shallow pit; spire whorls white with evenly -spaced dark brown flammules; edges of brown spire flammules extend onto shoulder carina; protoconch and early whorls pale yellow; interior of aperture pale orange; periostracum unknown.
Discussion:-Of the known Caribbean cones, the new species most closely resembles Conus brunneofilaris Petuch, 1990 , from the Caribbean coast of Panama. Conus flammeacolor differs from its Panamian congener in having a stockier shell with a lower spire, in having a bright orange-red shell color instead of golden-yellow, in having fewer and finer revolving lines of brown dots, and in having the finely -pitted shell surface.
The posterior edge of the lip of the holotype bears five small, elongated pustules, indicating that the shells of some individuals may be completely pustulated; Conus brunneofilaris and C. flammeacolor, together, appear to represent a previously-unknown species complex of tiny coral rubble-dwelling cones that is restricted to the eastern coast of Central America; the myriad of unexplored island groups and coral Banks off eastern Honduras and Nicaragua may house other members of this new complex.
Tucker assigns to a Magellanicus complex.

 

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Conus  flavescens  Sowerby ii,  1834

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 55, f. 68
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Bahamas
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-flavescens
Synonyms:-
caribbaeus Clench, 1942; flamingo Petuch, 1980; paraguana Petuch, 1987
Geographic Range:-Florida, USA - Greater Antilles; Bahamas
Habitat:-Found at depths up to 20 m
Description:-Source Vink.
A slender shell, rarely exceeding 25 mm. in length, although specimens of more than 30 mm. exist. Sides of the body whorl slightly convex with a rather broad base, spire moderate and rather straight-sided with mamillate protoconch. Shoulder angulate, body whorl smooth except for 10 to 12 incised lines near the base. Tops of whorls without distinct spiral threads. Nucleus: 2 whorls; early whorls with rough sutures that sometimes may appear nodulous. Operculum longish and small, about 1/6 of aperture height, periostracum thin and yellowish. Colour pattern rather variable with most patterns found in any population. Specimens from the Bahamas are lighter in colour. Typical C. flavescens is pale brownish yellow or reddish brown with irregular white spots mostly around mid-body and around the base of the spire, but sometimes also covering the whole body whorl. The spots are irregular, and in the words of Reeve have 'the appearance of spaces casually left in the deposit of the pale yellow colour'. The white spots around mid-body may also form a complete band and some shells are completely uniform white, yellowish or pinkish. There are also specimens with spiral rows of dark brown dashes on a background which can be uniform white or white with axial brown maculations.
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  flavescens f. caribbaeus  Clench, 1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1, p. 23, pl. 11,  f. 4 & 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Palm Beach Co., Florida
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus flavescens Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-flavescens caribbaeus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida, Bahamas
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
C. caribbaeus is considered an albino colour form.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus flavidus  Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  Tahiti

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 265
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Guinee, (West Africa), (erroneous), corrected (Wils) New Guinea
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 63 x 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-flavidus
Synonyms:-
peasei Brazier, 1877; erythraeozonatus Barros e Cunha, 1933
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-On intertidal benches and more frequently on shallow subtidal reef flats to about 20 m; ranging from inshore habitats to the reef rim and inhabiting small sand-filled depressions, reef limestone or beachrock with or seldom without algal turf, coral rubble with or without sand, and dead coral heads or rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, sometimes slightly ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical fourth or third and almost straight below, often slightly concave centrally in large specimens. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire usually low, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave; later ramps with numerous spiral striae, with 3-6 spiral grooves, or with intermediate sculpture. Last whorl with distinct to obsolete, well-separate spiral ribs basally, sometimes granulose; these ribs weaker adapically, and any extending above centre are absolete and not granulose.
Colour light yellowish to orange or pinkish brown, occasionally brownish green. Last whorl with a pale or white spiral band at or closely below centre and at shoulder; shoulder band sometimes and central band seldom absent. Base purplish blue. Larval whorls change colour from white to purple during metamorphosis (Perron, 1981a). Postnuclear sutural ramps vary from white to colour of last whorl. Aperture violet to purplish blue, with pale bands near centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-75 mm
RW 0.25-1.00 g/mm
(L 35-65 mm)
RD 0.58-0.73
PMD 0.83-0.92
RSH 0.01-0.13
Discussion:-C. flavidus is often very difficult to distinguish from C. frigidus.
C. flavidus attains larger size than C.  frigidus, has a generally more conical, less convex-sided and smoother last whorl with spiral ribs usually only on the basal half, a lower spire (RSH 0.01-0.13) and a weaker spiral sculpture on its sutural ramps; its last whorl is typically yellow to orange brown and infrequently olive green; pale spiral bands are more often pronounced in C. flavidus.

 

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Conus  flavus  Röckel, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZSM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spixiana viii,  p. 166,  f. 1a,  2a,  3b,  5a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Batangas Bay, Luzon, Philippines; 10 m
Type Data: Holotype in ZSM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.1 x 24.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-flavus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is. and Fiji
Habitat:-In 10-30 m, on sand and mud bottoms.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, sometimes ovate; outline convex at adapical third, less so or straight below, often with a straighter right side. Siphonal fasciole prominent and siphonal notch often slightly curved to dorsal side. Shoulder subangulate or rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline concave to sigmoid. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter 0.8-1.0 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 2-6 spiral grooves; additional spiral striae on last 2 ramps. Last whorl with closely and widely spaced, narrow and wide spiral grooves on a varying portion of basal half; grooves separating ribs and ribbons in irregular sequence, with the former predominantly occurring basally and the latter adapically.
Ground colour white to cream. Last whorl with light yellow to tan spiral and axial zones, blending with adjacent ground-colour areas and sometimes covering a large portion of last whorl; occasionally 3 spiral colour bands, located below shoulder and on each side of centre. Irregularly arranged dark brown spots, flecks and flammules of varying numbers are often seen in Philippines shells and rarely in shells from Papua New Guinea. Variant from Palawan, Philippines with 3 tan spiral bands on last whorl, crossed by long interrupted or continuous dark brown axial streaks or flames extending from shoulder ramp to base or nearly so. Base light yellow to tan except for nearly white shells from Papua New Guinea. Larval whorls white to pale brown; adjacent sutural ramps solid brown. Later sutural ramps pale grey, often tinged with yellowish tan, with sparse and faint to many pronounced brown radial markings. Aperture yellow to orange behind a lighter marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-70 mm
(50-78 mm mm (Palawan variant))
RW 0.16-0.40 g/mm
(L 45-61 mm; 0.18-0.40 g/mm (Palawan variant))
RD 0.52-0.60
(0.49-0.52 mm (Palawan variant))
PMD 0.72-0.85
RSH 0.11-0.17
Discussion:-C. flavus was referred to by Petuch (1974) as a light color variety of C. pilkeyi. Sympatric C. ochroleucus often differs from C. flavus in having a narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.54) with a straighter outline. C. ochroleucus lacks most often dark brown axial markings on the last whorl of adult specimens, while C. flavus lacks marginal spots on the middle sutural ramps. C. o. ochroleucus can also be distinguished by its angulate shoulder, and by shape and armature of its radular teeth. C. o. tmetus differs additionally in its mostly dark last whorl with a contrasting light base. In spite of a narrower last whorl, somewhat lighter weight, weaker sculpture on the last whorl and a pronounced axially lineate pattern, the variant from Palawan shares all other characters with C. flavus from other Philippine localities. RKK thus assign these shells to this species.

