Conus  iansa  Petuch, 1979

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcii,  no. 3,  p. 524, f. 4g & h
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Abrolhos Arch., 2 km E. Sta Barbara Is. (17deg 57' S. 38deg 41' W); 25 m.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus iansa forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Abrolhos, Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths from 1-25 m.
Description:-Source: Original description
Small, shiny squat, with wide, heavily coronated shoulder; anterior half of last whorl with 8-15 deeply impressed spiral sulci, posterior half smooth; spire elevated with mamillate protoconch; color variable, ranging from white to shades of pink and orange; color pattern composed of series of dots and dashes in close-packed spiral rows overlaid with large amorphous patches of darker color; some specimens greyish-white with bright white color pattern; spire with alternating patches of darker color; interior of aperture white; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow, with small shaggy tufts on shoulder.
Discussion:-Conus iansa resembles no other known Western Atlantic cone shell. In some aspects. such as shell coloring and the coronated spire. The new species resembles some forms of C. otohimeae Kuroda and Ito, 1961, from Japan and Taiwan. Conus iansa may be allied to the Conus magellanicus Hwass, 1972-Conus speciosissimus Reeve, 1848 species complex of the West Indies; this assumption is based on the small shell size and strongly coronated shoulder, Members of this complex are always associated with hard-bottom communities on Caribbean reefs, and the soft-bottom habitat of C. iansa is unusual.
Note that Vink and subsequent reviewers have assigned the name to mindanus complex.
John Tucker comments:I do not agree with Vink that Jaspidiconus iansa Petuch is a synonym of J. mindanus. These two differ in shape. Specimens of J. mindanus have more of the shell length made up of the spire. In contrast, J. iansa has a longer body and a shorter spire. Most specimens of J. iansa are nodulose. In contrast, most nonpustulose specimens of J. mindanus are not nodulose. Moreover the nodules of J. iansa project more laterally than do those of J. mindanus.
John Tucker (2010) suggests that iansa, bodarti, delucai, schirrmeisteri are a group of synonyms separate from mindanus.

 

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Conus  iberogermanicus  Röckel,  Rolán  & Monteiro,  1980

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cone Shells form Cape Verde Is. p. 75, f. 48-50
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal-Rei, Boavista Is., Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 17.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus irregularis Sowerby ii, 1858
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-irregularis iberogermanicus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-Under rocks 3 m
Description:-Source Original description
The shell is bluish to bluish green and of moderate size. The anterior end is brown and on the body whorl there are two white or yellowish very narrow spiral bands: one at about midbody and a much narrower one just be- low the suture. Larger specimens show some irregular white dots around the light mid-body band.
The anterior portion of the body whorl is sculptured with 5 to 8 conspicuous grooves. The shell has a gently convex profile, sometime slightly pyriform. The spire is moderately high, with a convex profile and well marked suture. The whorls are greenish and. present a number of extremely thin spiral striae, seen under magnification.
The aperture is light bluish in the interior, becoming darker towards the lip, which is thin and straight. The edge of the lip is bright yellowish, both on the inside and on the outside. The two whitish bands mentioned for the external coloration of the shell are much stressed inside the aperture, especially the posterior one, which is always clearly seen.
Discussion:-This taxon has been considered by Moolenbeek and Elsen (1984) as a form of C. irregularis Sowerby, 1857. In the extensive study of all the characteristics of the many forms included in this taxon, different by the size, the color, the form, the existence of spiral lines, etc. there are no notable differences and no extensive variability in the aspect of the radular tooth, the egg capsules, even, in the larval shells. All it does is confirm that is a matter of a very variable species or that, some of its geographically remote populations, have arrived, in many cases, to a degree of significant differentiated evolution. This would be able to be corresponded to a superspecies in the sense in which was treated the superspecies cuneolus by Roöckel, Rolán and Monteiro (1980). Because of it, and despite a high number of specimens, radulas, capsules and larval seashells examined, it has not been possible, at the present moment, to arrive at a conclusion. I conclude, to the wait for future investigations, and it is preferable not to carry out taxanomic changes in this group of populations that can be included inside a superspecies irregularis.
This species can only be confused with C. crotchii Reeve, because of its general greenish aspect. However, the absence of spiral dark lines on the body whorl and of brown maculations around the light central band, three brown coloration of the anterior end and the conspicuous presence of a yellowish to whitish spiral band near the shoulder, as well as the colour of the aperture and the fact that they live sympatrically without intergradations readily separate the two.

 

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Conus ichinoseana  Kuroda, 1956

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Venus vol. xix, no. 1,  p. 10,  pl., f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Tosa, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NSMN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 58 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:-ichinoseana
Synonyms:-
prioris Kuroda, 1956
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines, recently reported from Vietnam; New Caledonia and Loyalty Is.; N. W. Australia.
Habitat:-Reported in 80-575 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately light to solid. Last whorl often slightly pyriform, also narrowly conical or narrowly conoid-cylindrical to sometimes conical or ventricosely conical; outline slightly convex adapically, concave to sometimes straight below. Shoulder usually carinate, with a rather deep exhalent notch. Spire high, stepped; outline almost straight. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 1.1 mm. First 8-10 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; tubercles continuing as axial costae below outer margins, weaker in late whorls and absent from last 0.5-2 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably concave, with distinct radial threads. Last whorl with weakly to deeply punctate spiral grooves and ribbons between; spiral sculpture usually absent from adapical fourth, sometimes restricted to basal third or half in large specimens. Subshoulder area with 2-3 closely set, usually fine spiral grooves generally also present in stepped preceding whorls.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2-4 variably wide and variably solid spiral bands composed of variably confluent brown flecks or blotches and sparse, irregularly arranged spiral rows of brown dashes, spots or bars. Heavily maculated shells intergrade with sparsely maculated specimens. Larval shell and earliest postnuclear sutural ramps white. Following sutural ramps with brown spots at outer margin; spots may be absent from last whorl. Aperture white, occasionally with a brown adapical blotch deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-105 mm
RW 0.08-0.34 g/mm
(L 50-86 mm)
RD 0.43-0.52
PMD 0.79-0.92
RSH 0.23-0.29
Discussion:-C. orbignyi is similar in most shell characters but has a more strongly sculptured last whorl, with distinct spiral ribbons and ribs from base to shoulder. The brown spots on its last whorl are more numerous and are typically axially aligned, while those of C. ichinoseana are sparser and spirally but not axially aligned. C. orbignyi also has distinct spiral sculpture on its sutural ramps, and often has stronger tubercles on the last whorl; its larval shell has more whorls (4 vs. 3).
C. ichinoseana is distinguished from C. comatosa by its larger size (to 105 mm), straight-sided, often higher spire (RSH 0.23-0.29), usually with larger tubercles, and by the absence of spiral grooves on its sutural ramps. In addition, C. comatosa lacks the 2-3 incised spiral grooves just below the shoulder characteristic of C. ichinoseana.
John Tucker comments the C. orbignyi (Bathyconus) has cords on the whorl tops whereas C. ichioseana (Yeddoconus) does not and as such would be in different genera.

