Conus  laevis  Gmelin,  1791

 

Pictures:


Picture Link: C. laevis, Bohol. GCSM picture

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt, p. 3391
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Valentyn (1773, pl. 8, fig. 70)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  circumcisus Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-circumcisus laevis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-In 4-200 m; in sand, coral rubble, clefts of coral reefs or on lagoon pinnacles, beneath dead coral rocks.
Description:
C.  laevis with large reddish brown blotches
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lamberti  Souverbie, 1877

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNB Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. xxv,  p. 71,  pl. I, f. 1. and pl. ii
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ouvea Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNB deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 107 x 53 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-lamberti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 30-100 m; on sloping sand bottoms
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid. Last whorl conical, outline convex below shoulder, slightly concave centrally, otherwise straight. Shoulder subangulate. Spire low, outline concave. First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 2 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves, turning into striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with a few spiral ribs at base.
Colour light brown to reddish brown. Last whorl with small and medium-sized, separate or overlappig white tents and flecks, concentrated at centre, below shoulder and at base. Postnuclear sutural ramps with white radial streaks and blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 70-114 mm
RW -0.35 g/mm
(L 73 mm)
RD 0.50-0.53
PMD 0.89-0.95
RSH 0.07-0.12
Discussion:-C. lamberti is similar to the form magister of C. crocatus. The latter can be distinguished by its broader last whorl (RD 0.55-0.64), by having about 2 weakly tuberculate (instead of 5-6 distinctly tuberculate) postnuclear whorls, a convex rather than concave teleoconch sutural ramps, and a rounded rather than subangulate shoulder. The two species also differ in the colour pattern of their animals.

 

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Conus  lani   Crandall,  1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in TMGS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Quarterly J. Taiwan Museum 32,  p. 113, figs. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Tiao-yu-tai, NE Taiwan; 75 m
Type Data: Holotype in TMGS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 21.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-lani
Synonyms:-
nigrostriatus Kosuge, 1979
Geographic Range:-Taiwan, Philippines, Solomon Is., and Loyalty Is., and New Caledonia
Habitat:-Reported from depths of  75-500 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized, moderately solid. Last- whorl usually conical, outline nearly straight. Shoulder subangulate to indistinct. Spire high, outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of almost 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. First 4-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 2-3 increasing to 5-7 spiral grooves, weaker in late whorls. Last whorl with fine spiral ribs from base to shoulder, sometimes obsolete adapically and minutely granulose at base.
Colour light to dark brown, with scattered white mark ings on last-whorl and late sutural ramps. In some specimens, white markings form an indistinct spiral band below centre of last whorl. Larval whorls and first 2-4 teleoconch sutural ramps white. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 41-54 mm
RW 0.10-0.14 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.55
PMD 0.84-0.89
RSH 0.23-0.29
Discussion:-C. lani resembles C. smirna in shape, but the latter species attains larger size, its last whorl has a slightly pyriform outline, and it lacks uniform brown colouration with scattered white spots.
C. lani is a smaller species (to 54 mm) than C. profundorum, with a narrower, more conical last whorl (RD 0.50-0.55; PMD 0.84-0.89) with straighter outline, flat late sutural ramps and a plain brown colouration with white spots.

 

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Conus  lapulapui  da Motta  &  Martin, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Carf. Phil. Shell News 4 (3),  p. 4, fig. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Visayan Sea Between Malapascua Is. & Bantayan Is., Philippines; 20-40 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.5 x 11.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus eugrammatus Bartsch & Rheder, 1943
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-eugrammatus lapulapui forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Offshore in 35-500 m
Description:-
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus largillierti  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 212,  pl. 98,  f. 3  and pl. 101, f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Gulf of Mexico
Type Data: There is a cited figure : Coq. Viv.,  pl. 98, f. 3
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-largillierti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida, S. Carolina, Mexico
Habitat:-Dredged at depths of  30 to 50 m
Description:-Source Vink.
A heavy shell, 35 to 45 mm, with high, concave-sided spire. Body whorl convex, tapering to a narrow base, and smooth, except for spiral ridges near the base. Shoulder sharply angled, spire whorls smooth, slightly stepped and flat above, Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, first 3 to 4 postnuclear whorls with larger tops than sides and coronated; coronation often not apparent because of erosion. Body whorl white with large pale red brown maculations or pale brown bands and spiral rows of brown dots placed very close together and here and there merging to dashes. Spiral of larger dots and dashes alternate with spiral of smaller dots.
Discussion:-C. largillierti could be confused with C. spurius (which has the shoulder roundly angulate and the later spire whorls with rounded margins and concave above), C. sennottorum (which is more turnip- shaped, with 12 postnuclear whorls instead of 9 to 10, and with equal tops and sides of the early postnuclear whorls) and C. anabathrum burryae from Yucatan (which is more slender with a lower, less concave sided spire).
Note lectotype rep. fig. elected by Kohn but potential syntypes in MNHN.