 

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Conus  flavusalbus  Röckel  &  Rolán, 2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Argonauta xiii,  No. 2 p. 38,  figs. 92-96
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia das Pipas, Angola.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.7 x 14.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-flavusalbus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Under rocks 2-3 m
Description:-Source Original description
Small to medium sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical third, slightly pyriform below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline convex. Postnuclear whorls eroded, sutural ramps slightly convex, without sculpture. Last
whorl smooth, slightly glossy in smaller, duller in larger specimens, with some weak spiral grooves basally.
Ground color white; last whorl light orange-brown, leaving a white base and shoulder. The coloured part of last whorl may be reduced to irregular flecks or interrupted by white spiral bands. Aperture white. Periostracum brown, smooth, transparent
Shell morphometry:
L 18-24 mm
RD 0.66-0.72
RSH 0.04-0.15
PMD 0.73-0.80
RW 0.08-0.32 g/mm
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  fletcheri   Petuch & Mendenhall,  1972

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CAS Mike Filmer

Published in: Veliger 15,  p. 96, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Southwest of Penghu Is. Group, Taiwan, Republic of China; 90 m
Type Data: Holotype in CAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 105 x 44 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus pergrandis Iredale, 1937
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-

 

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Conus  flindersi  Brazier, 1898

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 22, p. 780
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Flinders Is.
Type Data: Holotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name flindersi

 

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Conus  floccatus   Sowerby,  1841

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Sowerby (1833-1841,  pt. 153/154, fig. 112)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 153-4,  large list,  no. 112
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Luzon Philippines in Thes. Conch 3
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Sowerby (1833-1841,  pt. 153/154, fig. 112)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-floccatus
Synonyms:-
magdalenae Kiener, 1845; circumsignatus Crosse, 1865
Geographic Range:-Indonesia and Philippines to Marshall Is.; Solomon Is., Queensland, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and Samoa.
Habitat:-In 1-80 m; from lagoon pinnacles to the outer side of barrier reefs, living in sand pockets and caves, beneath rocks and on diverse reef substrate; in W. Samoa, in surf-zone under stones.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large or large (New Caledonia), moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conoid-cylindrical, conical, ventricosely conical, ovate or cylindrical; outline varies from almost evenly convex to straight except for convex adapical fourth. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to angulate, usually angulate in New Caledonian shells. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave, straight, sigmoid or variably domed. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate but usually eroded. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with a prominent subsutural ridge and 2 increasing to 5 weak spiral grooves, often obsolete or replaced by numerous spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with closely to widely spaced, prominent to weak spiral ribs on basal third.
Ground colour white, suffused or clouded with pale pink, grey, blue, violet, or yellow. Last whorl with sparse to numerous brown blotches, flecks, spots, flames, axial streaks and axial lines, usually concentrated or fusing into 2 spiral bands above and below centre; shells with varied markings of all sorts intergrade with shells with sparse markings of only one type. Spiral rows of alternating white and brown dots, dashes and spots extend from base to shoulder but vary considerably; spiral rows sometimes lack white markings and are sometimes absent. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with separate to fused, pale to dark brown radial blotches, streaks and lines often producing dark dots at outer margins. Aperture white or yellow deep within
Shell Morphometry
L 45-86 mm
RW 0.20-0.75 g/mm
(L 45-80 mm)
RD 0.48-0.61
PMD 0.72-0.86
RSH 0.07-0.15
Discussion:-Specimens of C. floccatus with a colour pattern dominated by dark axial lines recall C. julii, but their last whorls are heavily clouded with various shades of violet and have prominent spiral rows of dark and white markings. Some shells of C. floccatus resemble C. circumcisus. The latter species attains larger size (L 55-100 mm), its pattern has prominent spiral bands of varying number but no dark axial lines on the last whorl, and its aperture lacks yellow colour.
C. magdalenae refers to the yellow colour form of C. floccatus, and C. circumsignatus seems to be based on a subadult shell of the same shape and similar colour with prominent dark blotches and spiral rows on its last whorl.

 

 

Conus floccatus  f.  magdalenae   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p. 293, pl. 69,  f. 4

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 54 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus floccatus Sowerby, 1841
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-floccatus magdalenae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-In 1-80 m; from lagoon pinnacles to the outer side of barrier reefs, living in sand pockets and caves, beneath rocks and on diverse reef substrate
Description:-
C. magdalenae refers to the yellow colour form of C. floccatus, and C. circumsignatus seems to be based on a subadult shell of the same shape and similar colour with prominent dark blotches and spiral rows on its last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  floridanus  Gabb, 1869

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ANSP Mike Filmer

Published in: Amer. Jour. Conch. iv, p. 195,  pl. xv.,  f. 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Tampa Bay, Florida.
Type Data: Holotype in ANSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.5 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name floridanus

 

 