 

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Conus  ignotus  Cargile, 1998

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Siratus ii, no. 14,  p. 9,  figs. 1-4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Quito Sueno Bank, off Nicaragua (Atlantic coast); 25-35 m.
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.6 x 10.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-ignotus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Nicaragua
Habitat:-Reported from depths of 25-35 m
Description:-Source Original description
The shell is conical, small in size for the genus (Length: 15 to 23 mm), and light in weight. The last whorl (Relative Diameter: 0.56 to 0.60) has sides that are slightly rounded in the region between the angulate shoulder and the Position of Maximum Diameter (0.85 to 0.95), and are quite straight below the PMD. The surface is smooth and glossy with regular light ribbing on the anterior third, continuing to tire shoulder on some juvenile specimens. The aperture width is approximately 0.08 times the aperture height, and slightly widens anteriorly. The lip is thin, with a straight axial profile, and the anal notch is slightly deeper than the aperture is wide. The spire is low (Relative Spire Height = Length/Aperture- 1: 0.11 to 0.19), and below tire protoconch, is straight in outline. The sutural ramps are decorated with 4 to 5 fine spiral striae, are flat, and are aligned with the spire outline such that the sutures are barely visible, except for the occasional slight step at the penultimate whorl. The slightly projecting apex has an 0.8 mm diameter protoconch of 1.25 smooth nuclear whorls, and is followed by seven teleoconch whorls. The columella is visible only at the tip of the base.
The substrate color of the body whorl is purple, mauve, violet, or pinkish orange, and may be overlaid with very pale brown blotches and white clouds aligned in indistinct spi-ral bands near midbody, and may be more or less covered with widely spaced minute brown dots or dashes in spiral rows. By contrast, however, the apex of the spire and following 3 to 5 teleoconch whorls invariably are colored a bright greenish yellow, and this is an important differentiating character for the species. Later spire whorls may be decorated with a few brown, widely spaced radial crescents. The aperture shares the same color as the body whorl, becoming violet or purple deep-er inside.
Discussion:-C. ignotus sp.nov. may be compared with the non-rugose form of C. patae Abbott, which, although lacking the typical axial wrinkles, still has well defined, narrow, widely spaced ridges over the body whorl. The spiral sculpture on the ribbed form of C. ignotus sp.nov., by contrast, is shallow and closely spaced, and is not found on adult specimens. C. patae has a noticeable lower PMD, a more extended protoconch of 2 nuclear whorls, a concave spire pro-file, and lacks the distinct greenish-yellow apex of the new species.
C. eversoni Petuch is likewise differentiated by its white apex and extended protoconch of 2 nuclear whorls. The Relative Diameter of C. eversoni is smaller, its range of variation not overlapping that of C. ignotus sp.nov. The PMD of C. eversoni is also lower and body whorl sculpture, when present, is more widely spaced.
The shell characters and metrics noted above are not so useful in separating the new species from C. binghamae Petuch, a Florida endemic, even though in gross appearance, it is the least similar of the compared species. The consistent pyriform aspect of the body whorl, more angulate shoulder, and non-overlapping range of variation in Relative Spire Height of C. binghamae are notable. Less obvious but still useful differences include the relatively rude sutures, and slightly stepped spire profile. The substrate of C. binghamae is white, overlaid with color pattern; that of C. ignotus sp.nov. is anything but white.

 

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Conus ikedai  Ninomiya, 1987

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Published in: Venus Vol. xlvi,  no. 1, p. 7, pl. 1, f. 1-4, pl. 2, f. 5-6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: SW of Jogashima Islet, Miura Penninsula, Japan, dreged:20-280 m.
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.5 x 11.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-ikedai
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sagami Bay, Japan
Habitat:-Found at 20m-300 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline nearly straight to slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of 2 whorls. First 3 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to faintly convex, with several spiral threads. Last whorl with fine spiral ribs.
Colour white or white suffused with orangish yellow. Larval whorls white. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-35 mm
RW - g/mm
RD 0.53-0.56
PMD 0.81-0.84
RSH 0.16-0.21
Discussion:-C. ikedai is considered a valid species, although it may represent a subadult stage. The attachment of C. ikedai to C. profundorum as suggested by Kuroda et al. (1971) can no longer be maintained. C. profundorum has a generally higher spire (RSH 0.16-0.28), an elongately ovate operculum, 3 or more larval whorls, and its last whorl pattern consists of distinct brown spiral bands. C. smirna differs from C. ikedai in its higher spire (RSH 0.21-0.30), larger number of tuberculate postnuclear whorls (5-6), and in the spiral colour bands on its last whorl. C. lani can be distinguished by the more conical shape of its last whorl, its high spire (RSH 0.25-0.29), and its brown colouration with scattered white spots. For comparison with C. jeanmartini, C. scopulicola and C. darkini, see the Discussions of those species. Specimens similar to the type specimens of C. ikedal were recently collected in the New Caledonian area.

