Conus  gabelishi   da Motta & Ninomiya in da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 14, f. 13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled in Esperance/Albany area, Great Australian Bight, West Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35.5 x 19.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-gabelishi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W Australia from the Albany area to Jurien Bay
Habitat:-Reported from 120 m-230 m
Description:-Usually moderately small and moderately light. Last whorl usually conical, sometimes ventricosely conical or broadly conical to broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to third, almost straight below; left side constricted above base. Shoulder broadly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline nearly straight. Larval shell of 1.5-1.75 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1-1.2 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, with 0-2 increasing to 4 major spiral grooves; 1-2 intervening ribs often located high on sutural ramps. Last whorl with weak to distinct, well separated spiral grooves at base; ribbons between grade to ribs at anterior end.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with well separated spiral rows of alternating white and orange bars and with fusing orange clouds and spiral bands. Pattern may cover entire last whorl evenly or leave a spiral ground-colour band below centre and somewhat above base.
Shell Morphometry
L 23-38 mm
RW 0.06-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.64-0.71
PMD 0.84-0.88
RSH 0.09-0.16
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gabrielae  Röckel  &  Rolán,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Argonauta xiii. No. 2,  p. 33,  figs. 67-71
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Chapeu Armado, S. Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.7 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus  negroides Kaicher, 1977; Decision by the ICZN although Kaicher did not mean to describe the species.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name gabrielae

 

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Conus gabrielii  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p. 315, pl. 74,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus cinereus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name gabrielli

 

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Conus gabryae  Röckel  & Korn, 1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3, p. 13,  pl. 2,  f. 11-20
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Russell Is., Solomon Archipelago.
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 62.7 x 26.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-gabryae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Solomon Islands
Habitat:-120-180 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae

Gabryae was considered subspecies of australis.
C. a. gabryae smaller. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, also narrowly conoid-cylindrical in subadults. Shoulder angulate. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with granulose ribbons or pairs of granulose ribs from base to shoulder; shells with strongly granulose prominent spiral elevations intergrade with shells with a preponderance of axially striate incisions. Otherwise, C. a. gabryae matching C. a. australis in shell morphology.

 

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Conus gadesi  Espinosa & Ortega, 2005

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IESH Original Description

 

Published in: Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencas 16, 125
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: Holotype in IESH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 11.4 x 5.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus regius Gmelin, 1791; a juvenile
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name gadesi

 

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Conus  galeao  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 36,  pl. 1,  f. 13, pl. 2,  f. 13,  pl. 5
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Navio Quebrado Isla de Malo, Cape Verde Is.; 1-2 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.3 x 12.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus damottai Trovăo, 1979
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-damottai galeao subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maio, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found at depths of 1-2m under rocks
Description:-Source original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension is from 17 to 24 mm. Its silhouette is not very slender and has a body whorl smallish, shoulder somewhat angled and spire partially extended, not stepped, striated and of white color with brown spots. The coloring of the seashell has a white ground with tones of azure that appears covered with yellowish or light brown lines , rarely obscure; with magnification, it is appreciated that the lines are very adjacent, are somewhat irregular and are interrupted by white areas; these areas dominate in three zones: in a band on lower half of the last whorl, on the shoulder and in another narrower band between both but that is not constant. Specimens exist in which the pattern forms so that the brown and white areas adopt an rectilineate aspect quite uniform with tendency to create bands of different intensities of color. Variability is quite large in the quantity of white, in the disposition of the areas and in the tones of the color. Aperture is dark in its interior with two clear lines. The lip is clear. The columella is white from time to time and violet .
Discussion:-The subspecies has a structure of the seashell (form of the spire, form of the shoulder and color of the aperture) that seems similar to C. damottai damottai Trovao, 1979; nevertheless, this subspecies, has a color and very characteristic pattern and constant: white areas in form of zig-zag that alternate with brown areas in which there are spiral lines while C. damottai galeao has variable coloring and totally irregular pattern but always with lines in axial sense inside the dark zones. These opposite characteristics in populations that are found in geographical isolation, permit to consider that they possess a subspecific relationship. The egg capsules , radular tooth and larval seashells confirm this situation being similar in the main characteristics, but maintaining small differential details.

 

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Conus  gallopalvoi  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 94, p. 31 - 32
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Varandinha, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 17,8 x 9,7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Uncertain
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-gallopalvoi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- Collected between 0.5 m and 1.5 m deep
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Medium size shell (15 to 20 mm) of pyriform profile, with moderately high spire, slightly stepped, with distinct sutures, moderately concave, almost angled; the spire has white speckles onthe brownish-tawny ground color,; the upper part of the spire is whitish. The aperture is wide with internal pattern of  brown-reddish-purple, compartmentalized by three bands of creamy white. The shoulder is rounded and the profile of last whorl is slighlty convex at the top becoming  almost straight  in the distal part. The coloring of the last whorl reflects that of spire: tawny-yellowish-brown with two irregular bands with white marks on shoulder and below the middle and is darker in the vicinity of siphonal channel.. Some spiral grooves (6-7) are highlighted in the lower shell. The siphonal channel is large with its  axis aligned with the development of the shell. Animal not availavle for study. you do not study the soft parts.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus ganensis  Delsaerdt, 1988

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris 27 (1),  p. 1, figs. 2 - 9

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Gan Island, Maldives

Type Data: Holotype in IRSN

Type Size: 46.7 x 26.2 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies or a form of Conus pennaceus

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus ganensis

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-Maldives

Habitat:-

Description: Shell with a sub-depressed spire; body whorl straight to slightly concave; shoulder angulated. Ground color is pinkish orange with white tent-marks. Periostracum thin and translucent.

 

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Conus  garciai   da Motta,  1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1 p. 18,  f. 17
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Punta Patuca, Honduras; 40-55 m
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 59 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Gradionus Species:-garciae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Honduras
Habitat:-Dredged from mud bottom in 40 to 70 m
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 35 to 70 mm, with slightly concave rather high spire and slightly pyriform to straight sides of the body whorl. Shoulder angulate, often keeled, body whorl with spiral ridges which are vaguely granular and unevenly spaced. Space between the ridges with microscopic axial threads. Spire whorls stepped, tops of the whorls rather flat with very weak spiral threads crossed by somewhat stronger growth lines. Nucleus: 2 whorls (protoconch of specimens from Panama distinctly smaller than that of specimens from type locality -pers. comm. Röckel, 1987), axial sculpture on the sides of the first three to four postnuclear whorls. Colour is orange brown on a white background, the brown nearly entirely covering the shell and, in the words of da Motta 'as if painted in arching longitudinal brush strokes'. Below mid-body a white, slightly spotted belt. Specimens from Panama are more reddish brown on a purplish white background
Discussion:-C. garciai could be confused with C. cingulatus (which has a similar colour pattern, but is smaller with a more straight sided spire, a more roundly angulate shoulder, and spiral grooves rather than ridges on the body whorl), C. cancellatus (which is morphologically very close, but has the spire less stepped -except in large Brazilian specimens- with more distinct spiral ridges on the more concave tops of the whorls, and the shoulder less sharply angled) and a population of C. spurius from off Honduras (2) (which is more slender with a strongly concave sided spire and a different colour pattern).

 

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Conus  garywilsoni   Lorenz  &  Morrison,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in WAMP Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conchiglia 35 35(309), 43
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Offshore Exmouth, Western Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in WAMP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19 x 9 mm

Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus garywilsoni forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Exmouth, Western Australia
Habitat:-The depth varies from 35-45 metres. The habitat is a vast sand desert with absolutely no rock or reef within 3 km.
Description:-Source La Conchiglia Oct. –Dec. 2003
The holotype is rather heavy, small, conical, with a moderately high, pointed spire. The protoconch is conspicuous and smooth, consisting of three whorls with a maximum diameter of 0.4 mm. The postnuclear whorls are not tuberculate. The outline of the spire is slightly concave, the eight teleoconch whorls are slightly stepped. The shoulder is angulated. The sutural ramp shows five distinct, somewhat undulating spiral grooves. The last whorl is very slightly convex and smooth, except for the anterior fifth where there are shallow spiral ribs. These are rather distant at first, becoming denser towards the anterior tip. The aperture is straight, slightly widening anteriorly. The operculum is rather narrow and slightly curved, measuring one fifth of the aperture's length.
Coloration. The protoconch is reddish brown. The ground color of the teleoconch whorls is purplish, except for the shoulder, which is whitish. The purplish sutural ramps are ornamented with widely spaced, chestnut-colored radial streaks that extend just below the shoulder. The body whorl is uniformly brown in the upper half, forming a wavy, darker-bordered middle band. In the lower half, the holotype displays much of the ground color, interrupted by irregular brown blotches. The aperture and the anterior end are rich purple. The measurements are enumerated according to the shell formula proposed by Röckel et al. (1995): L = shell-length (mm); RW = relative weight (g/mm); RD = relative diameter of last whorl; PMD =: position of the maximum diameter of the last whorl; RSH= relative spire height.
L= 15 - 20
RW= 0.04 - 0.05
RD= 0.48 - 0.52
PMD= 0.68 - 0.71
RSH= 0.25 - 0.26
Discussion:-Considered a synonym juvenile form of C. lischkeanus, the description hightlights the differences as smaller size, different pattern and purple on the anterior end.