Conus  floridensis  Sowerby iii, 1870

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Alan Kohn

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870,  p. 256,  pl. 22,  f. 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Florida
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anabathrum anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum floridensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E., W. Florida, South Carolina
Habitat:-Found from 5 m to 35 m
Description:-Source Vink   C. anabathrum
In a colour form found in nearly all populations of C. anabathrum, but mostly seen in larger deep-water specimens, the spiral rows of dashes and the markings on the spire are dark reddish brown distinctly contrasting with the background of more orange brown bands. This form was described as C. floridensis by Sowerby.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  floridulus  A. Adams  & Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Zool. Voy. Samarang. Moll.,  pt. 1,  p. 18,  pl. 5,  f. 9 a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-floridulus
Synonyms:
-
tenuis Sowerby ii, 1857
Geographic Range:-Reunion and Maldives to New Caledonia and to Japan
Habitat:-In 9-80 m; reported to be dredged to 240 m in the Philippines. In Papua New Guinea, in muddy sand or on living coral in 9-80 m; in New Caledonia, on coarse sand or coral rubble and algae in 25-80 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl conical to slightly pyriform; outline variably convex adapically and straight to slightly concave below. Shoulder angulate, undulate to tuberculate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave to slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of 3.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Early postnuclear spire whorls smoothly edged; late whorls undulate to tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with arcuate radial threads and 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, granulose spiral ribs, restricted to basal area or extending to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl encircled with 2 variably wide, tan to orangish brown bands, on each side of centre. Populations may include intensely banded and largely white shells. Adapical band often overlaid with or divided by spirally or axially aligned dots. Base, siphonal fasciole and basal part of columella light violet. Larval whorls orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with tan radial markings matching pattern of last whorl in colour. Aperture light violet at base, translucent white above.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-59 mm
RW 0.12-0.20 g/mm
(L 30-44 mm)
RD 0.59-0.70
PMD 0.84-0.94
RSH 0.15-0.22
Discussion:-The typical form of C. muriculatus closely resembles C. floridulus in shell characters and colour pattern of the animal. The latter can be distinguished by its larger size, lighter spiral colour bands, and light violet size, in contrast to the dark bluish or brownish violet base of C. muriculatus.

 

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Conus  floridus  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype 1 77 x 39 mm Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 47, Frontispiece, f. 558
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 77 x 39 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus striatus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-striatus floridus forma
Synonyms:-
chusaki da Motta, 1978
Geographic Range:-W. Thailand and Andaman Is.
Habitat:-From 1-50 m, usually in sand on coral reef, often beneath rocks and dead coral slabs.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. striatus
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy; forms floridus and subfloridus usually moderately large and solid. In form floridus, last whorl usually ovate.

Form floridus with white ground colour. Last whorl clouded or spirally banded with shades of pink, orange, brown, or violet. Spirally aligned brown markings occur on each side of centre, are less prominent below shoulder, and vary in number, size and shape; maculation generally sparser than in typical form. Brown spiral lines extending from siphonal fasciole to shoulder, more prominent within background clouds and bands, coarse and very dark within brown markings; spiral lines sometimes partially restricted to these markings but even in otherwise immaculate shells traceable within some ground-colour zones. Form floridus with dotted and dashed lines on white ground. Larval whorls and about first postnuclear sutural ramp orange; in Hawaii, larval whorls pale pink before metamorphosis (Perron, 1981a). Aperture white to bluish white, occasionally cream deep within; in form floridus, orange deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L form floridus 57-129 mm)
RW 0.24-1.10 g/mm
(- form floridus 0.30-0.60g/mm (L57-76 mm
RD 0.47-0.62
(- form floridus 0.52- 0.59)
PMD 0.70-0.82
(- form floridus 0.69-0.76)
RSH 0.00-0.14
(- form floridus 0.09-0.15)
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  fluviamaris  Petuch & Sargent, 2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 44
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Delray Beach, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.2  x 8.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According To Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus  mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus fluviamaris forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Florida
Habitat:-Found at 10 m on sand
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, subcylindrical, with straight sides; spire elevated, low pyramidal, with slightly stepped whorls. Body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 8-10 deeply-incised spiral grooves around anterior one-half of shell (holotype with 8 grooves ); posterior one-half ornamented with 6- 7 faintly-incised, almost obsolete spiral grooves; faint posterior grooves more prominent on juvenile specimens, almost disappearing on mature specimens; anterior tip with 5-6 small spiral cords; color variable, from pure white, to uniform pale pink, to intense pink with large amorphous dark pink flarnrnules (as in holotype ).
Shoulder sharply-angled, edged with large, sharp, smooth raised carina; subsutural area depressed and canaliculate due to strong carina. Spire whorls stepped, moderately scalariform, distinctly canaliculate; spire height variable, from low and subpyramidal to high and elevated; color varying from uniform white to pink (as in holotype ); protoconch proportionally large, rounded, mamillate, composed of 2 whorls, white or pink in color. Aperture proportionally wide, becoming wider and more flaring at anterior end; interior color varying from white to bright pink (as in holotype).
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  fonsecai  Petuch & Berschauer, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP David Berschauer

 

Published in: The Festivus Vol. 48, Issue 4; P. 259 – 260; Fig. 2 E - H
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality:
off Camocim, Ceara State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size :16.6 x 8.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid Species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-fonsecai
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
The new species is known only from the areas offshore of Camocim, Ceara State, Brazil, but may also occur on the offshore Canopus Banks
Habitat:-
Taken in crab traps, from 20 m depth on coralline algal nodule (rhodolith) sea Floor

Description:-Source: Original description
Shell of average size for genus, stocky, truncated, with inflated body whorl; shoulder sharply angled, subcarinate; spire

elevated, subpyramidal, with scalariform stepped whorls; body whorl smooth and shiny, sculptured with 8-10 thin, low spiral threads

around anterior end; body whorl color white or pale pinkish-white, overlaid with numerous large, amorphous angular brown or reddishbrown flammules, arranged in zebra or zig-zag pattern; zebra flammules interrupted by white mid-body band, which bisects them into two

sections; zebra flammules are not solidlycolored, but are composed of darker tan or orange-colored, extremely fine, closely-packed longitudinal lines superimposed upon paler tan or orange base color; spire whorls white, marked with widely-spaced dark orange-brown crescent-shaped flammules; edge of spire flammules intersect with zig-zag flammules of body whorl; early whorls orange; protoconch proportionally large, domed, orange in color, composed of 2 whorls; aperture narrow, white within interior.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  fontonae  Rolán  &  Trovăo  in  Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rólan