 

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Conus illawarra  Garrard, 1961

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust. no. 5,  p. 31,  pl. 1, f. 2
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East of Stanwell Park, N. S. W., Australia; 75 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus sydneyensis Sowerby iii, 1887
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name illawarra

 

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Conus  immelmani  Korn,  1998

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NMC Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxx, no. 288,  p. 11,  f. 1-6,  12-13 (pp. 12-17),  f. 2
Ocean geography:South Africa
Type Locality: Southern Natal; 35-50 m
Type Data: Holotype in NMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 89 x 46 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Nataliconus Species:-immelmani
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Transkei, S Africa
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source original description La Conchiglia
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; in similarly sized adults, weight may vary by 35%; last whorl usually conical; outline nearly straight, becoming variably convex at adapical third. Shoulder subangulate to rounded; angulate to subangulate in subadult shells.
Spire usually of moderate height (erosion excluded), slightly stepped; outline sigmoid or concave to almost straight. Larval shell of 2.25 smooth whorls, maximum diameter 1.45 - 1.50 mm. About first 2.5-3.0 teleoconch whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 2 increasing to 3-6 spiral grooves; early ramps with rather distinct 2-3 grooves; later ramps with 3-6 weak to very weak grooves, sometimes additional spiral striae present. Shells of about 72 mm with 8.25-8.5 teleoconch whorls. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base, more widely set towards basal end; ribs more distinct in smaller adults.
Size 60-90mm
Ground color white in adults, lilac in subadults. Early postnuclear whorls of adult shells shaded with lilac; last whorl may be tinged with bluish violet, sometimes restricted to outer-lip area. Last whorl with 3 spiral bands of olivetan to brown, above base, above center and below shoulder. Ground calor zones at shoulder, within adapical third, below center and at base with brown reticulated lines and triangles edging fine to large tent marks. Ground color zones may be variably overlaid with brown and reduced to spirally arranged scattered ground color tent marks; subcentral tent mark zone usually persisting. Spiral rows of dark brown dots to short fine axial dashes extending from base to shoulder, containing scattered fine ground-col or tents and usually inconspicuous or absent within subcentral tent mark zone. Axial dashes may be enlarged to axial lines.
In subadults, last whorl with regularly arranged spiral rows of brown dots from base to shoulder; in larger subadults, brown flecks appearing on both sides of a light subcentral band. In larger adults, shoulder edge crossed by tan axial blotches and darker brown axial lines. In subadults, shoulder edge without pattern, radial brown pattern restricted to shoulder ramp. In small subadults, sutural ramps with submarginal dots at outer margins; edge of ramp without pattern; subshoulder area with spiral arrangement of dots.
Larval whorls white to faint pink; about first 4-5 teleoconch sutural ramps with regularly set brown dots at outer margins. In later whorls, dots replaced by light- to darkbrown radial blotches producing medium-sized to large tent-like ground calor areas. Ramps may become almost solid brown in late whorls.
Aperture white, violet-blue in subadults.
In adult specimens, periostracum olive-gray, rather thin, translucent (air-dried: opaque), with fine axial ridges. In subadult shells, periostracum gray to olive-gray, very thin to thin, transparent (only partially opaque when air-dried).
Discussion:-C. immelmani Kom, 1998 may resemble C. amadis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1789 in size and pattem but C. amadis has an angulate to carinate shoulder, a different spire sculpture and different radular teeth. C. lozeti Richard, 1980, considered by some authors as a form of C. amadis, is smaller and more conical, with a stepped spire, an angulate shoulder and a dentiform columellar plate.
C. natalis Sowerby II, 1858 and C. gilchristi Sowerby III, 1903 (a form of C. natalis) are very variable and may resemble C. immelmani in color, pattern and profile. However, C. natalis and C. gilchristi are consistently smaller and with a broader last whorl; the color pattern normally lacks the spiral rows of brown dots and both the living animal and the radular teeth are also distinct.

 

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Conus imperialis  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 712.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Unknown
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65 x 37 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhombiconus Species:-imperialis
Synonyms:-
fuscatus Born, 1778; coronaducalis Röding, 1798; regius Röding, 1798; viridulus Lamarck, 1810; queketti Smith, 1906; nigrescens Barros e Cunha, 1933; flavescens Barros e Cunha, 1933; compactus Wils, 1970
Geographic Range:-S & E Africa - Polynesia
Habitat:-Intertidal to 240 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical: outline largely straight, variably convex adapically; in form fuscatus, outline often slightly concave at upper two-thirds and straight below. Shoulder angulate. strongly to sometimes weakly tuberculate. Spire usually low; outline slightly concave to slightly sigmoid. often with domed early postnuclear whorls and a projecting larval shell sulmounting an otherwise flat spire. Postnuclear spire whorls distinctly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps that to variably concave; 4 increasing to about 10 spiral striae on late ramps. Last whorl with weak to obsolete spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to bluish grey (blue tint more common in form fuscatus). Colour pattern of last whorl maximally variable in the Indian Ocean. Pacific shells : Last whorl encircled with 2 brown or olive bands. Bands variable in width, usually distinct, occasionally split into axial streaks and blotches. Adapical band occasionally divided in two. Spiral rows of alternating blackish brown and white dashes extending from base to shoulder; rows variable in number and arrangement. Variably numerous spiral rows of fine to minute brown dots, partially alternating with white markings in irregular sequence, also extending over entire last whorl. Base, siphonal fasciole and basal part of columella dark bluish grey, occasionally suffused with brown. Indian Ocean shells : Some specimens have a pattern typical of Pacific shells; others vary widely. Spiral bands vary from brown to blackish olive or almost black. They may either be very wide, covering entire last whorl, or be reduced to sparse flecks. Bands often split into fused or separate patches and axial flames or blotches. Teleoconch spire immaculate white to bluish grey in early whorls; late ramps with orange to nearly black radial streaks and blotches. Pattern elements variable. Aperture white to violet, except for a dark violet to brown base, rarely extending to shoulder along outer margin.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-110 mm
RW 0.50-1.60 g/mm
((L 50-100 mm) Pacific shells
0.30 - 1.35 g/mm (L 50-85 mm) Indian Ocean Shells)
RD 0.53-0.64
(Pacific shells
0.50 - 0.68 Indian Ocean Shells)
PMD 0.84-0.97
RSH 0.01-0.14
C. fuscatus dark specimens contested by Walls
Shells from Western Indian Ocean, which are narrower, stronger colouration and irregular pattern mainly axially oriented; blue base tinge often
C. viridulus Many broad axial flammules as wells as spiral bands;
C. i. compactus used for shells from Indian Ocean which and broader and have weaker shoulder nodules;
Discussion:-C. imperialis is most similar to C. zonatus but cannot be confused with any congener. Typically patterned shells from the Indian Ocean tend to have weaker shoulder tubercles and sometimes have relatively broader last whorls than shells from the Pacific. Some considered the latter populations as a separate subspecies, C. i. compactus, but this form occurs sympatrically with specimens agreeing with the description of C. fuscatus.
The name C. fuscatus applies to shells from the W. Indian Ocean having a narrower last whorl, usually darker colouration, and irregular pattern with mainly axial orientation. This form occurs sympatrically with the typical form in Kenya and Zanzibar (in slighly greater depths) as well as Mozambique (in different microhabitats). The two forms intergrade in colour pattern and shape (RD 0.50-0.63 in form fuscatus and 0.57-0.68 in sympatric typical shells; PMD 0.87-0.97 and 0.84-0.92). We therefore regard C.fuscatus as a form of C. imperialis and not as a sibling species or geographic subspecies. Synonyms include C. viridulus , C. coronaducalis, C. queketti (a subadult specimen), C. i. ,flavescens, C. i. nigrescens, C. douvillei, and C. dautzenbergi.
C. viridulus is very similar colour form to fuscatus.