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Conus gattegnoi  Poppe & Tagaro, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture link: Holotype in Conchology, Inc. and will be given to a Philippine institution in due time: Guido Poppe

 

Published in: Visaya Vol. 4, No. 6, 2017; p. 9 - 10, Pl. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines, Mactan Island , Punta Engańo, 400 m
Type Data: Holotype in Conchology Inc.
Type Size: 25.5 x 11.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-gattegnoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Shells were fished on gravel and mud bottoms, or a mixture of two

Description:
Shell small to moderately small. Average almost 24 mm in length. The shell is conical in shape. The outline of the last whorl is slightly sigmoid. The shape of the aperture is wide. The shoulder is sharply angulated, with a concave sutural ramp. The outline of the spire is slightly concave. The protoconch is raised and has 3 smooth whorls. Below the protoconch are 8 spiral whorls. The shoulder of the first 65 whorls is covered with hardly raised knobs that disappear on the later whorls. The subsutural ramp of the first whorls is covered with tiny axial ribs. On the last whorl, the sharp shoulder extends sometimes slightly over the body whorl.  This body whorl is fairly elongate, fairly smooth and covered by a large number of incised spiral grooves. The overall base coloration is white with a grayish shine, covered by a pattern of  brown, fairly small flecks. These flecks are set in 3 spiral bands, separated by lighter color bands. Within the lighter color bands, the brown pattern changes into spaced dots. The spire is covered by radiating brown flecks. The inside of the aperture is white, translucent towards the periphery.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gauguini  Richard  &  Salvat,  1973

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cah. Pac. no. 17, p. 25, f. 1-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Marquesas Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 87 x 46.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gauguini
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas; Tahiti
Habitat:-In 20-50 m on coral reefs
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to third, straight below, occasionally slightly concave centrally. Siphonal fasciole indistinct to prominent. Shoulder sharply carinate. Spire usually low, outline straight but early postnuclear whorls often slightly domed. Larval shell projecting, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 4-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, late whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, grading to deeply concave in later whorls, with 2 increasing to 6- 10 distinct spiral grooves; prominent subsutural ridge as strong as shoulder carina. Last whorl with variably spaced, rather fine spiral ribs on basal third.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with pinlush or brownish violet spiral bands and axial clouds, leaving 1-3 interrupted to solid white bands, just below centre, and sometimes within adapical third, and at base. Sparse spirally arranged black spots, flecks, and blotches may occur, sometimes also forming rows of alternating black and white dots and dashes. Siphonal fasciole white to violet. Larval whorls and a few adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white. Following ramps mainly suffused with pinkish to bluish violet adaxially, margins white; brown to black radial blotches either extending across ramps or reduced to spots and flecks at both margins. Aperture white to bluish white.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-87 mm
RW 0.60-0.75 g/mm
(L 60-71 mm)
RD 0.57-0.66
PMD 0.81-0.87
RSH 0.07-0.13
Discussion:-C. gauguini can be confused with C. barthelemyi from the western and central Indian Ocean; the two are separated more by distance than by morphology. The latter species has weaker spiral sculpture on its late sutural ramps, and its shoulder is not sharply carinate. In C. gauguini, the surface of the last whorl is often smoother adapically (distinct spiral striae are absent) and has fine spiral ribs instead of ribs and ribbons at base. The last whorl pattern of C. barthelemyi is orangish to reddish brown rather than violet, and its sutural ramps have radial blotches rather than marginal markings. Because of their widely separated geographic ranges, we tentatively distinguish C. gauguini and C. barthelemyi as species rather than at the subspecies level.

 

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Conus geeraertsi  Poppe & Tagaro, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture link: Holotype in Conchology, Inc. and will be given to a Philippine institution in due time: Guido Poppe

 

Published in: Visaya Vol. 4, No. 6, 2017; p. 9- 10, Pl. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines, Mactan Island, Punta Engańo, Malingin, 150 m
Type Data: Holotype in Conchology Inc.
Type Size: 26.2 x 12.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-geeraertsi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Shells were taken from gravel and mud bottoms or a mixture of both
Description:
Shell small to moderately small. Average almost 25.1 mm in length. The shell is conical in shape. The outline of the last whorl is slightly sigmoid. The shape of the aperture is elongate, rather narrow. The shoulder is sharply angulated, with a concave sutural ramp. The outline of the spire is slightly concave. The protoconch is raised and has 3 smooth and glossy whorls. Below the protoconch are 9 whorls. The shoulder of the first 6 whorls is covered by raised knobs that disappear on the later whorls. The upper half of the subsutural ramp is covered with tiny raised axial ribs.  The body whorl is short and broad on the shoulder. The overall base coloration is white, covered by a pattern of brown, fairly small flecks. The pattern on the lower half of the body whorl is separated from the upper half by a very pale band, which has no or only a few dark spots. The upper half of the body whorl is more densely patterned with a series of large and axially shaped brown flecks, set over a background of small brown dots.  The spire is covered by sparse radiating brown flecks. The inside of the aperture is white, translucent towards the periphery.
Discussion:-

 

 

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Conus  generalis   Linnaeus, 1767

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 12th ed., 1, pt,  2 p. 1166
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-generalis
Synonyms:-
locumtenens Röding, 1798; spiculum Reeve, 1849; regenfussi Dautzenberg, 1937; pallida Dautzenberg, 1937; subunicolor Dautzenberg, 1937; krabiensis da Motta, 1982
Geographic Range:-Central Indian Ocean (Maldives, S. India) to N. W. Australia to French Polynesia; Ryukyu Is. to Queenland; absent from Hawaii
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m, more common in subtidal habitats; in Philippines, dredged to 240 m on coarse sand, muddy sand and coral rubble, often beneath dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy. Last whorl conical to narrowly conical, outline straight except variably convex below shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height; outline deeply concave, with a conoid apex of 6-10 postnuclear whorls projecting from an otherwise flat spire. Larval shell of 3.5-4 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls distinctly tuberculate; tuberculation disappears within adjacent 1-2.5 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to variably concave, with obsolete spiral striae. Last whorl with fine variably spaced spiral ribs at base, obsolete in large specimens.
Ground colour white, Indian Ocean specimens often variably suffused with orange to red. Last whorl with orangish brown to brownish black axial streaks, flames or zigzag markings from base to shoulder or shoulder ramp, varying from solid to highly divided. On each side of centre, a variably wide yellow, orange, brown or black, usually solid spiral band overlies the axial markings; colour of bands may vary from light to dark within the same specimen; abapical band occasionally, adapical band rarely divided into 2 or 3 narrower spiral bands. Intervening ground- colour bands usually interspersed with brown to black axial markings. Dotted and dashed or sometimes solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder; they vary widely in number, occasionally containing intermittent white markings. Base violet to brown or black. Larval whorls pink. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate; later ramps with orangish to blackish brown or black radial markings. Highly speckled shells intergrade with shells of largely uniform colouration; in W. Thailand, S. India, and the Maldives, uniformly coloured shells have an almost immaculate orangish to reddish tan last whorl and a very sparsely maculated spire (form krabiensis). Aperture white to bluish white, except for the base.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-104 mm
RW 0.10-1.25 g/mm
(L 35-95 mm)
RD 0.46-0.61
PMD 0.85-0.95
RSH 0.05-0.21
Discussion:-C. generalis resembles C. bayani, C. capreolus, C. monile, and most closely C. maldivus. In spite of similar shape and sculpture, C. capreolus is so dissimilar in colour pattern as to exclude any confusion. C. bayani has a less solid shell (maximum RW 0.3), fewer larval whorls but usually more tuberculate postnuclear whorls and a carinate shoulder; the spiral colour bands of its last whorl are generally narrower, less solid and lighter in colour and the basal parts are white..
The name C. krabiensis applies to small individuals whose shells are orange and almost immaculate and which range from the Maldives to W. Thailand and off N. W. Australia. However, they intergrade in size and colour pattern with typical C. generalis, and sometimes both types of pattern occur within a single specimen. Moreover, populations with small adults are also known from Sulu Sea, Molluccas, and E. New Britain. RKK therefore consider C. krabiensis a colour form of C. generalis.
C. spiculum was based on 2 juvenile specimens;
Dautzenberg's varieties represent only colour forms: Var. regenfussi with narrow orange bands; var. subunicolor with broad brown bands, leaving a narrow white central band; var. pallidula with a pale colour.
C. maldivus is very similar to C. generalis and cannot always be unequivocally separated from this species by conchological characters. The only reliable difference is in the colour pattern: In C. generalis, the basic pattern consists of 2 spiral colour bands that are usually solid and rarely split into axial fragments, and that cross underlying darker axial streaks or flames extending over the entire last whorl; the adapical ground-colour band is usually broader and the dark spiral lines rarely consist of minute dots or become solid.