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 28,  pl. 1, f. 10;  pl. 2,  f. 10;  pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Fontona, Isla de Sal, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.7 x 11.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-fontonae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found on rocky bottom with some sand, at shallow depth
Description:-Source Original description Iberus
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension of the copies studied is between 15 and 23 mm. The largest specimen reaches 31 mm. Its silhouette is conical, with little high spire, not stepped and with spiral grooves. The color of the spire is uniform, without spots, and normally plain, but with a tendency to have dark in the zone next to the suture. The coloring of the seashell is yellow, siena, greenish or brown, with intermediate tones that combine in the form of spiral bands; almost always the base is dark (a little less toward its extreme) and having very frequently a dark band under the shoulder. Variability of color is great, although the color is constant in each of the spiral bands. Opening bluish white in its interior, but where the whorl is not very wide, appears somewhat dark with two clear bands. Columella variable with tones that go from white to light violet. Periostracum yellow, quite transparent, matt and rough.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

 

Conus  fortdauphinensis  Bozzetti, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Types, L. Bozzetti
Picture Link: Types, L. Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 88, p. 14 & 15
Ocean geography: Indo Pacific
Type Locality: Tolagnaro, South Eastern Madagascar, only known from the type locality
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN Paris, deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.8 x 22.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A form within the pennaceus complex
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:- fortdauphinensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-Found crabbed intertidally
Description:-Source Original description
Profile ventricosely conical, spire of moderate height with a straight outline, shoulder subangulate, body whorl uniformly convex on right side of apertural view, very slightly concave at the base and convex above on left side. Protoconch constituted of 1 flat embryonic whorl followed by 2 others; teleoconch of 5 – 6 whorls, with straight or very slightly convex the first three ones, moderately concave the last ones. Sutural ramps covered by numerous thin spiral striae and thick radial growth lines. Aperture narrow at the posterior end, gently expanding in abapical direction, body whorlwalls covered by thick and thin axial growth lines and spiral striae, the spirals becoming stronger in the basal area. Body whorl from light brown to brown stained, a darker spiral band with variable intensity and height under the shoulder, a second similar band on the central area present in paratype 2. Body whorl ramps covered by spiral bands of alternate dark brown and whitish dots, subsutural ramps light brown stained, covered by fit opistocryt, radial flammulae darker coloured. Rare sporadic irregular blotches, whitish with a bluish nuance present on the body whorl walls and on the spire. Protoconch light brown, inside of aperture whitish or light bluish.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  foscaclaudiae  Assi,  2010  (Only listed for reference; nomen nudum!)

 

No pictures available

 

Published in: Malacologia 67,  14
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Senegal to Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued; the type specimen seems not be here!
Type Size: 49.22 x 29.28 mm
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as a form post 1960. We deal with a specimen of Conus genuanus.
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

----------

 

Conus  fosteri  Clench  & Aguayo, 1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 34,  pl. 12,  f. 5
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Sagua la Grande, Santa Clara prov., Cuba (23deg 10' N. 79deg 35' W); '260 fm. (470 m).
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 61.5 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus villepinii Fischer & Bernardi, 1857
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-villepinii fosteri subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cuba, Colombia
Habitat:-Found in deep water at 400-500 m
Description:-Source Vink   C. villepini
A light shell, 40 to 70 mm. (rarely up to 90 mm), with the sides of the body whorl rather straight, tapering to a narrow base where the aperture slightly flares out. The aperture forms a fairly deep sinus at its upper end. Spire rather straight-sided but suddenly more concave near the apex, where the early whorls form a cone with a sharp angle. Shoulder sharply angled, body whorl with weak, straight spiral ridges near the base, sometimes continuing to the shoulder (ridges more pronounced in Brazilian specimens). Nucleus elevated: 3 whorls; first 4 to 6 post nuclear whorls distinctly nodulose, with sides as large as or even larger than the tops. Tops of the spire whorls slightly concave with about 4 to 6 spiral ridges. Colour white to cream with two spiral bands of reddish brown maculations or axial flammules, often extended to the shoulder or base. Spire with curved reddish brown blotches.
C. villepinii fosteri differs from typical C. villepinii in having a much lower spire. The aperture flares out somewhat more near the base.
Discussion:-Tucker indicates that he believes the spire height to be an untested difference from the typical specimens.

 

----------

 

Conus  fragilissimus  Petuch, 1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype 1: 34 x 15 mm Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nemouria. no. 23, p. 14, f. 22-25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off coast Harmil Is., Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea Province, Ethiopia; 3m.
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Gastridium Species:-fragilissimus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Ethiopia; C & S Red Sea
Habitat:-In 2-5 m, in mud or coral rubble on coral reefs
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl ovate, outline convex; left side slightly concave at basal third. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate, tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 1.75 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1 mm. Post nuclear whorls tuberculate, tubercles weak in early whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 4-6 weak or pronounced spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few weak, widely spaced spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to grey. Last whorl with a fine, incomplete, light brown to dark reddish brown reticulate pattern fusing in variously sized and shaped blotches that leave an interrupted spiral ground-colour band at centre. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes, often alternating with white dots and dashes, extend from base to shoulder but may be weak. Larval whorls and adjacent 2 postnuclear sutural ramps dark brown. Following sutural ramps with dark brown radial streaks and blotches. Aperture translucent, shaded with violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 26-47 mm
RW 0.02-0.09 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.55
PMD 0.64-0.74
RSH 0.08-0.14
Discussion:-C. fragilissimus may only be confused with subadult C. geographus. Similarly sized specimens of the latter species differ in their red multi spiral larval shells, narrower and cylindrical rather than ovate last whorls (RD 0.45-0.51), and in the straighter outline of the irspires. Spiral rows of alternating brown and white markings on the last whorl are usually prominent in C. fragilissimus but absent in C. geographus. C. eldredi can be distinguished from C .fragilissimus by its pink ground colour , white apex, generally narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.52), and its straight to slightly convex spire outline. C. eldredi lacks spiral rows of alternating brown and white markings, while C. fragilissimus has no punctate spiral grooves on the last whorl. somewhat concave, with 1 increasing to 4-9 spiral grooves; latest whorls usually with additional spiral striae, first 3 whorls with a prominent subsutural ridge. Last whorl with a few weak, variably spaced spiral ribs at base.