 

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Conus  laterculatus  Sowerby, 1870

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870,  p. 255,  pl. 22,  f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Graphiconus Species:-laterculatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; Borneo
Habitat:-Reported from depths of 50-240 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly conical, rarely conical to ventricosely conical; outline slightly convex on adapical third, straight below. Basal part of columella often deflected to left. Shoulder angulate to sharply angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to straight. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.8 mm. First 3- 4 teleoconch spire whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with axially striate spiral grooves from base to shoulder and variably broad ribbons between; toward base, grooves wider and partially with a spiral thread, infervening ribbons sometimes weakly granulose; below shoulder, ribbons narrow or grading to ribs.
Ground colour white, often suffused with beige or violet. Last whorl with brown dots, dashes and flecks on the spiral ribbons, concentrated in an interupted spiral band above and below centre. Larval whorls greyish white. Teleoconch spire with curved radial brown streaks and blotches. Aperture bluish violet, demarcated by a darker collabral band from a white marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 41-64 mm
RW 0.11-0.25 g/mm
RD 0.42-0.51
PMD 0.80-0.88
RSH 0.10-0.16
Discussion:-C. laterculatus is very similar to C. australis australis, which differs in its larger size (L to 105 mm), its generally higher higher spire (RSH 0.14-0.21), less angulate shoulder, and more prominent and granulose spiral elevations on the last whorl. C. laterculatus generally lacks the axial streaks and flames characteristic of the last whorl of C. australis, and the aperture of C. laterculatus is darker.
C. laterculatus can be distinguished from C. sculpturatus by its angulate to sharply angulate rather than carinate shoulder, straighter spire outline and smaller number of spiral grooves (4-5) on the late sutural ramps; its last whorl is sculptured with ribbons rather than ribs and has straight rather than concave left side basally; its aperture is bluish-violet.

 

 

Conus laterculatus f. sogodensis  Poppe,  Monnier  &  Tagaro,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (5), 49
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sogod, Cebu, Philippines, (muddy sand bottom, 180 - 250 mtrs)
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52  x 21.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A color form of Conus laterculatus; described as a valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Graphiconus Species:- laterculatus sogodensis forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sogod, Philippines
Habitat:-Found in sand at 180-250 m
Description:-Source Original description

The protoconch is tilted, multispiral, with two and a half light brown glossy whorls. The spire is moderately high, with a slightly concave outline and has an angulate shoulder. The relative diameter (RD) is 0.47; the position of the maximum diameter (PMD) is 0.81. The shape of the shell is narrowly conoid cylindrical. The shoulder is broadly carinate and smooth. The last whorl is covered with around 25 spiral grooves. The base color of the shell is creamy white, also the in- side of the aperture. A pattern of irregular light orange- brown blotches covers the body whorl. These irregular bands are formed on the body whorl, where the blotches become slightly larger and more condensed. The pattern disappears towards the siphonal canal.
Discussion:-A comparison suggests that C. laterculus is very similar but has a violet tint and darker brown markings in fresh specimens.

 

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Conus  laueri    Monnier & Limpalaër, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS  Eric Monnier

 

Published in: Visaya 4 (1), p. 85-94, pl. 1, Pl. 2 & Pl. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, in the South Eastern Persian Gulf
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 60.2  x 27.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:- laueri
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Persian Gulf
Habitat:-In five meters under coral
Description:-Source Original description

The shell is conical to ventricosely conical. Protoconch seems to be white as are the first teleoconch whorls. The spire is convex in the first whorls and becomes progressively straighter. The sutural ramps are smooth without spiral grooves and of convex profile. The adult shell has about 11 whorls. The anal noth is moderately deep and U-shaped. The pattern of the spire is identical with that of the body whorl and is mostly visible on the four last whorls.

The last whorl shape is conical with slightly attenuated anterior part. The periphery is rounded. The surface is apparently smooth but appears under magnification to be very finely cancellate giving the shells the aspect of corded paper with a silky gloss. There is no sculpture at the anterior end. The aperture is long and widens regularly towards the end.