 

 

Conus  imperialis  f.  fuscatus  Born,  1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMW Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind., p. 126
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius, from Martini (1773); Guinea, from Regenfuss (1758)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMW deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus imperialis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhombiconus Species:-imperialis fuscatus forma
Synonyms:-
dautzenbergi Fenaux, 1942; douvillei Fenaux, 1942
Geographic Range:-E. Africa; Mauritius
Habitat:-Intertidal to 240 m
Description:-
The name C. fuscatus applies to specimens of Conus imperialis  from the W. Indian Ocean having a narrower last whorl, usually darker colouration, and irregular pattern with mainly axial orientation. This form occurs sympatrically with the typical form in Kenya and Zanzibar (in slighly greater depths) as well as Mozambique (in different microhabitats). The two forms intergrade in colour pattern and shape (RD 0.50-0.63 in form fuscatus and 0.57-0.68 in sympatric typical shells; PMD 0.87-0.97 and 0.84-0.92). RKK therefore regard C. fuscatus as a form of C. imperialis and not as a sibling species or geographic subspecies.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  imperialis  queketti   Smith,  1906

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Natal Govt. Mus. I,  pt. I,  p. 22,  pl. vii,  f. 1
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Isezela, Natal
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.7 x 12.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus imperialis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhombiconus Species:-imperialis queketti subsp.
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal, South Africa
Habitat:-Intertidal to 240 m
Description:-Source Iconography
Moderately small to medium-sized shell (30 to 55 mm); conical shell, somewhat elongate, with straight sides and a undu1ate or weak1y tuberculate shoulder. Spire low, dome-shaped with irregular raised whorls. Protoconch mamillated. The ear1y sutural ramps are beaded, whereas the late sutural ramps are smooth. There are regular low and close sets of spiral cords covering the body whorl. Ground color ivory-white. Pattern consisting of pale brown broad spira1 bands at the located mid-body and on the basal half, overlaid with more or less dense brown flecks and white bars arranged in spirallines. Columella purplish brown. Aperture white or very plae bluish-white with faint brown at the base.
Discussion:-For a long time the taxon Conus queketti has been a subject of controversy. In a recent article published in the digital magazine The Cone Collector, Filmer (2008) has reviewed and commented upon the status of this taxon. He particularly mentioned the fact that the illustration published in the Annals of the Natal Museum does not correspond to the existing deteriorated holotype, but possibly to an artistic interpretation of the fresh shell. This is something that does occur in classic malacological works ( for instance, in the case of Conus scitulus), and certainly contributes to increase confusion among researchers. The relationship of Conus queketti to Conus imperialis is evident from both the original description and illustration and the study of the holotype. However, these South African imperialis-like shells that are referred to as C. queketti are scarce and usually found in poor condition, although live- taken specimens are known. This has in fact prevented a thorough investigation that would clarify the issue once and for all. The smaller size associated to C. queketti when compared to C. imperialis comes from the fact that most (but not all) ofthe scarce material available corresponds to juvenile shells. In any case, adult shells are significantly smaller than C. imperialis in any of its forms. Given the constant differences in size, pattem and conchological features, and the fact that the Natal populations are geographically isolated, Tenorio et al.  tend to consider the taxon C. queketti as a subspecies of C. imperialis rather than a mere form. Further studies based on DNA, currently unavailable, might eventually show whether C. queketti can be separated at the species level or not.

 

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Conus inconstans  Smith, 1877

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4,  p. 224
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.4 x 12.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-inconstans
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Haiti, Jamaica
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell conical, upper part sharply angulate; body with thin weak spiral striae; bluish pink with white middle band interrupted by dark marks; lines of white and brown near base. Spire turreted, short, white with pinkish apex and numerous radiant brown blotches. Whorl convex, somewhat elongate; tops of whorls slightly excavated; suture unevenly broken(nodular)
Source Vink
The specimens are pinkish grey but must have faded, Smith described the colour of a variety as pinkish red 'roseo-coccinea'. There is a well marked white mid-body band with small brown spots. According to Smith 'In form this species is very like C. speciosissimus, Reeve; but the absence of coronations and the difference of coloration at once distinguish it'. Although one of the three type specimens has weak coronation, it is true that C. inconstans does not show distinct nodules on the shoulder of the body whorl as found in C. cardinalis or C. speciosissimus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  indomaris  Bozzetti, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Paris

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia n. 85, Novembre 2015, p. 12 - 13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Kollam, Kerala, Southern India, so far known only from the type locality
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN Paris, deposited and catalogued
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Graphiconus Species:-indomaris
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-India

Habitat:-From 200 – 300 m depth
Description:-Original Description
Shell medium sized for its genus, 42.6 – 47.5 mm, profile narrowly conoid-cylindrical, solid look, spire high, slightly stepped, with concave outline, shoulder angulate, body whorl uniformly convex on right side of apertural view, mildly concave at the base and convex above on left side. Protoconch broken, teleoconch of 12 concave whorls very slightly wavy at the shoulder, suture light. Sutural ramps covered by 5-6 spiral ribs, 1 or 2 close, subsuturally positioned, 3 separated and the last one on the shoulder, secondary riblets in the interspaces, feeble and thick radial opistocyrt striae intersect the spirals giving a moderately beaded look to the surface. Aperture narrow at the posterior end, gently expanding in abapical direction; body whorl walls covered by 30-36 spiral ribs with secondary riblets in the interspaces and thick, thin growth striae; fasciole covered by thick, feeble riblets.