 

----------

 

Conus  franciscoi   Röckel  &  Rolán,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Argonauta 13,  No. 2,  p. 36,  figs. 82-86
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Chapeu Armado, S. Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.4 x 15.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-franciscoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sao Nicolau, Chapeu Armado, Angola
Habitat:-Buried in sand between stones; juveniles in the high tidal level.
Description:-Source Original description.
Shell description: Moderately small to medium sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline convex at adapical third, almost straight below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly convex to sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth, with some weak spiral grooves at base. Shell dark brown, leaving a broad central spiral band consisting of broad white axial streaks and bars. Periostracum translucent and of orange colour.
Shell morphometry:
L 30-38 mm
RD 0.65-0.70
RSH 0.10-0.16
PMD 0.75-0.81
RW 0.20-0.25 g/mm
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  frauenfeldi   Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paralectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. Xiii,  p. 307,  pl. x, f. 1, 1a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar (erroneus), corrected to Padang, South West Sumatra, East Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.2 x 23.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus frauenfeldi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia.
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
C .frauenfeldi: In small specimens, last whorl conical to ventricosely conical. Pattern consists of blackish-brown axial flames and dotted or dashed spiral lines; spiral lines sometimes sparse, often with intermittent white dots and dashes. In E. Sumatra shells almost matching the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi occur and also intergrade with typical C. magus. They differ from the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi in an orange to brown instead of white to pink apex; however this difference is in the range of variability of C. magus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  frausseni   Tenorio  & Poppe,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1(1),  p. 20
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, Phillipines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-frausseni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Aliguay Is, Philippines
Habitat:-Specimens were dredged from a depth in between 80 and 200 m. Most of the dredgings were done at l00m.
Description:-Source original description Visaya
Medium-sized shell. The profile is conical or ventricosely conical, with a moderate spire and a rounded shoulder. Outline of the last whorl straight or sigmoid, slightly pyriform. Outline of the spire rather sigmoid, with a prominent protoconch. Last whorl with a satin gloss, with closely spaced fine spiral ribs present in the basal third, becoming less evident towards the upper part of the last whorl, where they can be eventually absent. The aperture is rather narrow but wider towards the base.
The colour of the aperture is orange in the holotype and cream-white in the young. The small number of specimens available does not allow to make a safe discussion on intraspecific variability.
Discussion:- C . ikedai Ninomiya, 1987 is the most closely related species. It differs from C. frausseni by its white protoconch, higher spire, much rounder shoulder, smaller size, less tuberculate teleoconch and different colouration.

 

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Conus  friedae  da Motta,  1991

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii, no. 258,  p. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Dutch Bay Point, northwest of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50.7 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-nobilis friedae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bay of Bengal; Indonesia
Habitat:-In 1 to 10 m; on sand bottom with Foraminifera, where water is clear and with slight currents
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. nobilis.
C. n. friedae from Sri Lanka rather fine network bordering white dots or tents that tend to be edged darker brown towards outer lip; brown pattern concentrates in three bands and often contains white dots alternating with dark brown dots and axial dashes;
Last whorl colour pattern is a rather fine brown network bordering white dots to medium-sized tents that tend to be edged with darker brown toward the outer lip. The brown pattern concentrates in 3 spiral bands, near centre and in their abapical and adapical thirds. The bands often contain spiral rows of white dots alternating with dark brown dots and axial dashes
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  frigidus  Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl., pl. iii, sp. 284
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-frigidus
Synonyms:-
maltzanianus Weinkauff, 1873
Geographic Range:-Tropical Central and W. Pacific except for Hawaii
Habitat:-On intertidal benches and shallow subtidal reef flats to about 5 m; inhabiting bare beachrock or limestone, beachrock and limestone pavement with a thin layer of sand or with algal turf, sand-filled depressions, coral rubble with or without sand, and dead coral heads or rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical; outline convex at adapical third to half, almost straight below. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate or nearly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps usually flat; later ramps with 2-4 increasing to 4-5 distinct spiral grooves and additional striae. Last whorl usually with variably spaced, generally granulose spiral ribs from base to centre or shoulder; surface seldom largely smooth.
Colour olive to sometimes orangish or pinkish brown. Last whorl usually with a paler spiral band at or closely below centre and sometimes a second one at shoulder. Base purplish blue. Larval shell purple. Aperture purple, with paler bands near centre and below shoulder, often grading to pale blue deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-56 mm
RW 0.18-0.40
(L 28-48)
RD 0.61-0.73
PMD 0.78-0.90
RSH 0.08-0.18
Discussion:-C. frigidus is similar to C. emaciatus and can sometimes hardly be distinguished from C. flavidus. C. emaciatus attains somewhat larger size, has a narrower, more conical and less convex-sided last whorl (RD 0.56-0.62; PMD 0.89-0.94), a generally lower spire (RSH 0.03-0.14) and a largely white aperture; the colouration of its last whorl lacks greenish brown tones. C. flavidus also attains larger size, has a generally more conical, less convex-sided and smoother last whorl with spiral ribs usually only on the basal half, a lower spire (RSH 0.01-0.13) and a weaker spiral sculpture on its sutural ramps; its last whorl is typically yellow to orange brown and infrequently olive green; pale spiral bands are more often pronounced in C. flavidus.

 

----------

 

Conus  frisbeyae  Clench & Pulley, 1952

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer

Published in: Tex. J. Sci. 4,  p. 59,  pl. A,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Campeche Banks, Yucatan, Mexico; ca. 23 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32.5 x 14.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus armiger Crosse, 1858
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name frisbeyae

 

----------

 