The ground color of the shell is ivory white covered with reddish to dark brown chevrons. There are faint spiral lines into the brown pattern. The white background forms crowded tents of various sizes and shapes that are evenly distributed over the last whorl. Overall, the pattern is reminiscent of a dislocating ice shelf. The dead collectedshells have a faded orange color.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  lautus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 46,  f. 255
Ocean geography: Undefined
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mozambicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-mozambicus lautus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Africa; Indian Ocean Cape Agulhas to E. London
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell thin and light-weighted, moderately small to medium-sized, in general smaller than the nominal form. In form lautus the last whorl is broader, rather ovate in shape, with convex sides and a rounded shoulder. The spire is usually lower, with a straight to convex profile. Sutural ramps as in the nominal form, with spiral grooves. Ground color also variable, from pure white to dark brown. The pattern is very variable, with a strong tendency to show interrupted spirallines of altemating brown and white bars, sometimes contrasting against a reddish brown ground color, providing an attractive appearance to the shell. Aperture most often of a pale violet color.
Discussion:-C. mozambicus f. lautus applies to specimens of C. mozambicus having broad, low-spired shells. Specimens belonging to this form occur more frequently in the Indian Ocean, suggesting possibly an extreme clinal variation. However they co-occur with standard C. mozambicus all along its distribution range, ruling out subspecific status.

 

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Conus  lecourtorum  Lorenz,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Schriften zur Malakozoologie 26, 37
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cargados Carajos Shoal, St Brandon, Mauritius
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size:16.1mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-lecourtorum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mauritius
Habitat:-Shallow water.
Description:-Source Original description
The shell is small and solid, slightly ventricose, posterior slightly convex. The spire is moderately high and distinctly stepped with straight profile. Protoconch of three whorls of which the first is smoooth, the following finely and distinctly tuberculate. There are 6 teleoconch whorls of which the sutural ramps are flat with three or four spiral ribs and prominent tubercles which extend across the angular shoulder onto the body whorl where they form shallow transverse ridges. The ground colour is plain white. There are two transverse zones of irregular reddish patches. In some specimens the patches are more distinct and joined by transverse lines of same colour. There are small white zigzag dashes within the patches.
Discussion:-Similar to C. axelrodi but the tubercles and shell structure, the coloration and stepped spire differentiate C. lecourtorum.

 

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Conus  leehmani   Röckel  &  da Motta,  1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xi, no. 122-123,  p. 17
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65.3 x 34 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator leehmani forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Maldives, Laccadive Islands
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m
Description:-
Form leehmani : ground colour white to cream. Last whorl with a yellowish brown spiral band on each side of centre; an additional spiral band may be present below shoulder. Spiral colour bands separate or connected by a variable number of identically coloured axial streaks to broad bands. Dark or reddish brown spots or axial streaks or blotches mostly over spiral bands; markings usually sparse and irregularly spaced, occasionally absent. Siphonal fasciole white or tinged with yellow. Larval and first 1-4 postnuclear sutural ramps orange. Following sutural ramps with reddish brown radial blotches. Aperture white, pale orange deep within in some specimens.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  leekremeri  Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM  Alan Kohn

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 54,  pl. 9,  figs. 7 &  8
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off S coast of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas; 240 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-leekremeri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Found at depths around 200 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell thin, elongated, with high, widely scalariform spire; body whorl shiny, highly polished, ornamented with numerous low, rounded, spiral cords; cords become large and more numerous around the anterior end; spire whorls ornamented with 4 large, spiral threads; spire whorls concave, producing canaliculated whorls; canaliculate spire edged with low, rounded carina along edge of shoulder; carina follows edge of suture on canaliculate spire whorls; sides of body whorl distinctly concave and indented, producing an emaciated, waisted appearance; aperture long and very narrow; body whorl, spire, and interior of aperture pure white; periostracum thin, transparent yellow.
Discussion:-Conus leekremeri is closest to the widespread western Atlantic C. villepini Fischer and Bernardi, but differs in being a smaller, more elongated shell with much more concave sides, and by having a lower,and distinctly canaliculate, spire. Conus villepini is also a more colorful shell, with many large brown flammules, while C. leekremeri is pure white.

Tucker indicates that he thinks it is juvenile of C. villepini.