 

 

Conus  generalis  f.  krabiensis  da Motta,  1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 10,  f. 9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Raya Is., Phuket, Thailand; 100 ft
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  generalis Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-generalis krabiensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Thailand, S. India, and the Maldives
Habitat:-reported from sand and rock bottoms in 12-30 m
Description:-
RSH 0.05-0.21
Form krabiensis: small shells almost all orange from Maldives to W Thailand
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  generalis  f. pallida  Dautzenberg, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii, fasc. 18,  p. 120,  pl. II,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboina
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.5 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- an available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. pallida Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a specimen of C. generalis Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name pallida

 

 

Conus  generalis  f. regenfussi  Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii, fasc. 18,  p. 120,  pl. II,  f. 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboina
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.6 x 23.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus generalis Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name regenfussi

 

 

Conus  generalis  spiculum  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, Suppl., pl. vii,  sp. 266
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cagayan, Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  generalis Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-generalis spiculum forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-sand and rock bottoms in 12-30 m
Description:-

Form C. g.  spiculum refers to juveniles with spindle shape
Discussion:-The spindle shaped shells are considered a juvenile form of C. generalis. The colour pattern is normally an orange banded pattern similar to typical C. generalis.

 

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Conus  genuanus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of  Lectotype  Rumphius (1705,  pl. 34, fig. G.)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 714
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Unknown
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Rumphius (1705,  pl. 34, fig. G.)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Genuanoconus Species:-genuanus
Synonyms:-
papilio Linnaeus, 1767; papilio Röding, 1798; sphinx Röding, 1798; fasciatus Perry, 1811; foscaclaudiae  Assi,  2010
Geographic Range:-Senegal - Angola; Cape Verdes; Canaries
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy with a good gloss; low conical, the sides convex; body whorl smooth except for few low spiral ridges at the base and sometimes heavy axial threads and growth marks; shoulder wide roundly angled, flat or concave above; spire low to moderate sharply pointed, the sides straight to slightly concave; tops of whorls flat or slightly convex; early whorls eroded; Body whorl pinkish grey to bluish grey, usually with broad distinct bands of olive above and below midbody; base whitish; whorl covered with about 10-20 widely spaced spiral rows of black dashes bars and dots usually of two widths alternating; the black bars alternate in a row with white bars containing small black dots; shoulder and spire whorls margined with row of alternating black and white dashes; spire like body whorl with traces of olive blotches; Aperture narrow above wider basally; outer lip sharp, thin evenly convex; mouth bluish grey to pinkish grey, usually pale; margin of lip often reddish brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  geographus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 718
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 98  x 48 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Gastridium Species:-geographus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific except for Hawaii
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 20 m; on coral reefs, mainly on sand bottoms beneath or among coral heads.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; relative weight may vary by 60% in spe cimens of the same size. Last whorl narrowly cylindrical to cylindrical; outline straight or slightly convex and nearly parallel-sided centrally, slightly concave to convex above and convex (right side) or concave (left side) below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to rounded, usually strongly tuberculate. Spire low, outline variably concave to straight. Larval shell of 2.5-3 whorls,maximum diameter 0.9-1 rnrn. Postnuclear whorls tuberculate, tubercles strong and pointed upward in late whorls.Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 0-2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves in early whorls; closely set radial striae and many spiral striae produce a minutely granulose surface in late whorls. Last whorl nearly smooth except for weak spiral ribs or ribbons near base of subadults.
Ground colour white, suffused with bluish grey, violet or pink. Last whorl with fine, often incomplete network of tan to dark reddish brown lines and small often tent-like spots. Pattern tends to fuse into blotches forming 2-3 broad spiral bands, within basal third, above centre and often below shoulder; occasionally, bands contain dotted, dashed or solid dark spiral lines. Larval whorls pink to red. Earliest postnuclear sutural ramps white to pink, usually with brown dots at both or only inner margins. Following sutural ramps with light to dark brown radial blotches that separate into loosely reticulated lines in late whorls. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 65-166 mm
RW 0.10-0.80 g/mm
(L 65-133 mm)
RD 0.49-0.56
(adult; 0.45 - 0.51 subadults)
PMD 0.62-0.75
RSH 0.04-0.10
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gernanti  Petuch, 1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CAS Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Veliger xviii,  no. 2,  p. 181,  f. 2-6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Fifteen km Northwest of M' Bour, Petit Cote, Senegal (14deg 41' N 17deg 30' W); ca. 60 m
Type Data: Holotype in CAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus ambiguus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Monteiroconus Species:-ambiguus gernanti forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-Shore to offshore
Description:-
C. gernanti Petuch, 1975 is considered a synonym. Petuch stated that gernanti has lower spire and narrower shoulder width. It is intense violet colour with occasionally some brown axial flammules. C.  ambiguus has 3 spiral threads on top of spire whorls.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  gibsonsmithorum  Petuch, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MORG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcix, no. 1,  p. 9,  f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: North Coast of  Paraguana Peninsula, Falcon, Venezuela; trawled in 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in MORG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus sennottorum Rehder & Abbott, 1951
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-sennottorum gibsonsmithorum forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Venezuela, Colombia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell turnip-shaped, obese, thick and heavy; anterior one-third of shell greatly constricted; body whorl smooth and shiny, with anterior one-third having heavy grooving and thick spiral cords; aperture very narrow; spire elevated on early whorls, becoming planar on later whorls; shoulder sharp-edged, carinated; slight constriction just below shoulder carina; shell pale cream-yellow colored with pale tan band around middle; spire pale yellow, becoming tan on early whorls; periostracum thin, smooth, translucent yellow.
Discussion:-This small new species is the only South American cone shell to have a squat, turnip-shaped body form. In this respect, C. gibsonsmithorum most closely resembles C. sennottorum Rehder and Abbott, 1951, from the Gulf of Mexico. The new Venezuelan species differs from its northern relative by lacking any spottings or color patterns, by having a more sharply carinated shoulder with sub-shoulder constriction, and by being a smaller, stockier species.
At present, C, gibsonsmithorum is known only from: the Gulf of Venezuela region, to which it is most probably endemic.

 

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Conus  gigasulcatus  Moolenbeek,  2008

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Robert Moolenbeek

Picture Link: Paratypes   Robert Moolenbeek

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 43
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South of Vitu Levi, Fiji
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 73.1 x 38.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:- Asprella Species:-gigasulcatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji
Habitat:-Found at depths of 150-200 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell large, broadly conical, moderately solid. Spire rather low and slightly concave. Shoulder angulate. Last whorl straight, slightly convex near the shoulder. Adapical half smooth, abapical part with about 26 spiral grooves. Colour dark white with a pattern of brown dotted spirals. In the middle these brown/white spiral lines have a broader band of brown blotches. Base white. Discussion:-Conus gigasulcatus differs from C. sulcatus in being a little more slender and in adult specimens lacking spiral grooves all over the last whorl.

 

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Conus  gilberti  Bozzetti,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Luigi Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 74, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tulear, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30.5 x 20.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-gilberti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Spire of low height with slightly concave outline, shoulder angulate, body whorl left side sigmoid, right side slightly sigmoid. Body whorl walls covered by spiral, sligthly wavy cords, secondary cordlets in the interspaces, and by thick axial growth striae. Protoconch color whitish, first teleoconch whorls light beige, remaining parts of the shell uniform white with the exception of the base showing a slight yellowish-white shade.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gilchristi  Sowerby iii,  1903

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMC Mike Filmer SAMC

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mar. Inv. S. Afr., p. 217, pl. 3,  f. 8
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Natal coast
Type Data: Holotype in SAMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus natalis Sowerby ii, 1858
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Nataliconus Species:-natalis gilchristi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Iconography  C. natalis
The form gilchristi of C. natalis  Sowerby II, 1858 corresponds to specimens taken from deeper water, which are often narrower, with a higher spire than the shallow water (typical) form, although considerable intergrades do exist. Such specimens apparently have a tendency to present the reduced pattern described above, where the tent pattern is mostly absent, the axial lines becoming very sparse and the decoration restricted to the spiral banding. The background color of the body whorl is often bluish grey.
Discussion:-The name C. gilchristi has been used for referring to deep water, more conical specimens of  C. natalis usually dived off Park Rynie, near the northernmost end of the range of distribution for the species (Smith, 1992). These are possibly just an ecological variant of the nominal species.

 

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Conus  gilvus  Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  Suppl., pl. vi,  sp. 255
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Saldanha Bay (South Africa) erroneus: Solomon Islands
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-gilvus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Indonesia (?)
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m; on dark sand bottom
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl conical, outline nearly straight. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture often weak on last ramps. Last whorl with widely spaced spiral ribs at base.
Last whorl brownish olive or bluish brown, with a bluish grey line at shoulder edge and a bluish grey spiral band at centre; central band usually with spiral rows of brown dots. Dotted brown spiral lines may also be present on basal third. Larval shell brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps irregularly maculated with tannish olive and bluish grey; outer margins bluish grey with irregular brown markings. Aperture bluish white or light violet deeper within; central pale band variably distinct.
Shell Morphometry
L 24-32 mm.09
RW 0.15-0.15 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.66
PMD 0.86-0.89
RSH 0.10-0.14
Discussion:-C. gilvus resembles C. hyaena concolor, which can be separated by its larger size (40-57 mm), sometimes narrower last whorl (RD 0.56-0.65), and by the larger number of spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps.