Conus  fulgetrum   Sowerby ii,  1834

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 56-7, f. 82
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus miliaris Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-miliaris fulgetrum forma
Synonyms:-
scaber Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Japan to Solomons
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. miliaris
Form fulgetrum differs from typical C. m. miliaris in the dark orange-brown colouration of its last whorl, with fine brown reticulate lines and narrow crosshatchings, small spots and axial zigzag flames of white. Spiral rows of brown and white dots or dashes are absent. Aperture grey to brown, edged with violet-brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  fulmen  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 39, sp. 215
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Capul Island, Philippines, (on reefs)
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 71.5 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-fulmen
Synonyms:-
modestus  Sowerby ii, 1833; kirai Kuroda, 1956; wistaria Shikama, 1970; leobottonii Lorenz, 2006
Geographic Range:-S.  Japan - Ryukyus, Japan; Vietnam
Habitat:-In 10-100 mm; typical form to 30 m, form kirai in 35-100 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so or straight below. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of about 2.75 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. About first 4 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex to almost flat, with 2 increasing to 4 spiral grooves in early whorls, and many spiral striae in later whorls. Last whorl with wrinkled spiral ribs abapically, often followed by spiral threads.
Colour violet blending with white. Last whorl encircled with continuous, broad or narrow, violet to tan bands above and below a narrow light band at centre. Solid or dotted brown spiral lines and dark brown axial blotches and flames vary in number, arrangement and prominence; form kirai without axial flames and blotches. Larval whorls orangish red. Teleoconch sutural ramps with variably broad reddish to blackish brown radial blotches. Aperture white or pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-80 mm
RW 0.18-0.34 g/mm
(L 45-65 mm)
RD 0.55-0.62
PMD 0.75-0.85
RSH 0.10-0.15
C. f.  fulmen has typically large blotches and deep black on violet background;
C. f.  kirai lacks black blotches and sometimes spire marks and often has creamy background; deep water variant
Discussion:-
Shells of C. circumcisus lacking the spiral rows of alternating brown and white maculae also resembling C. fulmen, which can be distinguished by its broader, consistently ventricosely conical last whorl (RD 0.55-0.62) and its orange-red instead of white apex. In addition, the brown blotches are darker in C. fulmen, with a less regular arrangement on the sutural ramps.

 

 

Conus  fulmen f.  kirai   Kuroda,  1956

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype KIMN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Venus vol. xix, no. 1,  p. 7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tanoura, Kii, Japan
Type Data: Holotype was in Ito collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 65 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus fulmen Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-fulmen kirai forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan; Vietnam
Habitat:-Deep water 35-100 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. fulmen
C. f.  kirai lacks black blotches and sometimes spire and often has creamy background; deep water variant.

----------

 

Conus fulvobullatus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 13,  f. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off east coast of Malaysia.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.5 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus fulvobullatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. fulvobullatus: Essentially similar to C. assimilis. i.e. last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  fumigatus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 704
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: America [erroneous]
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-fumigatus
Synonyms:-
blainvillei Kiener, 1845; luctificus Reeve, 1848; pazii Bernardi, 1857; aureolus Sowerby ii, 1858; henoquei Bernardi, 1860; excavatus Sowerby ii, 1866; richardi Fenaux, 1942;
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; Ethiopia
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to broadly conical; outline convex at adapical third, straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to straight. Maximum diameter of larval shell 0.9 mm. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4 spiral grooves, finer and more numerous but weak or even obsolete on later ramps. Last whorl with weak or obsolete spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour pale grey. Last whorl with a broad grey to brown spiral band on each side of centre, leaving ground-colour bands at centre and at shoulder. Dashed and dotted brown spiral lines may extend from base to shoulder, mainly restricted to colour bands or absent. Base brown, contrasting with paler adjacent area. Larval whorls pale pink or grey. Teleoconch sutural ramps with numerous brown radial markings usually extending to subshoulder area. Aperture translucent, shaded with violet in large specimens.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-69 mm
RW 0.16-0.40 g/mm
(L 30-51 mm)
RD 0.57-0.79
PMD 0.85-0.95
RSH 0.10-0.19
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  fumigatus  f. excavatus  Sowerby ii, 1866

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 326,  pl. 25 (286),  f. 616
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus fumigatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-fumigatus excavatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; W Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Shallow water.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. excavatus refers to slightly narrow form with pale pinkish brown bands of colour and three rows of dark brown dashes around white belt at midbody.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  furnae  Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 42,  1,  f. 9, pl. 2, f. 9
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Furna, Isla de Brava, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.1 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus verdensis Trovao, 1979
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-verdensis furnae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brava, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found on rocks with weeds, in the cracks and in the cavities
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension is from 15 to 21 mm. Its silhouette is somewhat slender with almost straight sides and the shoulder is well formed and is somewhat angled. Spire a little elevated, sharp apex and a little concave. Spire whorls not stepped, spiral striae and of the same color that the seashell. Brown coloring with white spots. The variable pattern and can display two forms: a) the white spots are few and adopt the form of angles or tips of arrow that are situated in the middle of the last whorl; from time to time there is so few white spots that the seashell is practically monochrome; b) the white spots are more abundant, oval, rhombic, or with irregular forms, and are distributed in a band with a reticulate aspect in the middle of the last whorl. The variability is usually between the two forms. White aperture with in its interior in its upper part, in maturing small shells and in juvenile specimens, a zone slightly stained brown. Lip constantly dark. Columella white. Periostracum fine, yellow and transparent.
Discussion:-By the silhouette of the seashell, color of the interior of the aperture, color of the animal, radular tooth and, above all, by its very characteristic egg capsule, one must recognize that a conspecific relation exists with C. verdensis verdensis Trovao, 1979 of the Island Santiago. But the consideration that both they can be in position subspecific is based on the existence of a series of differences, not essential but very constant in both cases, and in the existing geographical separation. These differences are: C. verdensis verdensis has a seashell with a pattern with white areas extended in an axial sense, more frequent spots on its spire; besides, the larval seashell has the coloring of the darker last whorl and its bands are confused.