Background color whitish, full surface covered by spiral lines of brown dots that thicken into three bands positioned below the shoulder, in the median area and above the base; alternate brown and whitish blotches on the spire surface, apex whitish, fasciole white, inside of aperture pale bluish.
Discussion:-Till the publication of this description the species has been seen as an allopatric dwarf population of Conus australis Holten, 1802.

 

----------

 

Conus  induratus  Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Reeve (1849,  Suppl., pl. 7,  sp. 268)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  Suppl.,  pl. vii, sp. 268

Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Red Sea

Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Reeve (1849: Suppl., pl. 7 sp. 268)

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus erythraeensis Reeve, 1843

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Asprella Species:-erythraeensis induratus subsp.

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-Port Sudan

Habitat:-Shallow water, to about 15 m. Shells from the Arabian coast from Jeddah to N. Yemen in very quiet shallow lagoons, in sand and amongst eel-grass roots.

Description:-Source Living Conidae    C.erythraeensis

Small to moderately small, usually moderately light to moderately solid; shells from Port Sudan somewhat lighter than shells from other localities. Last whorl conical to broadly or ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to two-thirds, straight below; left side may be concave near base. Shoulder angulate. Spire low to high, outline concave to almost straight. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.6-0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave adaxially, with 1-2 increasing to 3-4 or sometimes 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably wide spiral grooves toward base; ribbons between narrow or grading to ribs at base.

Ground colour white to bluish white. Last whorl with spiral rows of light reddish or dark brown dots, spots or bars that may fuse into flecks, axial blotches and spiral bands, below shoulder, within adapical and abapical third. Larval whorls white to brown; about 2 adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps of the same colour. Following sutural ramps variably maculated with light to dark brown radial streaks, spots or blotches. Aperture brown, white, violet or brownish violet, sometimes brown only deep within.

Shell Morphometry

L 16-35 mm

RW 0.05-0.15

(L 16-31 mm)

RD 0.60-0.75

PMD 0.80-0.90

RSH 0.09-0.26

Discussion: C. induratus has shallow grooving almost to shoulder; pale blue ground;

C. induratus as represented by Reeve's original figure is nearly identical to a local form of C. erythraeensis from Port Sudan; shells of this form are somewhat less solid than those of the other forms and have a pale blue ground colour

Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  inesae   Monteiro,  Afonso,  Tenorio,  Rosado  &  Pirinhas,  2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio



Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 5, P. 62-64; Pl. 1, fig. 1-6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Cabo Santa Marta in the Namibe Province, Angola, Southern Angola, West Africa
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 31.0 x 16.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-inesae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Found from 3 to 12 meters deep usually on top rock slabs or half buried in rock fissures, in rough waters.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell moderately small, solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical,elongated. Profile more or less straight, rounded shoulder.Spire low to moderately high, slightly convex, teleoconch whorls smooth; protoconch and first whorls typically eroded. Last whorl smooth, often with visible marks of previous lips. Periostracum yellow. The shell is usually light brown to brown but dirty white and dark brown shells are known; usually the brown color is not uniform, forming spiral bands or lines of different hues; in some cases these spiral bands can be almost white. The spiral ramps are of the same color as the last whorl of the teleoconch, sometimes somewhat lighter, except near the suture. The interior of the aperture is violet, fading towards the anterior end; the interior of the lip is white.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  infinitus  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 39, pl. 1,  f. 12, pl. 2,  f. 12,  pl. 5
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Pau, Isla de Maio, Cape Verde Is.; 1-2 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20. 8x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-infinitus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maio, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-It has been found at 1-2 m among low rocks, among stones or among seaweeds
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension of the species varies between 15 and 25 mm. Its silhouette is slightly extended, with the shoulder angled. Spire is it somewhat extended, of straight profile and has gray green color with some brown spots, is not stepped . The coloring of the seashell is gray green quite uniform with the exception of a clear narrow band that exists on lower half of the last whorl and another smaller one situated under the shoulder. There are small areas of brown zig-zag that are situated around the clear band of the last whorl in axial sense. There is not any variability, the pattern being in the totality of the specimens. Dark aperture, in its interior with two clear bands that correspond to the external coloring. The lip edge is clear. Columella dark. Periostracum fine, yellowish and transparent.

----------

 

Conus  infrenatus  Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus. Suppl.,  pl. iii, sp. 285
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 13.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-infrenatus
Synonyms:- succinctus A. Adams, 1854
Geographic Range:-Jeffrey's Bay - S Transkei, RSA
Habitat:-Offshore from 15 m.
Description:-Source Iconography
Medium-sized conoid-cylindrical shell (normal size 25-50 mm), with a low spire. Sutural ramps flat to concave, not striated.Shoulder roundly angulate, sometimes with a weak carina. Last whorl with straight sides, convex in the basal third. Surface smooth except for a few of regularly-spaced ribbons around the base. Ground color cream to pale lavender. There are usually three broad purplish-brown to orangish-brown more or less diffuse spiral bands, one below the shoulder, and one at each side of the centre. The last whorl is covered by 10 to 15 rows of narrow interrupted spiral bars with purplish brown to orangish brown dots and dashes. Axial irregular streaks of the same color, fusing with the spiral bars are often present, giving a cloudy appearance. Aperture widening towards the base. The interior is pinkish or orange. Operculum very small.