 

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Conus  legatus   Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Kiener, 1845, pl. 89, fig. 3

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv, p. 437
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mers des Grandes Indes
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Kiener, 1845, pl. 89, fig. 3
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-legatus
Synonyms:-
musivum Sowerby ii, 1833
Geographic Range:-Mozambique, Seychelles, Reunion and W. Thailand to Okinawa, Marshall Is., and French Polynesia; absent from Australia and from Hawaii
Habitat:-In 3-50 m; on coral reef from the reef lagoon to the outer reef slope, in sand, coral rubble, caves and on dead coral
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, usually moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conoid-cylindrical; outline convex to nearly straight adapically, slightly concave (left side) and slightly convex to straight (right side) below. Shoulder rounded to nearly angulate. Spire of moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of 2.5-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 1.5-4 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 2-3 weak spiral grooves usually replaced by many spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with rather widely spaced, occasionally granulose spiral ribs basally.
Ground colour white, tinged with rose. Last whorl with a network of fine brown lines and yellowish brown blotches. Lines forming zones of overlapping tiny to medium-sized ground-colour tents with irregularly scattered white tents; tentmark zones grouped in axial rows and bands as well as in 3 less prominent spiral bands, below shoulder, at centre and at base. Yellowish brown blotches predominantly axially arranged, but also in 2 broad spiral bands, interspersed with blackish brown axial streaks and flecks. Larval whorls brown, sometimes pinkish violet. First 2-3 postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white or pinkish violet. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white or pinkish violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 32-63 mm
RW 0.09-0.41 g/mm
(L 32-60 mm)
RD 0.50-0.59
PMD 0.76-0.85
RSH 0.15-0.22
Discussion:-C. legatus is similar to C. canonicus, C. aureus paulucciae. C. canonicus differs in its more prominent spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps and its white ground colour that is often tinged with blue. Its colour pattern lacks yellowish brown blotches, overlaid with blackish brown streaks. C. a. paulucciae is generally larger, has a generally narrower last whorl (RD 0.46-0.53), a distinctly more prominent spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps, and less prominent blackish brown axial markings within the yellowish brown blotches.

 

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Conus  lemniscatus   Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl.,  pl. v,  sp. 246
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 18.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus
Synonyms:-
sagittatus Sowerby ii, 1865; clenchi Martins, 1943; carcellesi Martins, 1945; xanthocinctus Petuch, 1980
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-70 m
Description:-Source Vink
C. lemniscatus closely resembles C. clerii, but in general is somewhat smaller, length up to 50 mm. Typical specimens are more slender with a more straight-sided spire. The body whorl is straight to convex with spiral ridges near the base, which in some spcimens may cover the body whorl. Shoulder roundly angulate, early spire whorls convex, later spire whorls flat to slightly concave and not stepped in typical C. lemniscatus. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls. The first 2 postnuclear whorls, normally smooth, may show irregular coronation (but not the regular axial sculpture of C. clerii). The colour pattern is like that of C. clerii; in most specimens of typical C. lemniscatus the axial flames are lighter coloured and cover larger areas so that the spiral lines of dark squares become prominent. However, there are specimens of C. clerii with the same colour pattern, and the only way to distinguish the two species without any doubt is by comparing the early spire whorls
Discussion:-C. lemniscatus was used erroneusly for shells now considered C. dictator from Indian Ocean.

 

 

Conus  lemniscatus  f.  carcellesi  Martins, 1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNRJ MNRJ

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Notas Mus. La Plata Zool. x,  no. 88,  p. 260,  pl. f. A-G2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina
Type Data: Holotype in MNRJ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus carcellesi subsp.
Synonyms:-
iheringi Frenguelli, 1946
Geographic Range:-Urugauy, Argentina
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-70 m
Description:-
Discussion:-Da Motta (1981) considered C. carcellesi a full species, and drew attention to a number of morphological differences: the shell is smaller, 30 to 45 mm, and wider, with a more convex body whorl and a relatively higher spire, which is rather straight and often stepped. These differences can be found in main population.
Tucker comments:- In samples that I examined, the spire of L. l. lemniscatus is not as elevated as the spire of L. l. carcellesi. Without belaboring the details, I found that these differences are statistically significant in the sample I have at hand. Consequently, I agree with Vink in recognizing L. l. carcellesi as a subspecies of L. lemniscatus.