 

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Conus giorossii   Bozzetti L.,  2005

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia Mostra Mondiale 48, 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: SE of Flores, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:Phasmoconus Species:-giorossii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Flores, Indonesia
Habitat:-Found at depths of up to 6 meters.
Description:-Source Original description Malacological Mostra Mondiale March 2005
This species is, light, shiny; last whorl conical to ventricosely conical, right side convex, left side convex adapically, slightly concave on the anterior third. Smooth finish to body whorl in the adapical half , with sculpture of 15 spiral grooves in the abapical half. Aperture slightly wider near the base, outside lip thin. Body color pale rose-violet; with two spiral broken bands of golden ochre constituted from points, dashes, rectangular marks and flammules occasionally merging to form irregular blocks; similar markings are sometimes present at the shoulder and near the base. The pattern of the last whorl is completed by spiral lines constituted from points, dashes, small markings of the same color. Bands/radial flammules, broken and irregular, color ochre more apparent on the outer whorls of the teleconch, on the last whorl not reaching the shoulder; the pattern is absent on the first whorls of teleconch which is slightly darkened body colour, protoconch white, translucent, siphonal fasciole white. Color of the aperture ochre-orange to ochre-rose on white base.

Discussion:-C. giorossii sp. n. is recognised, by the characteristic morphological and ornament of the shell, from the group sertacinctus-solomonensis.

 

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Conus  gladiator   Broderip  & Sowerby,  1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1833, p. 55
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Panama
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gladioconus Species:-gladiator
Synonyms:-
cibieli Kiener, 1845; gloynei Sowerby iii, 1881; evelynae Sowerby iii, 1882
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W Mexico - Peru; Galapagos
Habitat:-Under rocks and rubble up to 10 m
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light in weight; dull; low conical or obconical, the sides slightly convex; body whorl with several widely spaced spiral ridges above base; numerous heavy spiral and axial threads over whole whorl; shoulder broad, angled, with low coronations; spire low to flat, bluntly pointed, the side concave; whorls slightly concave above, with 2-3 indistinct spiral ridges crossed by curved axial threads; Body whorl whitish to pale yellowish tan, with weak to strong irregular axial brownish flammules above and below midbody; flammules may form bands or be absent; usually many short brownish dashes to background; base whitish; spire and shoulder tan to dark brown, the coronations whitish; tops of whorls may be uniform dark brown or light brown/white with dark spots; aperture moderately wide ,mouth white with pattern showing through.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  glans  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 735
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius; African seas, Moluccas & Ile de France, (Mauritius), restricted (Kohn) to Mauritius.
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-glans
Synonyms:-
fusiformis G. Fischer, 1807; violaceus Link, 1807; granulata Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-Indo-W Pacific
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to about 30 m. In Fiji, under corals on reefs. In New Caledonia, on debris, shell sand and dead corals in 2- 10 m. In the E. Indian Ocean, on subtidal coral reef platforms and reef slopes.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl usually cylindrical, sometimes ovate, ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline straight and parallel-sided adapically to uniformly convex; left side concave at base. Shoulder indistinct to rounded. Spire of moderate height to high, outline convex. Larval shell paucispiral in Sri Lanka (Kohn, 1961 b), of about 2.5 whorls in Philippines specimens, and of 3 or more whorls in specimens from Samoa; maximum diameter 0.6-0.7 mm. First 4-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 0-1 increasing to 3-7 spiral grooves and often granulose strong ribs between; spiral sculpture sometimes very weak on last ramps. Last whorl with distinct, often granulose, closely spaced spiral ribs from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale blue, suffused with blue or violet. Last whorl variably encircled with 2-3 bluish-brown bands, leaving light zones of different shades of grey, blue, violet or brown, occasionally overlaid with brown or blue axial streaks. Base usually dark violet. Larval shell and first 4-5 postnuclear sutural ramps pink to orange. Aperture light blue behind a violet marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-60 mm
RW 0.07-0.25 g/mm
(L 27-44 mm)
RD 0.52-0.65
PMD 0.66-0.84
RSH 0.16-0.26
Discussion:-C. glans is the most similar species to C.  tenuistriatus; specimens are often difficult to distinguish. On the sutural ramps, C. glans has usually strong spiral grooves separated by granulose ribs rather than weak spiral grooves or striae as in C. tenuistriatus. C. glans also has a generally cylindrical last whorl (PMD 0.66-0.84) with stronger, somewhat less closely spaced spiral ribs.
C. coffeae resembles C. glans. C. glans can be distinguished by its usually narrower and cylindrical last whorl (RD 0.52-0.65), generally less distinct shoulder and more prominent spiral sculpture on the teleoconch sutural ramps; its colour pattern is dominated by bluish brown rather than pure brown.

 

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Conus  glaucus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Rumphius (1705,  Pl. 33,  fig. GG)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1 p. 714
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Asia
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Rumphius (1705,  Pl. 33,  fig. GG)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-glaucus
Synonyms:-
fraxineus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-Indonesia to Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is. and Vanuatu.
Habitat:-Intertidal and shallow subtidal; mainly on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical, occasionally slightly pyriform; outline convex adapically, less so toward base; left side my be concave near base. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire low, outline almost straight to concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly convex to slightly concave, with spiral striae. Last whorl with pronounced spiral ribs of varying width at base.
Ground colour bluish grey. Last whorl with spiral rows of fine brown dots and dashes and intermittent, often obsolete white dashes. Base, siphonal fasciole and basal part of columella immaculate, sometimes brown. Early teleoconch sutural ramps brown; later ramps with blackish brown to black radial streaks or blotches, sometimes extending on last whorl, where they are lighter and form axial streaks. Aperture pale brown in subadults, bluish white in adults.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-65 mm
RW 0.25-1.10 g/mm
(L 35-65 mm)
RD 0.67-0.76
PMD 0.72-0.84
RSH 0.04-0.09
Discussion:

 

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Conus  glenni   Petuch,  1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxv, no. 266,  p. 57, f. 1-2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: East of Moro Tupo, San Blas Islands, Panama
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gladioconus Species:-glenni
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-E.  Panama
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Original description
Shell average size for subgenus, slightly inflated, bullet-shaped, widest around midbody; shoulder distinctly rounded, edged with poorly developed peripheral cord; spire elevated, with protracted, somewhat scalariform whorls; spire whorls distinctly rounded, convex in outline; body whorl heavily sculptured with numerous large, coarse, closely-packed spiral cords (30 on holotype), giving the shell a rough appearance; finer secondary cords sometimes present between large primary cords, particularly around anterior end; spire whorls ornamented with 4 large, coarse spiral cords; early whorls exerted; protoconch large, mamillate; aperture narrow; shell color uniformly bright orange with distinct pinkish-white midbody band; midbody band with variable numbers of larger, evenly-spaced pale brown and white amorphous flammules; few tiny dark brown dots are irregularly scattered around central part of shell and on midbody band; spire, bright orange with scattered, amorphous, pale pinkish-white flammules; early whorls and protoconch reddish-orange; interior of aperture pale pink; periostracum thin, transparent.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  glicksteini  Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 30, pl. 5, figs. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Palm Beach Island, Palm Beach Co., Florida; 120 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus amphiurgus Dall, 1889
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-amphiurgus glicksteini forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Palm Beach, E. Florida
Habitat:-Around 120m.
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell small for genus, thin, delicate, with low spire; body whorl smooth and shiny, with on few weak spiral threads around anterior tip; color varying from salmon-pink to pinkish- lavender, with evenly spaced pale tan lines or rows of dots around body whorl (holotype salmon- pink with only few rows of pale tan dots around mid-body); all specimens with paler band around mid- body and around shoulder; spire whorls with numerous pale orange, thin, crescent-shaped flammules; interior of aperture pink; protoconch and early whorls bright pink in all specimens, regardless of body whorl color; aperture narrow, shoulder slightly rounded.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gloriakiiensis  Kuroda  &  Ito,  1961

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype & Holotype in KIMN (Shell Museum) Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Venus vol. xxi, no. 3,  p. 248,  pl. 17, f. 6 & 7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Nada, Gobo, Kii Peninsula, Japan.
Type Data: Holotype was in KIMN (Shell Museum) and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 51.7 x 21.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus recluzianus Bernardi, 1853
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-recluzianus gloriakiiensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan
Habitat:-Found at depths of  25-250 m
Description:-
C. gloriakiiensis is used by collectors for white or brightly colored shells
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  gloriamaris   Chemnitz,  1777