 

----------

 

Conus  furvus  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype 2 43.4 x 19.8mm Mike Filmer NHMUK

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 13, sp. 69
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ticao & Masbate Isles, Philippines, (in sandy mud, low tide)
Type Data: Syntype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45.4 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus
Synonyms:-
lignarius Reeve, 1843; crepusculum Reeve, 1844; cecilei Kiener, 1845; granifer Reeve, 1849; aegrotus Reeve, 1849; albicans Sowerby ii, 1857; albus Sowerby iii, 1887; polygrammus Tomlin, 1937; nivalis da Motta, 1985; turritinus da Motta, 1985; neobuxeus da Motta, 1991
Geographic Range:-Andaman Is., E. Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines to Japan
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline almost straight to moderately convex. Shoulder usually angulate, smooth to tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, occasionally stepped; outline straight to concave. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1.0 mm. First 4-9 Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves, sometimes fine and weak on all ramps. Last whorl variable in sculpture; shells with weak and smooth spiral ribs on basal fourth intergrade with shells with granulose ribs from base to shoulder. Surface sculpture uniform in some forms, highly variable in others.
Ground colour white to tan. Pattern of last whorl ranges from uniformly white to blackish brown spiral banding. Spiral colour bands vary from yellow to blackish brown; a spiral ground-colour band usually at or just below centre, another sometimes within apical third, and another rarely on basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots extend from base to shoulder but vary considerably in number and arrangement, sometimes fusing into solid spiral or axial lines, occasionally restricted to spiral ribs or completely absent. Base and siphonal fasciole sometimes coloured like adjacent part of last whorl, more often contrasting yellow to pink or brown to purple. Larval shell white, pink or brown; adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps usually of same colour. Late sutural ramps white to brown, immaculate or with radial lines and streaks in various shades of brown; occasionally spire pattern reduced to variably set dots between shoulder tubercles. Aperture white, brownish or bluish white, often darker brown to violet-brown at anterior end.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-71 mm
RW 0.10-0.40 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.69
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.03-0.23
Discussion:-Although C. furvus is extremely variable in its conchological characters, it is quite distinct from all other congeners. It appears to be characterized by the isolation of local populations. Because of the variability within and intergrades among these populations, it is hard to decide whether they deserve recognition as geographic subspecies. We regard the following nominal species-group taxa as forms of C. furvus:
-C. aegrotus : With dotted spiral lines on white ground. Similar in shape to form cecilei.
-C. albicans : Last whorl conical. Shoulder often distinctly tuberculate. Colour white, except for violet base; with sparse remnants of spirally aligned dots on last whorl. Form albicans may be considered a subspecies from N. Indonesia and Palawan, S.W. Philippines.
-C. albus Completely white. Spire low (RSH 0.09). Postnuclear whorls tuberculate except for last 2 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps with 3-6 spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl conical (RD 0.57), with a few spiral ribs at base. RKkK provisionally assign C. albus to C .furvus, because no shell characters justify separation at the species level. Coomans et al. ( 1980) synonymized C. albus with C . magus. However, the latter species differs in its stronger spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps and its adapically more convex outline of the last whorl.
-C. cecilei: Last whorl conical, outline slightly convex. Shoulder often undulate. Sculpture of last whorl consists of minutely granulose spiral ribs at base. Last whorl white to brown, with spiral rows of dots, brown to brownish violet at base.
-C. crepusculum: Last whorl conical, outline almost straight; colour of yellow tones; pattern without spiral lines; base violet.
-C. granifer : Last whorl conical, outline convex. Shoulder often undulate. Number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls comparatively high. Granulose spiral ribs often extend from base to shoulder. Ground colour white to brown. Spiral rows of brown dots on and between granulose ribs. Intergrades with form cecilei in shape in Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, but differs in its granulose surface.
-C. lignarius: Lighter brown than typical form of C. furvus, with a darker base and solid spiral lines on last whorl.
-C. neobuxeus : Very similar to form cecilei in colour pattern, except for a lighter base.
-C. nivalis : Last whorl conical to conoid-cylindrical, slightly narrower than in other forms (RD 0.50-0.58 vs. 0.51-0.63 in most forms). Early postnuclear whorls with very weak tubercles, teleoconch sutural ramps with fine to obsolete spiral sculpture. Form nivalis
may be a subspecies of C. furvus, from the northern shores of the Sibuyan Sea between southern Luzon and northern Samar.
-C. polygrammus : Essentially similar to form lignarius.
-C. turritinus: Last whorl conoid-cylindrical; spire often stepped. Larval shell white. Last whorl yellowish brown, with a white spiral band at centre and without spiral rows of dots; base of the same colour as rest of last whorl.

 

 

Conus  furvus  f. aegrotus  Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. i. Conus. Suppl., pl. v, sp. 250
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: designated (C, M & W) West Negros, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.5 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus aegrotus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sulu Sea, Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. furvus
-C. aegrotus : With dotted spiral lines on white ground.

Discussion:-No Data



Conus  furvus. f. albicans  Sowerby ii, 1857

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii p. 3. pl. 5 (191). f. 98.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None.
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus albicans forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. furvus
-C. albicans : Last whorl conical. Shoulder often distinctly tuberculate. Colour white, except for violet base; with sparse remnants of spirally aligned dots on last whorl. According to RKK form albicans may be considered a subspecies from N. Indonesia and Palawan, S.W. Philippines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  furvus  f.  albus  Sowerby iii, 1887

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. v,  2nd suppl.,  p. 274, pl. 36 (512*),  f.  76
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 48 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus albus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. furvus
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus furvus f. granifer  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. i. Conus, Suppl., pl. vii, sp. 272
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 12 mm syntype figured

Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus granifer forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. furvus
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline almost straight to moderately convex. Shoulder usually angulate, smooth to tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, occasionally stepped; outline straight to concave. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1.0 mm.First 4-9 Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves, sometimes fine and weak on all ramps. Last whorl variable in sculpture; shells with weak and smooth spiral ribs on basal fourth intergrade with shells with granulose ribs from base to shoulder. Surface sculpture uniform in some forms, highly variable in others.
Ground colour white to tan. Pattern of last whorl ranges from uniformly white to blackish brown spiral banding. Spiral colour bands vary from yellow to blackish brown; a spiral ground-colour band usually at or just below centre, another sometimes within apical third, and another rarely on basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots extend from base to shoulder but vary considerably in number and arrangement, sometimes fusing into solid spiral or axial lines, occasionally restricted to spiral ribs or completely absent. Base and siphonal fasciole sometimes coloured like adjacent part of last whorl, more often contrasting yellow to pink or brown to purple. Larval shell white, pink or brown; adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps usually of same colour. Late sutural ramps white to brown, immaculate or with radial lines and streaks in various shades of brown; occasionally spire pattern reduced to variably set dots between shoulder tubercles. Aperture white, brownish or bluish white, often darker brown to violet-brown at anterior end.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-71 mm
RW 0.10-0.40 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.69
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.03-0.23
-C. granifer : Last whorl conical, outline convex. Shoulder often undulate. Number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls comparatively high. Granulose spiral ribs often extend from base to shoulder. Ground colour white to brown. Spiral rows of brown dots on and between granulose ribs. Intergrades with form cecilei in shape in Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, but differs in its granulose surface.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus furvus  f. lignarius  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Lond., pt. 11, no. 130
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Port Sacloban, Leyte Is.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: figured syntype 48 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus lignarius forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-
C. lignarius: lighter brown than typical form of C. furvus, with a darker base and solid spiral lines on last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  furvus f. neobuxeus  da Motta, 1991