----------

 

Conus inscriptus  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus,  pl. 29, sp. 164
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype was in NHMUK and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus
Synonyms:-
keatii Sowerby ii, 1858; tegulatus Sowerby, 1870; cuneiformis Smith, 1877; adenensis Smith, 1891; maculospira Pilsbry & Johnson, 1921; cavailloni Fenaux, 1942; keatiformis Shikama & Oishi, 1977; bangladeshianus da Motta, 1985; yemenensis Bondarev, 1997
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean, from Natal to Red Sea and to W. Thailand
Habitat:-In 5-85 m, most frequently reported from 40-80 m, sometimes as deep as 150 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, usually moderately solid to solid; shells from Mascarenes, Aden and Red Sea smaller than those from other areas. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline convex at adapical fourth to half, usually straight below; left side sometimes concave near base and convex at adapical two-thirds. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, highest in shells from Somalia to Mozambique; outline concave to straight, most frequently straight and sometimes with stepped whorls in E. African shells. In specimens from Mozambique, larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7- 0.8 mm; in specimens from W. Thailand, larval shell of about 1.75 whorls, maximum diameter also 0.7-0.8 mm. First 2-4 postriuclear whorls weakly to distinctly tuberculate, sometimes only first whorl with obsolete tuberculation. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to moderately concave, with 1 increasing to 3-8 spiral grooves, often additional spiral striae in latest whorls; on shoulder ramp, spiral sculpture sometimes consists of 13-15 fine and nearly equal spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced, weak to pronounced spiral grooves separated by ribbons on basal third to two-thirds; anteriorly, grooves are wide, often contain spiral threads or fine ribs, and are separated by narrow ribbons or ribs; in E. African specimens, ribbons may have fine to coarse granules at adapical edge.
Ground colour white to beige or pale orange. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown or orange dots, spots, bars or axial streaks, fusing into axial flames and blotches and forming interrupted spiral bands below shoulder and within adapical and abapical thirds. Subshoulder band usually less prominent than anterior bands, sometimes absent. Larval whorls white to beige, adjacent 2 postnuclear sutural ramps of same colour. Following sutural ramps with radial lines to blotches, usually extending over outer margins, matching last whorl pattern in colour. White shells without any pattern remnants occur in the eastern part of the range. Aperture white, beige to orange, pinkish or bluish violet, or pink; in E. African shells, coloured area often with a darker collabral band.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-74 mm
(32-44 mm Mascarenes, Aden, Red Sea)
RW 0.09-0.44 g/mm
(L 32-74 mm)
RD 0.51-0.68
(India; 0.55-0.64 Andaman Sea; 0.52-0.63 W. Indian Ocean)
PMD 0.79-0.90
RSH 0.10-0.15
(India, W. Thailand, Mauritius, Reunion; 0.10-0.23 Somalia to Mozambique)
C. i. inscriptus typical, broad at shoulder, spire concave sided whorls weakly stepped; deep brown on whorl and spire contrasting with white; mouth has pale violet deep within;
C. i. adenensis East Africa; Narrow more elongate, shoulder roundly angled; spire higher; pale tan to yellowish tan markings leaving large white areas; mouth white with pink orange grading to violet in south;
C. i. keati shells from Seychelles similar to C. adenensis;
C. i. cuneiformis white shells from India;
C. bangladeshianus has brownish orange ground color and orange aperture;
C. planiliratus renamed C. maculospira from Burma W Thailand rather ventricose and prominent spire sculpture;
C. keatiformis is specimen with sharp shoulder and low spire(RD=50), locality in doubt.
C. yemenensis is juvenile specimen(30mm) with high spire; very similar to juvenile C. australis (cebuganus)
Discussion:-C. inscriptus resembles C. jickelii, which is of similar size in its southern populations. The latter species can be distinguished by its non-tuberculate early postnuclear whorls and consistently brown first 2 teleoconch sutural ramps; sympatric C. inscriptus specimens also differ in their light or yellowish brown rather than dark reddish or bluish brown colour pattern and more sculptured last whorl. C. iodostoma differs in the bluish grey ground colour of its last whorl, and its spiral rows consist of small tan to reddish brown dots rather than orange brown dots and larger markings. The aperture of C. iodostoma has a paler rather than a darker peripheral band. C. ciderryi has a more conical last whorl (PMD 0.95-0.97), stronger tuberculate early and undulate late whorls.
C. adenensis refers to E. African C. inscriptus, ranging from Natal as far north as Somalia. It is characterized by a somewhat higher spire (RSH 0.13- 0.23), a comparatively narrow last whorl (RD 0.52-0.59), and a pink or orange aperture that grades to violet toward southern E. Africa. Richard (1990) considered C. adenensis a valid species. In our opinion, the differences are not sufficient to merit distinction at the species level, and we provisionally consider C. i. adenensis a subspecies occurring along the East African coast.
C. keatii is known from 2 type specimens from Seychelles which closely resemble C. i. adenensis in morphometry and colouration. Recently, more shells of this form have been found in Seychelles.
In the Aden and Dahlak area, a variant of C. inscriptus has a consistently conical last whorl (RD 0.56-0.59; PMD 0.85-0.90), smaller size (to 44 mm) and may have a spire lower than that of E. African specimens.
C. planiliratus and C. maculospira refer to shells from Burma and W. Thailand with a rather ventricose and prominently sculptured last whorl, a paucispiral larval shell, and a white aperture
C. m. bangladeshianus has a brownish orange ground colour and an orange aperture. These forms intergrade with one another and with C. inscriptus in S. India and in the Andaman Sea.
Almost completely white shells of C. inscriptus from India were described as C. cuneiformis. Yellow or orange specimens occur occasionally.
C. inscriptus from the Mascarenes falls within the range of variation observed in shells from other regions.
C. cavailloni seems to be an aberrant form of C. inscriptus; C. inscriptus f. meridionalis is a synonym of C. i. adenensis; C. keatiformis is similar to shells from S. India. C. tegulatus is probably a juvenile of C. inscriptus.

 

 

Conus inscriptus adenensis  E.A. Smith, 1891

 

Pictures: Holotype  BMNH  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. London unnumbered (59), pt. 3,  p. 401, pl. 33, fig. 1

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Aden, (Yemen)

Type Size: 33 x 14 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus adenensis forma

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-East Africa

Habitat:

Description:-Source Living Conidae

Narrow more elongate,shoulder roundly angled;spire higher; pale tan to yellowish tan markings leaving large white areas;mouth white with pink,orange grading to violet in south.

 

Conus inscriptus yemenensis  Bondarev, 1997

Pictures: Holotype  BMNH  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: World Shells (23),  p. 66 & figs.

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Aden, (Yemen)

Type Size: 30.2 x 12.5 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus yemenensis forma

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-East Africa

Habitat:

Description:-Source Living Conidae. This is juvenile specimen (30mm) with high spire; very similar to juv C. australis (cebuganus).