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Beschaftigungen Berlin Ges. Naturf. Freunde. 3,  p. 321, pl. viii,  f. A
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Holotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 92 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-gloriamaris
Synonyms:-
gloriamaris Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; gloria Bosc, 1801
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is., Samoa, and Fiji; also recorded from E. Indonesia
Habitat:-In 10-300 m, on sand and mud bottoms
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly conical; outline convex near shoulder, straight below. Depth of exhalent notch about 1/3 of maximum diameter. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire usually of moderate height, stepped; outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 1 mm. First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 5-10 fine spiral grooves; sculpture very weak in latest whorls. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs basally and distinct spiral striae above.
Ground colour white; edges of late postnuclear whorls may be tinged with blue and last whorl may have blue axial streaks; blue shading most prominent in shells from Solomon Islands. Last whorl with a network of fine orangish brown to brown lines producing tiny to small tents and with usually 3 spiral rows or bands of yellowish brown blotches, below shoulder, just above centre, and within basal third. Brown zones with broad dark brown axial lines and dotted to solid spiral lines variably articulated with white dots and tents. Larval whorls orange to pink. First 3-4.5 postnuclear sutural ramps pink, immaculate in first 0.5-3 whorls and with brown marginal dots in remaining whorls. Following sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 75-162 mm
RW 0.35-0.83 g/mm
(L 75-147 mm)
RD 0.45-0.50
PMD 0.79-0.86
RSH 0.18-0.24
Discussion:-C. gloriamaris resembles C. textile and C. bengalensis. C. textile differs in its broader last whorl (RD 0.50-0.72) with a less straight outline and in its lower spire (RSH 0.11-0.20); its aperture is relatively wider at base and its exhalent notch not so deep.
C. gloriamaris can be distinguished from C. bengalensis by its broader last whorl (RD 0.45-0.50), less angulate shoulder, more convex outline below shoulder, and by its finer pattern with smaller tents and 3 rather than 2 broad spiral bands of yellowish brown blotches on the last whorl

 

----------

 

Conus  glorioceanus  Poppe  &  Tagaro,  2009

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Guido Poppe

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 2 (4) 52-56
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mindanao, Philippies
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49.6 x 25.1mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-glorioceanus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mindanao, Philippines
Habitat:-Founds at depths of 80-150 m
Description:-Source original description
The shape is broadly conical and the outline of the last whorl is straight. The shoulder is broadly carinate and smooth. The outline of the spire is concave. The base color of the body whorl is white and this is covered with a fine pattern of small triangles, usually called tents. The tents are more dense in some areas and as such form two broad, darker, spiral bands. The color is light golden brown. Within this general pattern and especially within the two darker bands, there are even darker axial streaks. The inside of the aperture is solid pure white.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  goajira  Petuch, 1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Alan Kohn

Published in: La Conchiglia xxiii, no. 264,  p. 39, figs. 7 & 8
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Cabo la Vela, Goajira Peninsula, Colombia; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of  Conus daucus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-daucus goajira forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Columbia
Habitat:-Mud and broken shell at 35 m
Description:-Source: original description
Shell stocky, distinctly turnip-shaped, widest in subshoulder area, tapering abruptly to anterior tip; sides of body whorl anterior of subshoulder area distinctly concave; shoulder sharply angled, non-carinated, undulating slightly along periphery; spire slightly elevated, sloping; body whorl polished, ornamented with extremely numerous fine, closely-packed spiral threads, giving shell surface a silky appearance; spire whorls with 5 coarse spiral threads; anterior tip encircled by 8 low, smooth spiral cords; aperture narrow; shell color violet (paratype), pale violet (holotype), or sometimes yellow, overlaid with distinct, large brown evenly spaced, zebra-striped flammules on anterior
half of body whorl; posterior half of body whorl with scattered, evenly -spaced, small pale tan mottlings, mostly along shoulder region; anterior zebra-striping and posterior mottling, in turn, overlaid with faint, irregularly- spaced, pale tan thin spiral bands; spire whorls same color as body whorl; marked with regularly-spaced, crescent- shaped brown flammules; edge of shoulder marked with small brown spots, corresponding to spire flammules; protoconch and early whorls same colour as body whorl; interior of aperture same color as body whorl (pale violet in holotype); periostracum unknown.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  gondwanensis  Röckel,  Richard & Moolenbeek,  1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. clxvii,  p. 572,  figs. 8, 9, 54
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia (23deg 41' S. 168 deg 01' E); 240 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.4 x 11.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-gondwanensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-Found at depths of 200-250 m
Description:-Source Original description
Last whorl broadly conical to slightly pyriform, sides convex above shoulder and attenuate basally. Surface of last whorl smooth, other specimens with 20 granulated ribs. Ground colour white with two broad spiral bands below and above midbody.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gonsalensis   Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 84, p. 25 - 26
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Gonçalo Bay, Maio, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 11,2 x 6,3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-gonsalensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- The specimens studied are were found to be 0.5 to 5 feet deep, and on under the rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Pyriform shell of small dimensions, with a range from 9 to 12 mm in height, protoconch eroded. Medium-high spire, with weak sutures and an almost linear profile, whorl tops crossed spirally by imperceptible furrows; the spire has large maculate markings. The aperture is wide with brownish-violet internal colouring, characterized by two light bands, almost white: one just under shoulder level and the other below mid body. The aperture outer lip is curved.

The shell has a greenish coloration with irregular sparse white spots, more concentrated in spiral median band and towards extremities. The spiral middle band is brown alternating with white spots; the lower whorl is darker.

Discussion:-

 

 

----------

 

Conus  gonsaloi  Afonso & Tenorio, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCN  Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 51 & 52, Fig. 4, pl. 2
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Praia Gonçalo located on the Northeast coast of Maio Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, West Africa.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCN, deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19,3 x 10,9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-gonsaloi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:-
A. gonsaloi occurs in fissures and holes in rocks in 0.5 to 3 metres of water. Several specimens have also been seen on rock platforms with covered by algae. Low densities of individuals of this species maybe related to the heavy surf conditions present most days of the year in the area that they inhabit.
Description:-Source: Original description Xenophora Taxonomy
Shell is small to moderately small. Shell profile is conical, with a subangular shoulder and a moderately elevated spire. The spire profile is straight to concave in specimens that have little erosion. Protoconch not observed due to erosion. There are 3to 4 strong, well-developed cords on the essentially flat sutural ramps. Body whorl IS smooth except for 6-7 spiral grooves on the

anterior portion. Ground color and pattern are variable. Most specimens display a white or light brown ground color, although some may be greyish-brown, or even dark brown. Last whorl and spire is patterned with thin irregular axial brown lines. These lines merge around the anterior portion of the body whorl, which usually appears dark brown colored in most specimens. White

irregular axial markings are present on the body whorl, usually arranged in two bands above and below the mid portion. A third, narrower and less evident band may be present in some specimens. The inside of the aperture is purplish, fading to brown or light brown, divided into two zones by a white band located just below the midpoint of the body whorl. In some specimens the aperture appears almost pure white, with the purplish color barely visible deeper inside the shell. Periostracum is yellow, thin and translucent. Most of shells of the new species are subject to heavy calcareous algae incrustations, erosion and scars.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gordyi   Röckel  &  Bondarev,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Original Description

 

Published in: La Conchiglia 22 (293), p. 41
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Saya de Malha Bank, W. Indian Ocean.
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19.1 x 9.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Seen by Filmer as a synonym form of Conus papuensis
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-papuens gordyi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mascarenes, Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Found in depths down to 130 m in sandy silt and limestone debris.
Description:-. Original description La Conchiglia
Last whorl conical outline nearly straight to slightly sigmoid. Shoulder tuberculate, undulate, or carinate. Larval shell paucispiral. Last whorl with about 25 spiral ribbons from base to shoulder, separated by narrow spiral grooves with close set axial threads.
Ground color white. Last whorl with 3-in larger specimens 4-bands of orange to pinkish-orange bars or rectangular dashes. Spire variably spotted with the same color. Aperture matching the exterior surface in color, sometimes slightly violet basally. Larval shell white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  goudeyi   Monnier & Limpalaër,  2012

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Eric Monnier
Picture Link:  Eric Monnier

 

Published in: Visaya 5 (3),  41
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bourail West coast of New Caledonia, (on sand, 50 mtrs)
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 19.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-goudeyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-Found in sand at depths of 50 m.
Description:-Source Original description
The last whorl shape is conical with straight sides. The surface is smooth with a silky gloss. The posterior half of the last whorl is smooth.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus gracianus  da Motta & Blöcher in da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1, p. 16, f. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Deeper fringes of Grand Reef, Tulear, Madagascar.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size:44x15mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus aulicus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-aulicus gracianus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-In 1-30 m; on reef flats and coral reefs near dead and living corals, sand substrates or sometimes coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. aulicus.
The conchological differences between C. aulicus and shells described as C. gracianus do not justify separation at the species level. The latter shells match subadults of C. aulicus in morphometry, sculpture and colouration. RKK therefore consider C. gracianus to represent a dwarf local form of C. aulicus from Madagascar.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  gradatulus  Weinkauff,  1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Holotype of  C. turritus .Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2, p. 356, pl. 66, f. 5
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Agulhas Bank. (C. turritus Sowerby,1870)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued (C. turritus)
Type Size: 47 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. turritus Sowerby, 1870
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-gradatulus
Synonyms:-
papillaris A. Adams & Reeve, 1848; turritus Sowerby, 1870; patens Sowerby iii, 1903
Geographic Range:-S. Africa From Cape Agulhas and surrounding area to Cape Recife, near Port Elizabeth.
Habitat:-Deep water. Trawled offshore between 60 and 460 m of depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell conical, thin but solid, light, with a silky gloss. The spire is, characteristically gradated, with stepped early whorls and with a slightly concave to straight profile. The sutural ramps are concave, with the margins usually roundly carinated, smooth. The shoulder is subangulate. Last whorl smooth, with straight or slightly convex sides, tapering towards the base. The ground color is white, pinkish or pale beige. Pattern consisting of irregular orange-brown flammules or blotches usually arranged in spiral bands, with a broader one at the mid-body and two other located above the base and below the shoulder respectively.