 

 

Conus  lemniscatus  f.  clenchi  Martins, 1943

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNRJ Mike Filmer

Published in: Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro. Nova Serie. Zool. n,  p. 2 & 3,  Text,  f.
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Barra do Furado, Municipio de Campos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; At shore line.
Type Data: Holotype in MNRJ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus clenchi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Uruguay, Argentina
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-See C.lemniscatus

Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  lemniscatus  f.  xanthocinctus  Petuch,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MORG John Tucker

Picture Link Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcix,  no. 1,  p. 13,  f. 11 &  12
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cabo Frio, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; trawled in 100 m
Type Data: Holotype in MORG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-lemniscatus xanthocinctus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 35 to100 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongate, slender, thin and fragile; spire protracted, stepped; body whorl and spire smooth, shiny; shoulder only slightly produced, rounded, anterior end of shell with few weak spiral striae; aperture narrow; shell color bright golden-yellow with three darker; orange-yellow bands, one just below shoulder, one around mid-body, and one around anterior end; mid-body band darkest, deep orange colored; bands overlaid with 12-14 spiral rows of brown dashes and scattered white flammules; spire golden-yellow with numerous crescent-shaped tan flammules; shoulder and suture of spire whorls ornamented with bands of alternating dark tan and white flammules; interior of aperture pale golden colored; periostracum thin:, smooth, translucent yellow; operculum -small, oval
Discussion:-This distinctive new species could only be confused with the sympatric C. clenchi Martins, 1943, and then only in general shell shape. The bright golden color bands arid characteristic shoulder coloration readily separates C. xanthocinctus from C.clenchi.
Now considered a synonym of C. lemniscatus.

 

----------

 

Conus  lemuriensis  Wils  &  Delsaerdt,  1989

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Gloria Maris xxviii,  no. 6,  p. 105
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Reunion Is.
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 110.4 x 35.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of  Conus milneedwardsi  Jousseaume, 1894
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi lemuriensis subsp.
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Reunion; Mauritius
Habitat:-C. m. lemuriensis from sand bottoms in 50-60 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Last whorl narrowly conical; outline nearly straight. Spire stepped and of moderate height. Shell Morphometry
L 60-174 mm
RW 0.15-0.53 g/mm
(L 60-110 mm)
RD -
(-0.46 - 0.54)
RSH -
( 0.20 - 0.36)
C.  m.  lemuriensis Reunion; spiral grooves obsolete, spire moderate; broader last whorl more uniform reticulated pattern with less numerous large markings below shoulder
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  lenavati   da Motta  &  Röckel,  1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1,  p. 17, f. 16
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Punta Engano, Cebu, Philippines; ca. 200 m
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 62 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-lenavati
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; South China Sea
Habitat:-Reported from depths of 100-240 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid. Last whorl usually conical or ventricosely conical, often pyriform; outline convex at adapical third to two-thirds, straight to concave below. Shoulder angulate. Spire usually low, outline concave. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1.0 mm. First 2.5-4.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs and/or ribbons at base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with brown axial blotches on adapical three-fourth and an incomplete spiral band of the same colour on each side of centre. Central ground-colour band usually continuous; subcentral pattern elements may be absent. Base usually white, occasionally variably tinged with cream. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with irregularly set brown axial markings. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-91 mm
RW 0.30-0.57 g/mm
(L 55-85 mm)
RD 0.56-0.71
PMD 0.80-0.89
RSH 0.02-0.13
Discussion:-C. tribblei has a similar colour pattern but attains larger size (to 138 mm), generally has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.61) with an almost straight rather than sigmoid outline; its late whorls have carinate shoulders and the spiral sculpture is heavier on its last whorl. C. eximius is considerably smaller, its spire generally higher (RSH up to 0.26), its periostracum lacks tufted spiral lines and its last whorl pattern often contains dashed and dotted spiral lines. C. malacanus differs in its heavier shell, usually higher spire (RSH to 0.17), less pyriform last whorl, carinate later whorls, and its smooth periostracum.
C. lenavati has a similar colour pattern as C. sieboldii but its last whorl is distinctly broader (RD 0.56-0.71), its spire lower (RSH 0.02-0.13) and not carinate, and its sutural ramps have distinct spiral grooves.

 

----------

 