 

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Conus  insculptus  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Possible Syntype MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 309,  pl. 99,  f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China Seas
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Largilliert and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:-insculptus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Thailand; Taiwan to Philippines; Papua New Guinea, N. Australia, and Fiji
Habitat:-In 40-150m on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light. Last whorl pyriform to conical or narrowly conical; outline convex at adapical two-thirds, concave to straight (right side) or concave (left side) below. Aperture very narrow. Shoulder angulate to carinate, often tuberculate, with a rather deep exhalent notch. Spire of moderate height to high, slightly stepped; outline straight to concave. Larval shell of about 2-2.75 whorls; maximum diameter about 0.75 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate, usually weakly in last 1-2 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with radial threads and 1 increasing to 6-8 spiral grooves and some additional striae. Last whorl with deep, regularly spaced, axially striate spiral grooves and raised ribs between; ribs sometimes replaced by narrow ribbons adapically. A darker brown form known from central Philippines usually with a narrowly conical and less sigmoid last whorl. Shoulder distinctly carinate, sometimes undulate to tuberculate. Larval shell of 2-2.5 whorls. Postnuclear whorls tuberculate, late whorls also carinate; tubercles often weak or absent in last 1-3 whorls. Last whorl with deeply punctate spiral grooves separating ribs basally and ribbons above. This form otherwise matching typical C. insculptus in shell morphology.
Ground colour uniformly beige to brown. Last whorl occasionally with 2-3 slightly darker obsolete spiral bands. Larval shell beige to light brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown dots between marginal tubercles or a solid brown line along outer margin. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 19-30 mm
RW 0.01-0.05 g/mm
RD 0.47-0.55
PMD 0.83-0.95
RSH 0.20-0.29
Discussion:-C. insculptus is most similar to C. pseudorbignyi. The latter species is larger (L 32-55 mm), has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.41-0.47), and the colour pattern of its last whorl differs in bearing rows of brown dots on the spiral elevations; its larval shell has more whorls (3.5-4) and is distinctly broader (0.9-1.0 mm). C. saecularis may be similar in shell morphometry but can be distinguished by the outline of its last whorl that is straight rather than convex at the right side and concave rather than sigmoid at the left side; the last whorl is rather uniformly coloured in C. insculptus, while it has spiral rows of dots, spots and bars fusing into 2-4 spiral bands in C. saecularis. Although Kiener neither mentioned nor illustrated tubercles on the spire whorls, the species described here agrees in all other respect with the original description and is most likely conspecific with his type specimen. The darker brown shells from central Philippines were erroneously identified as C. hypochlorus by Walls ([1979]). RKK provisionally assign them to C. insculptus, because the differences in shell morphology do not justify separation at the species level.

 

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Conus   insignis   Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 108,  pl. I,  f. 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboina
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 75 x 49 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- An available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. insignis Sowerby, 1833
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym colour form of C. loroisii Kiener, 1845.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

Geographic Range:-India;Sri Lanka - Philippines; Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Although this name is a homonym and invalid it is widely used.
Source Living Conidae    Conus loroisii
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight towards base. Aperture almost uniform in width. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire usually low, sometimes of moderate height; outline variably concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave or faintly convex, with closely spaced spiral striae. Basal third of last whorl with variably spaced spiral grooves separating ribs and ribbons. Form insignis with a sometimes lower spire, a less rounded shoulder and sometimes pyriform subadults.
Form C. l. insignis last whorl tinged grey and shades brown in blending spiral zones; shoulder band pronounced white to brown or grey; subcentral band usually present; closely spaced and variably fine blackish brown lines from base to shoulder; reddish brown and blackish lines often alternate; staining of columella more pronounced; whorl tops brown to blackish brown solidly colored or streaked with shades of brown;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  insularis  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773, pl. 62, fig. 683)

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt,  p. 3389
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773,  pl. 62, fig. 683)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-cedonulli insularis subsp.
Synonyms:-
geographicus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-known from St. Lucia and from off Barbados
Habitat:-Occurring on sand and rubble floors at depths of 20 to 160 m.
Description:-Source Vink    C. cedonulli
A moderately heavy shell, 30 to 60 mm., with moderately elevated spire, concave-sided in adult specimens. Body whorl straight to slightly convex with greatest width just somewhat below the shoulder. Surface with beaded spiral threads, mainly near the base, larger part of shell smooth (in some specimens the shades of the markings make it seem granulated). Shoulder of body whorl smooth, spire whorls canaliculate. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, first post nuclear whorls coronated. Animal bright red, operculum small and elliptical, about 1/8 of aperture height (operculum shown by Walls (1979:200) is not from C. cedonulli). Radula tooth described and pictured by Vink & Cosel (1985: pl.11, fig. 1 a-t). Periostracum thin, yellowish. C. cedonulli lack a free swimming veliger phase and hatch at least in the late pediveliger (veliconcha) stage (Vink & Cosel, 1985:563). This has resulted in populations with differentiated pattern in adjacent geographic areas which must be recognized as subspecies: C. cedonulli insularis and C. cedonulli dominicanus, besides typical C. cedonulli.
C. cedonulli insularis differs from typical C. cedonulli in having the mahogany brown or black background more or less broken into isolated irregular brown to yellow brown or black patches arranged in two spiral rows on a whitish, yellowish or pinkish background, the patches in the lower row sometimes coalescing into a spiral band. In subrecent shells the patches are pale yellow with darker outline or reddish brown without outline; these latter patches have been black in fresh specimens. Specimens from Barbados have slightly larger orange brown patches and are more slender.
Discussion:-Tucker comments: Vink in the West Atlantic series gave no means to distinguish Seminoleconus cedonulli insularis from S. c. dominicanus. The brownish and white areas in S. c. dominicanus are not outlined by dark brown. They are outlined by darker color in both S. c. cedonulli and S. c. insularis (Vink and Cosel, 1985).