Discussion:-Tenorio et al.  have split C. gradatulus into two geographical subspecies, namely C. gradatulus gradatulus and C. gradatulus patens, inhabiting deep water to the east and to the west of Cape Agulhas respectively.

 

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Conus  gradatulus  patens  Sowerby iii, 1903

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMC Mike Filmer

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Published in: Mar. Inv. S. Afr.,  p. 218, pl. 3, f. 7
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Vasco da Gama Park, South Africa (Atlantic coast), green sand, deep water.
Type Data: Holotype in SAMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 68 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus gradatulus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-gradatulus patens subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Africa Offshore in deep water, from Cape Peninsula to Namibia (reported as far north as Walvis Bay area).
Habitat:-Deep water; Trawled offshore between 80 and 400 m of depth
Description:-Source Iconography
General aspect of the shell as for the nominal species, but with a lower spire. The shell is white or pale beige, paternless, occasionally a few very faint markings may be present a little above the middle of the last whorl. Although the holotype of C. patens clearly corresponds to a white, thin and light shell as indicated, the name has been commonly applied to heavy, chalky white shells, often with fossil appearance even in live taken specimens. The interior of the aperture of these shells is straw-yellow, occasionally pale pink. The operculum is very small for the size of the shell.
Discussion:-The lower spire and the absence of pattern readily separate the shells of Atlantic C. gradatulus patens from the higher-spired and patterned shel1s of C. gradatulus gradatulus from the Indian Ocean. For now, and upon the information currently available, T, M consider the heavy, chalky shells as ecological forms (probably as result of adaptation to an environment of corrosive sand or mud) of C. gradatulus patens.
C. gradatulus patens is similar to C. teramachii, but it lacks the rim like carinate margins and the heavy nodules on the early whorls of the latter. Besides, the ground color of C. teramachii is different.

 

----------

 

Conus  gradatus  Wood, 1828

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in SBMNH Manolo Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Test. Suppl., p. 8,  pl. 3, f. 6
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: California, restricted (da Motta) to Isla San Pedro, Matir, Gulf of California.
Type Data: Neotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.8 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-gradatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W. Mexico - Peru
Habitat:-Found exposed on rubble in depths to 65 feet
Description:-Source Da Motta 1889
The shell, averaging 40 rmn, is almost cylindrical with an acuminate and scalariform spire, consisting of eight spiral whorls, topped by a double-whorled protoconch; surface of spire whorls flat, etched with arcuate striae, sloping at an angle, with the edges folding slightly inward. Several post- nuclear whorls are obsoletely beaded, otherwise the whorls are smoothly carinate. The shoulders are narrowly angulate; the sides are immediately flat, and taper down the attenuated length. Body whorl is smooth with a waxy gloss. A few shallow grooves are incised at the anterior end where the columella is not visible externally. Aperture is laterally narrow with a trenchant outer lip. Ground color is tan throughout, The spiral whorls marked with reddish brown strands in an irregular radial pattern. Body whorl is decorated with lines of smaller dots. The pattern is smeared with patches of the same color without any particular order. The interior is the same ground color as the body whorl. Periostracum is fawn color and translucent.
Discussion:-A neotype has been allocated in the Iconography 2012.

 

----------

 

Conus  grahami  Röckel,  von  Cosel  &  Burnay,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: La Conchiglia 12 (130-1:10)
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sao Vincent, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-grahami
Synonyms:-
longilineus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980; luziensis Rolán, Röckel & Monteiro, 1983
Geographic Range:-Sao Vicente, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-In sand under stones
Description:-Source: Röckel,  Rolán & Monteiro  Cape Verde book 1980
Cone with a small, bulgy, high spired dark olive- greenish shell. The body whorl is convex-sided and has a rounded shoulder; its surface is smooth, except in its anterior portion, where some weak spiral cords are present. The spire whorls present 3 to 5 well visible spiral grooves.
The dark olive-green colour is interrupted by two spiral rows of irregular white spots, forming a variable pattern. On the anterior white row, brown spots are often present. Moreover, the body whorl presents many inconspicuous dark spiral lines, sometimes interrupted by white dots. The spire also presents white dots on a green background.
The aperture is light whitish violet, in juvenile specimens whole mouth violet, at mid-body and under the shoulder presenting white spiral bands.
Recently, different populations of the same species were found in Sal island and in S. Luzia island, with differences from the typical form so constant and obvious that we present them here as two new subspecies:
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus  grahami  f. longilineus   Röckel,  Rolán  &  Monteiro, 1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cone Shells form Cape Verde Is., p. 85, f. 56-7
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal Is., Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.8 x 8.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus grahami Röckel, von Cosel & Burnay, 1980
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-grahami longilineus forma; described as a subspecies
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands.
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source: Original description  C.  grahami
C. g. longilineus s.sp.
The specimens from Sal are much smaller and more elongated, with a fine pattern of white dots on a light green ground colour. The strongly elongated shape and the particularly fine pattern separate the present subspecies from C. grahami grahami and C. grahami pseudoventricosus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  grahami  f.  luziensis  Rolán,  Röckel  & Monteiro, 1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype C. pseudoventricosus Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Alexander Medvedev

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xv,  no. 174-175, p. 17
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Santa Luzia, Cape Verde Islands.(C. pseudoventricosus)
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Tursch (C.pseudoventricosus) and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 30.5 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. pseudoventricosus Röckel, Rolán, Monteiro.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus grahami  Röckel, von Cosel & Burnay, 1980
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-grahami luziensis forma
Synonyms:-
pseudoventricosus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-On sand bottoms
Description:-Source Original description C. pseudoventricosus
The specimens collected have a bluish-white ground colour, with yellowish to dark olive green spiral zones, and presenting some light coloured spiral bands, usually near the shoulder, on the upper third of the body whorl and below mid-body. The entire surface of the body whorl is covered with very fine spiral lines, consisting of white and dark dots. The aperture is dark violet with two white bands, at the shoulder and below mid-body, near the lip, whereas the inner portion is white.
The body whorl is heavily inflated, with convex sides, giving the shell a broad appearance. The spire whorls show three strong spiral grooves and the first post-embrionic whorls are dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  granarius   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Kiener (1845,  pl. 98,  fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p.215, pl. 98, f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: There is a cited figure : Kiener (1845, pl. 98, fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa granarius subsp.
Synonyms:-
interstinctus Guppy, 1866; desmotus Tomlin, 1937; panamicus Petuch, 1990
Geographic Range:-Panama to Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on muddy sand or silt, often with calcareous algae and sponges at depths of 3 to 50 m
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa granarius from the mineral substrate in the Santa Marta area differs from other populations of C. mappa in having the background colour purplish grey to bluish violet. In some specimens the background even looks darker than the light orange patches and maculations. On the other hand specimens from calcareous algae bottoms usually have a white, cream or pinkish white background. The patches or maculations may be orange, yellowish brown, reddish brown or dark chocolate brown and may sometimes even be missing. The shape of C. mappa granarius is variable with deeper water specimens being very high-spired. The surface is often strongly granulated. The internal restriction is very strong.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish or purplish grey to bluish violet, with often only a few orange to dark brown patches or maculations, sometimes reduced to narrow spiral bands only. Surface more or less strongly granulated. Internal restriction always strong to very strong. Aperture white to pale violet or brownish. Spire moderately high to very high
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus granarius  panamicus  Petuch,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2),  p. 67, f. 26 &  27
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Portobelo, Panama.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus granarius Kiener, 1845 or a subspecies of that species
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name panamicus

 

 

Conus  granarius  f.  sanctaemarthae  Vink,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RNHL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Meded. (Leiden). Li,  no. 5,  p. 91,  pl. 1,  f. 5., pl. 4, f. 4-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Ten km. north of Santa Marta, Colombia.
Type Data: Holotype in RNHL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 29.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786 or Conus  granarius   Kiener,  1845

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa sanctaemarthae forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Columbia
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Original description
The background is purplish grey with various, somewhat darker bands and numerous spiral lines of alternating cream and dark brown streaks. The spiral lines , weakly sculptured near base are close together. On several specimens there are addtional yellow brown to reddish brown maculations. Spire moderately concave, whorls caniculate except for early whorls which are tuberculated. Shoulder on body whorl smooth. There is strong internal restriction in aperture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  grangeri   Sowerby iii,  1900

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7,  p. 441,  pl. xi,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-grangeri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; Sri Lanka;
Habitat:-In the Red Sea, on silt or sand in 210-800 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical third, straight below; left side sigmoid. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to straight. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.95 mm. About first 4 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 5-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with single or paired granulose spiral ribs on basal half. Within adapical half, most ribs replaced by ribbons. In large specimens, sculpture obsolete adapically.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with yellow to brown axial flames and spirally aligned bars forming a variably distinct spiral band on each side of centre; an additional subshoulder band may be present. Larval whorl white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with radial streaks and blotches matching pattern of last whorl in colour. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 31-58 mm
RW 0.11-0.37 g/mm
RD 0.56-0.68
PMD 0.80-0.87
RSH 0.12-0.23
Discussion:-C. grangeri is most similar to C. rolani. The latter species is distinguished by its tuberculate postnuclear whorls, more larval whorls and strong sculpture on the last whorl, even in large specimens.