Conus  lenhilli   Cargile,  1998

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Siratus 2,  p. 18,  figs. 1-4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Monchoir Bank, SE. of Turks & Caicos Is., 440 m
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-lenhilli
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Turks and Caicos Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
The last whorl  is conical with very straight sides. The shoulder is subangulate. The spire is moderate in height and straight to slightly con-cave in outline. The last whorl  is smooth and glossy with no spiral sculpture even at the base, and with hardly visible axial growth lines.
The color of the body whorl is white or cream, with occasional isolated small yellow or pale orange blotches below the shoulder or above the base, and on the spire. The aperture is white, and translucent near the lip.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  lentiginosus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Figured Syntype Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 44, sp. 245
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.6 x 14.8 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-lentiginosus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. India; Sri Lanka
Habitat:-Inshore, shallow subtidal
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical, ventricosely conical or slightly pyriform; outline convex at adapical two-thirds to three-fourths, straight or concave below; left side consistently sigmoid, right side sometimes almost straight. Shoulder angulate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave or sigmoid. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1.0 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 1-3 spiral grooves, obsolete or replaced by many spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with axially striate spiral grooves on basal third, separated by ribs anteriorly and by ribbons posteriorly.
Ground colour white, variably tinged with violet. Last whorl with confluent brown axial flames, generally arranged in 3 spiral bands, below shoulder, near centre and within basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, varying in number and arrangement. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial blotches. Aperture white, tinged with violet deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 29-38 mm
RW 0.08-0.16 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.69
PMD 0.80-0.89
RSH 0.18-0.24
Discussion:-C. dictator may be mistaken for C. lentiginosus. The latter species differs in the more convex, broader last whorl (RD 0.60-0.69) and usually has fewer tuberculate spire whorls, a coarser colour pattern and simpler colouration of the aperture..
C. lentiginosus has a more solid shell than C. stocki with a more convex and broader last whorl (RD 0.60-0.69) and a higher spire (RSH 0.18-0.24). C. dictator also has a higher spire (RSH 0.17-0.26), and the dotted spiral lines on its last whorl lack white markings
C. stocki also differs from C. lentiginosus in its brown anterior end of the last whorl, aperture and larval whorls.
C. eximius attains larger size, often has a lower spire (RSH 0.08- 0.26), and is separable by its pale brown multispiral larval shell (3.5 whorls), smooth early postnuclear whorls, prominent spiral grooves on later sutural ramps, and white aperture.

 

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Conus  leobottonii  Lorenz,  2006

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

Picure Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Club Conchylien 38, 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Balabac Is., S.  Palawan
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.5 x 27.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species; Regarded by Filmer as aubspecies of Conus fulmen Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-leobottonii
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
A. The shell is heavy and rather large, ventricosely conical, with an angulate shoulder and a moderately low spire with straight outline. The protoconch is pointed, smooth, consisting of two whorls. The body world is smooth and glossy, in the anterior end there is an area with shallow but distinct irregular spiral grooves. The protoconch is pale orange, the ground color of the teleoconch whorls is plain white, as is the aperture and the interior. The body whorl of some specimens is plain white (without secondary pattern), reddish brown in the darkest shells.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  leobrerai   da Motta & Martin,  1982

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Carf. Phil. Shell News 4(3), p. 3, fig. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Visayan Sea between Malapascua Is. & Bantayan Is., Philippines; 20-40 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.5 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-leobrerai
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; Solomons
Habitat:-Found in 35-200 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conical; outline convex adapically, straight (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of moderate height to high, slightly stepped; outline concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 1-2 postnuclear whorls often weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with spiral ribs from base to shoulder, sometimes ribs basally and ribbons adapically; grooves between axially striate containing a fine spiral rib and/or 1-3 spiral threads.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of brown dots on ribs; brown dots often reduced in large specimens. Dots fusing into spots and axial streaks below shoulder, above centre and occasionally also below centre, forming 1-2 or sometimes 3 spiral bands. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial streaks and blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-35 mm
RW 0.07-0.12 g/mm
RD 0.53-0.59
PMD 0.80-0.87
RSH 0.22-0.25
Discussion:-C. leobrerai resembles juvenile C. australis, which is distinguished by the less sigmoid left side of its last whorl, smaller number (3-4) of spiral grooves on the sutural ramps, 3 brown spiral bands on last whorl, and larger number of larval whorls (3.25 vs. 2-2.25)

 

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Conus  leopardus  Röding,  1798

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773,  Pl. 60, fig. 666)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Museum Boltenianum 2,  I-VIII,  p. 41
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773, pl. 60,  fig. 666)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-leopardus
Synonyms:-
millepunctatus Lamarck, 1822; aldrovandi Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-Indo-W. Pacific
Habitat:-Slightly subtidal to about 45 m usually below 2 m. Mainly in shallow bays with vast subtidal stretches of sand or sand with vegetation; also occupying large areas of sand or sand and rubble on subtidal reef flats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Large and heavy; relative weight may vary by 40 %. Last whorl usually conical; outline almost straight, sometimes convex at adapical fourth. Base truncate. Shoulder angulate, occasionally subangulate. Spire of low to sometimes moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Middle and late teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 3 increasing to 4 - 6 spiral grooves; grooves usually faint on last ramps of large specimens. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs above base, obsolete in old specimens.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of dark bluish brown spots or short axial streaks. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably maculated with dark bluish brown oblique axial blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 80-222 mm
RW 1.40-5.00 g/mmm
(L 80-170 mm)
RD 0.58-0.71
PMD 0.81-0.93
RSH 0.00-0.15
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  levis  Bozzetti,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Paris   Luigi Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 76, p. 3, figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype  deposited MNHN Paris