 

Pictures:
Picture Link:  Martini 1773,  pl. 59,  f.657

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii, no. 258, p. 73
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.(C. buxeus Reeve, 1844)
Type Data:
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. buxeus Reeve, 1844.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus neobuxeus forma
Synonyms:-
buxeus Reeve, 1844
Geographic Range:-Japan
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-C. neobuxeus : Very similar to form cecilei in colour pattern, except for a lighter base.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

 

Conus  furvus  f. nivalis  da Motta, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 4 p. 5, pl. 1, f. 4a-b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ragay Gulf, Southern Luzon, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.7 x 20.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus nivalis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-C. nivalis : Last whorl conical to conoid-cylindrical, slightly narrower than in other forms (RD 0.50-0.58 vs. 0.51-0.63 in most fonns). Early postnuclear whorls with very weak tubercles, teleoconch sutural ramps with fine to obsolete spiral sculpture. Form nivalis may be a subspecies of C. furvus, from the northern shores of the Sibuyan Sea between southern Luzon and northern Samar.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  furvus  f. polygrammus  Tomlin,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. xxii. part 4 p. 206.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known. (C. multilineatus Sowerby,1875).
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued(C.multilineatus)
Type Size :39 x 20.5 mm
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. multilineatus Sowerby, 1875.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus polygrammus forma
Synonyms:-
multilineatus Sowerby iii, 1875
Geographic Range:-W. Pacific
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. furvus
-C. polygrammus : essentially similar to form lignarius
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  furvus f.  turritinus   da Motta,  1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 4 p. 1,  pl. 1, f. 1a-b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off eastern coast of Malayan Peninsula, S. China Sea
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus turritinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Malaya
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:- C. turritinus: Last whorl conoid-cylindrical; spire often stepped. Larval shell white. Last whorl yellowish brown, with a white spiral band at centre and without spiral rows of dots; base of the same colour as rest of last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  fuscatus  Born,  1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMW Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind.,  p. 126
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius, from Martini (1773); Guinea, from Regenfuss (1758)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMW deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus imperialis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhombiconus Species:-imperialis fuscatus forma
Synonyms:-
dautzenbergi Fenaux, 1942; douvillei Fenaux, 1942
Geographic Range:-E. Africa; Mauritius
Habitat:-Intertidal to 240 m
Description:-
The name C. fuscatus applies to specimens of Conus imperialis  from the W. Indian Ocean having a narrower last whorl, usually darker colouration, and irregular pattern with mainly axial orientation. This form occurs sympatrically with the typical form in Kenya and Zanzibar (in slighly greater depths) as well as Mozambique (in different microhabitats). The two forms intergrade in colour pattern and shape (RD 0.50-0.63 in form fuscatus and 0.57-0.68 in sympatric typical shells; PMD 0.87-0.97 and 0.84-0.92). RKK therefore regard C. fuscatus as a form of C. imperialis and not as a sibling species or geographic subspecies.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  fuscoflavus  Röckel,  Rolán  &  Monteiro,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Cone Shells form Cape Verde Is., p. 71, f. 38-41
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal-Rei, Boavista Is., Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.3 x 12.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-fuscoflavus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source: Cone shells from the Cape Verde Islands Röckel, Rolán, Monteiro 1980
A rather pyriform shell, with a horny yellow ground colour, totally devoid of pattern in all specimens studied. The anterior end of the shell and the first post-embryonic whorls are constantly dark brown. The body whorl is smooth, except for several spiral grooves near its anterior end. The spire whorls present two extremely shallow spiral striae, clearly seen only under magnification.The aperture is whitish, except for the presence of a purplish brown dot deep inside, on its middle portion. The lip is bordered in yellowish brown
Discussion:

 

----------

 

Conus fuscolineatus  Sowerby iii,  1905

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. vi,  p. 282,  text-fig. 6,  2
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sierra Leone, (probably erroneous), designated (Rolán & Röckel) Ponta de Noronha, near Moçamedes Bay, Angola, this seems to be a mere comment not a specific designation
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 12.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-fuscolineatus
Synonyms:-
lobitensis Kaicher, 1977
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Buried in sand at 1-2 m deep near rocks or in rock crevices
Description:-Source Röckel 2000
Shell description: Small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, outline convex at adapical third, straight or slightly convex below. Left side slightly concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with few spiral grooves at base.
Ground colour greenish white. Last whorl with about 20 brown spiral lines, here and there interrupted and in the central area changing to dotted or dashed rows. Irregular brown flecks and streaks may be present. Aperture dark or light brown with two white spiral bands at shoulder and base.
Shell morphometry:
L 19-27 mm
RD 0.63-0.69
RSH 0.06-0.16
PMD 0.70-0.73
RW 0.12 g/mm
Discussion:-Only the population of Ponta de Noronha corresponds exactly with the holotype.
There are other populations along the Angolan coast with similar morphological characters. Whether they are local forms of this species or distinct species can not definitively answered at present. Therefore, R. provisionally considers only the Ponta de Noronha population representing C. fuscolineatus. Future studies will shed more light upon this. C. variegatus may be similar in shape and pattern, but lacks the greenish ground colour and the unfinished brown spiral lines.
C. chytreus has a similar shape and pattern, but its spiral lines are continuous and not interrupted, its ground colour is white and the shell is also white inside the aperture.

 

----------

 

Conus  fuscoolivaceus   Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii, fasc. 18,  p. 62,  pl. I,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tjilaoet Eureun, W. Java
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30.4 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus catus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-catus fuscoolivaceus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal reefs
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. catus
C. fuscoolivaceus is mainly dark brown with black spiral lines and scattered patches of white; spire is rounded and quite high.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus   fustigatus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 623
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of  Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Discussion: Currently dealers are offering dark patterned specimens as fustigatus. These specimens do not match the lectotype.

 

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Last update April 2014