 

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Conus  granifer   Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, Suppl.,  pl. vii, sp. 272.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 12 mm figure

Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus granifer forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-
Shell Morphometry
L 35-71 mm
RW 0.10-0.40 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.69
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.03-0.23
-C. granifer : Last whorl conical, outline convex. Shoulder often undulate. Number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls comparatively high. Granulose spiral ribs often extend from base to shoulder. Ground colour white to brown. Spiral rows of brown dots on and between granulose ribs. Intergrades with form cecilei in shape in Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, but differs in its granulose surface.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  granulatus   Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1 p. 716
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: African Ocean, (erroneous), corrected (Clench) Jamaica.
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gladioconus Species:-granulatus
Synonyms:-
laetus Gmelin, 1791; verulosus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; antillarum Röding, 1798; roseus G. Fischer, 1807; espinosai Sarasua, 1977
Geographic Range:-E Florida, USA - Panama; Cuba - Martinique; Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Habitat:-Offshore rock slabs
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy with a good gloss; rather cylindrical, the upper sides straight and nearly parallel or convex; body whorl covered with broad spiral ribs separated by narrow grooves; the ribs seen to made of two fused ridges; numerous heavy axial threads, shoulder rounded, narrow, convex above; spire low to moderate, the sides straight to convex, pointed often eroded; early 4-6 whorls nodulose; spire whorls often weakly stepped; body whorl creamy pink to bright red, covered with many spiral rows of small brown dashes and often broad tan to dark brown bands and flammules; in fresh specimens the shell is brightest red with distinct brown flammules and bands; usually with a well marked whitish/pale pink spiral band at midbody with posteriorly dark brown irregular squares; spire and shoulder pinkish to white with dark brown to reddish spaced spots formed as extension of flammules; aperture Narrow posteriorly wider anteriorly; outer lip thin straight to convex; mouth pink to white;
Discussion:-Tucker comments: The Glory of the Atlantic cone is well known but some of the variations have been troublesome. This particularly involves specimens with reduced body ornamentation. The body can be ornamented by deep sulci ( the lectotype). Others have moderately developed ridges and sulci. Still, others are essentially smooth bodied. They do, however, retain the bright colors and usually have yellow colored early whorls. The first name given to these was G. espinosai Sarasua.

 

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Conus  granulosa  Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. Ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 32
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboin, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41.1 x 21.4mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- an available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. granulosus Röding, 1798, of Sowerby, 1834, of Barros E Cunha, 1933, of C. granulosa Lamarck, 1822 and of Barros E Cunha, 1933
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym form (invalid name) for granulose C. arenatus Hwass, 1792.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name granulosa
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-granulosa is a homonym and invalid name widely used.
We deal with granulated specimens.

 

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Conus  granum   Röckel  &  Fischöder,  1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZSM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spixiana viii, no. 1,  p. 67, f. 1 - 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Manobol, Sulu Archipelago, Philippine Islands.
Type Data: Holotype in ZSM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.8 x 10.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-granum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan - Fiji & New Caledonia; Maldives; W Thailand
Habitat:-In 25-240 m, in sand and coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually narrowly ovate to ovate or ventricosely conical; outline usually convex; left side may be concave at base. Shoulder indistinct, sometimes rounded. Spire of moderate height to high, outline sigmoid to convex. Larval shell of 2.75- 3.25 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.70 mm. First 2.5-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 1 increasing to 3 spiral grooves in early whorls and with weak spiral striae in later whorls. Last whorl with closely spaced fine, weak to distinct spiral ribs from base to shoulder.
Ground colour bluish violet, reddish violet in the Indian Ocean. Last whorl with three violet-brown spiral bands, below shoulder, at centre and within basal third. Subcentral band often adapically bordered by dark brown spots. Larval whorls and first 2-3 postnuclear sutural ramps reddish violet. Following sutural ramps with pale brown radial blotches. Aperture whitish violet behind a translucent marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-36 mm
RW 0.04-0.10 g/mm
RD 0.45-0.55
PMD 0.71-0.85
RSH 0.18-0.26
Discussion:-Before its description, C. granum was sometimes identified as C. luteus or C. tenuistriatus, although these are markedly larger species. C. luteus differs in its more distinct shoulder, largely smooth surface, broader (0.95-1.1 mm) and yellow larval shell, and in colour pattern with brown spiral lines on the last whorl. C. nucleus can be distinguished by its orange to olive-brown colour, largeley smooth surface, and smaller number (1-3 vs. 2.5-5) of weakly rather than distinctly tuberculate early postnuclear whorls; its larval shell is yellow, broader (0.9 mm), and comprises 4 whorls.
Indian Ocean specimens (Pinkish) differ from typical C. granum (Brown/Purple) only in the ground color of their shells; we therefore consider them to represent the same species.

 

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Conus  gratacapii   Pilsbry,  1904

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in ANSP Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 56 (1), p. 7, pl. 1, figs 10 & 10 a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Japan(Fossil)
Type Data: Syntype in ANSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size:  two syntypes: 29.8 x 11 mm and  37.9 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Turriconus Species:-gratacapii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan; Ryukyu Islands
Habitat:-Recent shells are reported from deep water
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small. Last whorl conical; outline of right side straight, of left side slightly sigmoid. Shoulder angulate. Spire high, outline almost straight. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with 7-8 spiral grooves in later whorls. Last whorl with spiral grooves from base to shoulder, deeper and more closely spaced basally. Colour white.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-31 mm
RW -
RD 0.54-0.56
PMD 0.89-0.95
RSH 0.34-0.39
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  grohi  Tenorio  &  Poppe,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (1),  p. 22
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, Phillipines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus spirofilis Habe & Kosuge, 1970
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:-spirofilis grohi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Aliguay Is, Philippines
Habitat:-Found around 100m on mud.
Description:-Source Original description Visaya
Moderately small to small shell. The profile is broadly conical, with a moderate spire and a carinate shoulder. Outline of the last whorl sigmoid, convex adapically and concave basally: shape pyriform. Spire concave with a a concave sutural ramp. Protoconch with 3 globose white and transluscent whorls. In all three the specimen the very upper part (first half or first whorl) of the protoconch is broken, probably due to improper handling. The sutural ramps are covered with numerous axial grooves and very faint spiral grooves near the suture. These spiral grooves become more prominent on the last whorl. The carina of the first three teleoconch whorls is tuberculate. Suture deep and wide.
Last whorl very glossy, the basal third is covered with regularly spaced spiral grooves. They number between 6 and 10 on the dorsum according to the specimen. The aperture is rather narrow and the inside has the same colour as the base colour of the shell which is mainly ivory white with a tinge of pink. The pattern of the spire consists of faint brown radial flecks. Two of the three specimens have oblique shoulder spots on the carina. The last whorl is covered with fine spiral rows of dashes that number between 7 and 19 according to the specimen. They may be well pronounced as in paratype l or hardly visible as in the holotype. Three bands of interrupted cloudy brown blotches are present. They vary in strength between hardly visible in paratype 2 to very prominent in paratype I. The upper band is less pronounced than both others. The columella is more pale than the rest of the shell.
Discussion:-The closest relative to Conus grohi is Conus spirofilis Habe & Kosuge, 1970. spirofilis. At first glance both species look similar but multiple small details differentiate them. The sutural ramp of C. grohi is much more concave than in C. spirofilis. C. grohi is slightly broader than C. spirofilis and its spire is not so pointed. The spiral grooves on the lower half of C. grohi are much more pronounced and often obsolete in C. spirofilis. Apart from these differences in shape both species have a superficial resemblance in pattern and colour. However, C. grohi is more pinkish coloured and the whole pattern is rather in soft tones -pastels.