Type Size: 10,18 x 6.02 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy:
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONOLITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONOLITHINAE
Genus:-Pseudolilliconus Species:-levis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Tidal grit
Description:-Original description
Profile ventricosely conical, shoulder subangulate, body whorl convex on right side, slightly concave at the base and convex above on left side; protoconch wide dome shaped; body whorl sides smooth with the exeption of 6-7 spiral basal grooves. Body whorl sides with a pinkish-gray background color with sparse brown dots; one pinkish-fleshy spiral band along the central area; protoconch and early teleoconch whorls pink, sutural ramp on body whorl deep pink, shoulder whitish; inside aperture gray.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

----------

 

Conus  levistimpsoni   Tucker,  2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Santa Barbara Museum of NH   John Tucker

 

Published in: The Cone Shells of Florida, pp. 72 & 74, fig. 19
Ocean geography: Caribbean
Type Locality: south of Carabelle, Franklin County, Florida
Type Data: Holotype  deposited SBMNH

Type Size: 27 mm x 34 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy:
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-levistimpsoni
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
in sand and rubble; paratypes dredged in 58 m
Description:-Original description
The sides of the body whorl are convex just anterior to the shoulder angle but become flat in profile anterior to the shoulder angle. The spire is elevated.  It is concave in profile in the upper part of the spire but then becomes more conical in the outer portion of the spire.  The spire is at first scalariform but then becomes less scalariform in the outer whorls.  Nodules are present on the first two or three whorls.  They then disappear and subsequent whorls are not nodulose.  Subsutural ramps are flat in cross section. Cords are present.  At first two or three cords are present that persist.  The shoulders are angular and carinate.  The body whorl is smooth except for some spiral ribbons near the anterior end of the shell.  There are no longitudinal elements.  The shell is mostly white with scattered tan or brown markings. These markings are mostly anterior to and posterior to the midbody region.  They are not extensive and are limited to the general midbody region.  Spiral lines and blotches are not present.  The subsutural ramps are marked by lightly colored blotches or may be white.  The anterior end is white.  The interior of the aperture is white.

Discussion:-The shell is compared with the related C. stimpsoni. The latter is less smooth, is broader and not primarly white.

 

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Conus  leviteni  Tucker,  Tenorio,  Chaney,  2011

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Hawaii The Sea Shells Addendum
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Oahu, Hawaii
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64.4 x 38.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-leviteni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Hawaii
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Medium-sized, solid shells, ventricosely conical with a low to moderate spire; she1ls broader than Darioconus omaria and typical D. pennaceus; sutural ramps flat to concave, with two or three weak cords disappearing in later whorls; protoconch paucispiral, pink, mamillated; ground color white; last whorl and spire pattemed with different shades of brown overlaid with white tent markings; aperture white. The profile of the last whorl is ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical (conical in some specimens), with a low to moderate spire. The shoulder is subangulate to rounded. The sides of the last whorl are usually convex, but straight in some populations. There appears to be a consistent variability in shell shape according to the particular island, or even to particular populations within an island. The aperture is pure white. Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lictor  Boivin,  1864

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in Boivin collection J. Conchyl. pl.1, f. 1 & 2
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 12,  p. 36, pl. I, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype was in Boivin collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 40 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus striatellus Link, 1807
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-striatellus lictor forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Intertidal to about 20 m; on sand, often with algae or mixed with coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. lictor refers to a colour variant with only a scattered axially streaked pattern.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lienardi   Bernardi  &  Crosse,  1861