 

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Conus  iodostoma  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I, Conus, pl. 28, sp. 159
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-iodostoma
Synonyms:-
rosaceus Kiener, 1845; superscriptus Sowerby iii, 1877; hedgesi Sowerby iii, 1913
Geographic Range:-Mozambique and Madagascar
Habitat:-Intertidal to 20 m or more; in sheltered bays on soft substratum.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical third, less so or straight below; left side often slightly concave above base. Shoulder subangulate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with rather widely spaced punctate spiral grooves from base to centre or slightly beyond; grooves wider and interstitial ribbons grading to ribs at anterior end.
Ground colour white to bluish grey. Last whorl with few to numerous spiral rows of brown to reddish-brown dots; sometimes with wavy axial lines forming an irregular network, often concentrated on each side of centre and also below shoulder. Axial lines may concentrate in solid or interrupted spiral bands. Larval whorls white to brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown to reddish brown radial lines, streaks and blotches, extending over outer margins. Aperture violet behind translucent marginal zone, paler bluish violet deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-42 mm
RW 0.08-0.16 g/mm
RD 0.55-0.65
PMD 0.80-0.95
RSH 0.13-0.21
Discussion:-C. iodostoma resembles C. inscriptus, C. neptunus, and light-coloured C. lienardi. The latter two species can be distinguished by their narrower last whorls (RD < 0.55), tuberculate early postnuclear whorls and angulate shoulders; C. neptunus, moreover, is a distinctly larger species.
C. iodostoma differs from C. inscriptus in the bluish grey ground colour of its last whorl, and its spiral rows consist of small tan to reddish brown dots rather than orange brown dots and larger markings. The aperture of C. iodostoma has a paler rather than a darker peripheral band.

 

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Conus ione  Fulton, 1938

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. xxiii,  part 1 p. 55,  pl. iii, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Kii, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 58 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:-ione
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines, N.W. Australia, Loyalty Is., and New Caledonia; also Mozambique. Recently reported from Reunion.
Habitat:-In 50-560 m. Outside the New Caledonia lagoon, the species has been dredged in 340-560 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually slightly pyriform, outline slightly sigmoid. Shoulder broadly carinate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave to slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 3.75 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1-1.2 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate, first 2-5 also tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with regularly set axial threads and fine obsolete spiral striae; in some specimens, first 2 ramps with 1-2 weak spiral grooves. Last whorl with pronounced spiral ribbons on abapical fourth, sometimes grading to ribs at base.
Ground colour white to bluish violet. Last whorl with irregular confluent brown blotches forming a usually incomplete spiral band on each side of centre. Spiral rows of brown dots extend from base to shoulder but vary in number and arrangement. Larval whorls beige. Teleoconch sutural ramps with widely spaced brown dots along carinate outer margins, sometimes also with scattered brown axial markings. Aperture generally somewhat translucent, white in large adults.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-76 mm
RW 0.15-0.35 g/mm
(L 54-63 mm)
RD 0.55-0.64
PMD 0.77-0.84
RSH 0.11-0.17
Discussion:-C. ione is similar to C. lenavati and C. sieboldii. C. lenavati has a more solid shell with an often broader last whorl (RD 0.56-0.71) and a lower spire (RSH 0.02-0.13); its postnuclear whorls are not carinate, its flat sutural ramps bear pronounced spiral grooves, and spirally arranged brown dots are absent from its last whorl and the outer margins of its sutural ramps.
C. ione does not become as large as C. sieboldii (to 76 mm), has a broader and slightly pyriform last whorl (RD 0.55-0.64), and bears regularly set brown dots at the outer margins of its sutural ramps.

John Tucker comments that C. lenavati has significant differences which place it  in a different genus  kioconus.

 

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Conus irregularis  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p 29, pl. 18 (204),  f. 418 & 419
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: West Africa
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.8 x 18.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-irregularis
Synonyms:- iberogermanicus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
Geographic Range:-Maio, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
The shell is small to moderately small (normal length: about 18 mm), with a slightly broad angulated shoulder. Spire moderately high, with a straight profile, greyish green with brown blotches, the sutural ramps with spiral striae. Shell uniformly greyish green, with a narrow light spiral band near the center of the last whorl and a narrower one close to the shoulder. On the central lighter band there are wavy axial brown lines. Aperture dark, with two light bands.

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Conus isabelarum  Tenorio, M. J. and Afonso, M. L., 2004

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (2),  p. 29
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia de Pau Seco, West coast of Maio Island, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-isabelarum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found at depths of 1-2m under rocks
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small to moderately small, ventricosely conical, with a low to moderate spire and a rounded shoulder. Outline of the last whorl rather convex. Concave spire, striated, with flat to slightly convex sutural ramps. Prominent protoconch measuring ca. 0.7 mm. The shell has a rich honey-brown color, with fine spiral lines of darker brown very often visible. The ground color is overlaid with irregular white markings, tent-shaped in many cases. The white marks are especially evident in a spiral band slightly below the midbody of the shell. The shoulder and the spire are patterned with irregular brown and white blotches. The aperture is white, but a purplish diffuse blotch is often present in the upper part, especially in the smaller specimens. Juveniles of this species are brightly colored and they can appear quite different to the adults. Their spire is clearly concave, with a projecting protoconch. The ground colour is greenish brown. There is one pale brown spiral band around the shoulder. The pattern of white markings is similar to that of the adult shells, but the tented aspect is more evident. The spire is also patterned with irregular blotches of white and greenish brown color. As the juveniles become mature individuals, the greenish shades disappear from the shell and the brown color becomes predominant. The aperture in these is dark brown, especially in the upper part.

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Conus ixchel  Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LACM

Published in: Festivus Vol. 49, Issue 3, p. 239 – 240, Fig. 1, B
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 2.5 m depth off Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo State, Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula
Type Data: Lectotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14.5 x 8.0 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-ixchel
Synonyms:-
Geographic Range:- At present, known only from Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and probably endemic to the island.Aruba
Habitat:- The new species prefers open hard limestone sea floors, covered with coral rubble and carbonate silt and devoid of vegetation, in 2-3 m depths
Description:-
Shell small for genus, stocky, with sharply-angled, carinated shoulder and distinctly stepped, scalariform spire; body whorl shiny and polished, ornamented with 15-18 strong, deeply-incised spiral sulci over entire surface, giving shell rough texture; shell color pale violet-purple with pink overtones, overlaid with 18 spiral rows of small brown dots and dashes and with large, scattered amorphous dark brown flammules, mostly arranged in a band around mid-body; anterior canal lighter in color than body whorl; spire whorls marked with row of tiny, evenly-spaced dark brown dots along suture and with widely-scattered larger dark brown spots on edge of shoulder and along shoulder carina; aperture wide, becoming wider toward anterior end, colored deep reddish- brown within interior; protoconch mammilate, protracted, composed of 2 whorls.

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update August 2017