 

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Conus  grondini  Larue, 1985  A nomen nudum; only listed for reference

 

No pictures available

Published in: Xenophora 69, 19
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 42 mm
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), description conditional
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

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Conus  guanahacabibensis  Espinosa &  Ortea, 2016

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype  in  MNHNC  Espinosa & Ortea

 

Published in: Rev. Acad. Canar. Cienc., Vol. XXVIII, 209-214; Pl. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality:
Playa María la Gorda, península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba
Type Data: Holotype in
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15.1 x 8.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-guanahacabibensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cuba


Habitat:-On rocks
Description:-Vink Original description

Shell of  biconic shape, very wide, with convex sides and medium size compared to other Antillean species of the genus. Protoconch mammilate, with almost two smooth whorls. Teleoconch with about six whorls, adorned on the spire only by thin axial growth lines. The sculpture of the last whorl is formed by 16 to 18 low spiral cords and axial growth lines which form small nodules when cutting the cords but vanish towards the ends of the shell; in addition, there is a secondary spiral cord inserted between the two primaries below the shoulder of the last whorl. On the shoulder there are relatively large and somewhat irregular nodules, mostly colored white, which are also on the edges of the remaining whorls tops. The background color of the shell is brown, with a darker spiral band on the shoulder of the whorls and another towards the middle portion of the last whorl, both with large white spots; the protoconch and the first whorls of the teleoconch are yellow and the remainder of the spire is white with dark spots and fine brown lines. The aperture inside is also brown, some specimens have a purplish white tint in their anterior part.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  guanche  Lauer, 1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Apex viii, no. 1-2,  p. 37, f. 3-5
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Punta Blanca, Tenerife, Canary Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-guanche
Synonyms:-
nitens Lauer, 1993
Geographic Range:- Canaries, W. Sahara, Mauritania
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
The shell is small to moderately small (normal length: 25 to 30 mm), with a moderately raised spire. The suture is well marked, lined with dark brown.
The background color of the shell is usually bluish, with many fine brownish markings forming a very irregular pattern. Every population seems to have its own morphological characteristics (size, shape, pattern). Thus, there are shells uniformly colored rusty brown, as well as nearly white ones, with very reduced pattern. Exceptional specimens can be reddish-orange. The aperture is bluish white within.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  gubba  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection Gubba Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl. 104, f. 1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 289,  pl. 104, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Gubba and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 38mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus cinereus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-cinereus gubba forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Manus Island, PNG
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. cinereus
C. gubba was described as having a uniformly blackish brown adult shell, and a juvenile shell with white flecks. It seems to be restricted to Manus Id., Papua New Guinea. It cannot be separated from C. cinereus by shape or sculpture of the shell but its distinctive colouration and limited distribution may justify subspecies status.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  gubernator   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 727
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 76 x 34 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator
Synonyms:-
terminus Lamarck, 1810; leehmani Rockel & da Motta, 1979; veillardi da Motta, 1990;
Geographic Range:-Natal and Madagascar to Somalia, Mascarenes, and Seychelles to Chagos and to Maldives and Laccadives.
Habitat:-In Mozambique, in the low intertidal zone in sheltered or semi-sheltered habitats, on muddy sand and sand. in Natal, in depths below 30 m; in the Mascarenes, in 40-60 m; in the Chagos Archipelago, in 0.3-3.0 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical in form leehmani, also narrowly conical and narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical in typical form and intermediate shells; outline slightly to sometimes strongly convex at adapical fourth to third, straight below; adapical fourth often bulbous and central area slightly concave in form leehmani and intermediate shells. Siphonal fasciole and siphonal notch ranging from indistinct to prominent. Shoulder angulate to usually carinate. Spire of low to moderate height; outline slightly convex or slightly sigmoid to concave, concave to deeply concave in form leehmani. Larval shell of 2.5-2.75 whorls (form leehmani); maximum diameter about 0.8 mm in form leehmani, 0.8-1.2 mm in typical form. First 4-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat in early whorls, concave to deeply concave in late whorls, with 0- 1 increasing to 5- 10 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture weak to obsolete on latest ramps. Last whorl with several shallow spiral grooves on basal fourth to third and variably broad ribbons between; fine spiral threads extending from shoulder to base, occasionally coarser on basal ribbons.
Typical form : Ground colour white, often suffused with violet and less commonly with grey or brown. Last whorl with separate or confluent tan, reddish or blackish brown axial markings. Each marking may have two different shades of brown; surface often with underlying yellowish brown to violet background pattern. Violet tints more pronounced in specimens from Mozambique, Madagascar and Aldabra Is. than in shells from more northern localities. Axial markings variable in size and shape, ranging from irregular flecks to large, often zigzag flames. Pattern elements evenly distributed across last whorl or clustered in spiral rows on both sides of centre; rows may partially fuse into solid bands. Shells lacking surface pattern elements intergrade with shells with a heavily blotched and banded last whorl. Siphonal fasciole white, occasionally tinged with yellowish brown. Larval whorls and first 1-4 postnuclear sutural ramps white to orange, or light pink. Following sutural ramps with yellowish to reddish or dark brown radial blotches, streaks or lines. Aperture white to bluish white; occasionally bright orange deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-106 mm
RW 0.27-0.95 g/mm
(L 50-93 mm)
RD 0.46-0.55
(Mozambique, Tanzania, Madagascar, Somalia; 0.48-0.57 Amirantes, Seychelles, Mascarenes, Sri Lanka; 0.55-0.64 Maldives, Laccadives)
PMD 0.78-0.90
RSH 0.04-0.15
Form C. g. terminus is slim and widest below shoulder. It has brown markings in wavy axial patterns on white background.
Form C. g. veillardi some shell with orange and white pattern fron Western Indian Ocean;
Discussion:-C. gubernator is most similar to C. striatus, with which it broadly co-occurs. C. striatus is distinguished by more cylindrical or ovate last whorl (PMD 0.69- 0.82) and its larval shell of about 3.5 (vs. 2.75) whorls. Its typical form and form floridus differ also in the prominent spiral lines on the last whorl. C. magus may also be similar to typical C. gubernator. It differs in its angulate to subangulate shoulder and its more prominent spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps; spiral rows of dots and dashes on the last whorl are absent in C. gubernator. Conchological similarities in size, sculpture of last whorl and spire as well as colour pattern suggest that C. gubernator and the form originally described as C. leehmani are conspecific. The latter occurs mainly in the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes and occasionally in Mozambique. Specimens from Chagos, Seychelles, Amirantes, and Mascarenes are intermediate in shell morphology, colour pattern, and apex colouration between typical C. gubernator and form leehmani. The species originally described as C. veillardi differs from C. gubernator only in its smaller adult size. Colour pattern of the last whorl, aperture colour and sculpture of the shell agree with C. gubernator and we regard C. veillardi as a local variant. Shells of smaller adult size but otherwise not separable from typical C. gubernator are known also from the nearby Aldabra Is.

 

 

Conus  gubernator  f.  leehmani   Röckel  &  da Motta,  1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xi, no. 122-123,  p. 17
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65.3 x 34 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator leehmani forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maldives, Laccadive Islands
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m
Description:-
Form leehmani : ground colour white to cream. Last whorl with a yellowish brown spiral band on each side of centre; an additional spiral band may be present below shoulder. Spiral colour bands separate or connected by a variable number of identically coloured axial streaks to broad bands. Dark or reddish brown spots or axial streaks or blotches mostly over spiral bands; markings usually sparse and irregularly spaced, occasionally absent. Siphonal fasciole white or tinged with yellow. Larval and first 1-4 postnuclear sutural ramps orange. Following sutural ramps with reddish brown radial blotches. Aperture white, pale orange deep within in some specimens.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  gubernator  f.  terminus   Lamarck,  1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Kiener (1845, pl. 48,  fig. 1d)

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv, p. 426
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ocean asiatique
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Kiener (1845, pl. 48,  fig. 1d)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator terminus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m
Description:-
Form C. g. terminus is slim and widest below shoulder with long cylindrical outline.. It has brown markings in wavy axial patterns on white background.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  gubernator  f.  veillardi   da Motta,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii,  no. 253-255, p. 44
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Glorieuses Islands, western Indian Ocean
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.4 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator veillardi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Iles Glorieuse
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60m.
Description:-
The species originally described as C. veillardi differs from C. gubernator only in its smaller adult size. Colour pattern of the last whorl, aperture colour and sculpture of the shell agree with C. gubernator and we regard C. veillardi as a local variant. Shells of smaller adult size but otherwise not separable from typical C. gubernator are known.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  guidopoppei   Raybaudi G. (Massilia),  2006

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Picture from the original description
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (5),  43
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Balabac, Palawan, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.7 x 13.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-guidopoppei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Palawan, Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description

Last whorl narrowly conical, outline mostly straight; left side slightly concave above base. Shoulder sharply angulate to carinate. Ground colour white , last whorl usually with reddish brown to dark brown axial blotches, though dark brown. Yellow or orange variant are not uncommon. Closely spaced spiral rows of alternating reddish brown and white dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder leaving a less dense central belt.
Base usually white. Protoconch and early 1.5 postnuclear whorls characteristically off-white, even in dark brown coloured specimens. Aperture white in dark specimens; yellow to orange in shells with yellow or orange pattern.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  guinaicus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 697
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Guinea
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-guinaicus
Synonyms:-
franciscanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; adansonii Lamarck, 1810; grayi Reeve, 1844
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell moderately small to large (normal length: 40 to 50 mrn), with a very blunt and pyriform profile. The spire is moderately high to high, with a slightly convex profile. The ground color of the shell is usually light bluish, with a pattern of irregular, occasionally vaguely reticulated brown markings. The brown areas can be so broad as to cover the entire shell, which can even be very dark brown (i.e. specimens from Goree Island). There is a light-colored spiral band, which can be very thin or relatively wide, at about mid-body. The aperture is light bluish, with a lighter spiral band at about its central portion and another less visible one on its upper portion, both of which interrupt a brown axial zone parallel to the inner lip.
Discussion:-.

 

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Copyright  Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update March 2017