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 9,  p. 49,  pl. I,  f. & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 45.2 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-lienardi
Synonyms:-
prevosti Sowerby iii, 1881
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia; Melanesia
Habitat:-In 3-60 m on sand; active at nightfall
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical or conical; outline convex adapically, straight below; left side somewhat concave near base. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire usually of moderate height, outline variably concave. Larval shell of about 2.25-2.50 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 3-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves; latest ramps with faint or obsolete grooves but many additional spiral striae. Last whorl with widely spaced spiral grooves on basal third or half.
Ground colour white. In light-coloured specimens, last whorl with a generally fine and often incomplete, brown or orange reticulate pattern and variously sized flecks aligned in a spiral row on each side of centre; sometimes pattern only of scattered curved or zigzag-shaped axial dashes. In dark-coloured specimens, last whorl covered with large dark violet-brown zones and bluish background shadows leaving only sparse blotches and tents of white. Larval whorls light brown. About first 2 postnuclear sutural ramps brown. Following spirewhorls matching last whorl in colour pattern. Light-coloured shells with a white aperture, pale pink or violet; dark-coloured shells with a bluish white aperture.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-63 mm
RW 0.07-0.17 g/mm
(L 32-52 mm)
RD 0.49-0.54
PMD 0.78-0.87
RSH 0.12-0.25
Discussion:-C. neptunus attains larger size, has white larval whorls, and its last whorl is generally less ventricose but straighter in outline.
C. lienardi resembles C. oishii in size and pattern. It can be distinguished by its finer pattern, narrower last whorl, angulate shoulder, tuberculate early postnuclear whorls, and brown apex.
C. lienardi differs from C. cinereus in its rather angulate shoulder, complete or reduced reticulate pattern on last whorl and spire, and in the absence of any spirally aligned dots and dashes; its early postnuclear whorls are tuberculate

 

----------

 

Conus  lightbourni   Petuch,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH  Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 99,  p. 16,  f. 1-2
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 2.5 km S of Castle Island, Bermuda; 330 m
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-lightbourni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bermuda
Habitat:-Found at depths around 300 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell elongate, slender, obconical, thin, lightweight; spire elevated; shoulder and spire whorls rounded; body whorl and spire shiny, polished; anterior end of body whorl with numerous faint, raised spiral threads; aperture narrow, straight; base shell color bright orange, overlaid with two wide bands of deep salmon-pink, one at mid-body, one between mid-body and shoulder; some specimens with third salmon band around anterior end; salmon-pink bands ornamented with rows of large brown spots; spots often coalesce into large brown flammules, usually on either side or central band; some specimens with rows or small brown dots on orange bands; spire salmon-pink with large crescent-shaped brown flammules; protoconch mamillate; interior of aperture pale violet-purple; operculum and periostracum unknown.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  lignarius  Reeve,  1843

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus, pl. 24,  sp. 136
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Port Sacloban, Leyte Is.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49 x 25.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus lignarius forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-
C. lignarius: lighter brown than typical form of C. furvus, with a darker base and solid spiral lines on last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  limpalaeri   Tenorio & Monnier,  2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paratype 3 Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Xenophora 12, p. 44-51, Pl. 1 & 2, Pl. 3, fig. 3-6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Balut Island, Southern Mindanao, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35.8 x 16.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-limpalaeri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:- Only known from  the type locality (Balut Island) and the neighboring

Sarangani Island, in 100 to 450 m depth
Description:-Source original description
Shell shape is ventricosely conical to conical. This is a moderately small to medium sized species. The spire is moderate to high, concave and slightly sigmoid in profile. The whorl tops are flat in cross section. The paucispiral protoconch of 1.5 whorls is white to creamy-yellow, porcellaneous and translucent, with a maximum diameter of 0.98 mm. The early teleoconch whorls are white or tan, with small tubercles which disappear by whorl five. Early teleoconch whorls have three to four cords. The cords increase in number to six, seven or even more in late teleoconch whorls, but fade slightly in the outer whorls near the shoulder. The shoulder is angulated, with a weak ridge present. The sides of the shell are very slightly convex below the shoulder and then straight, becoming very slightly concave near the anterior end. The last whorl is smooth except for 8-9 spiral grooves around the basal quarter. The posterior notch is shallow and C-shaped. There is no anterior notch.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  limpusi   Röckel  &  Korn,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Living Conidae

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum Nr. 2,  p. 14, pl. 5,  f. 1. 2,  pl. 6,  f. 1, 2, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Yeppoon, Capricorn Group/Capricorn Channel Queensland, Australia
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44.7 x 22.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-limpusi
Synonyms:-
albellus Röckel & Korn, 1990
Geographic Range:-Queensland, Australia, from Bundaberg area to the southern part of Great Barrier Reef.
Habitat:-Reported from 80-220 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical, outline convex adapically and less so to straight toward base; left side constricted just above base. In form albellus (Pl. 58, Figs. 13-15), last whorl generally less ventricose and more straight-sided than in typical form. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate in large specimens. Spire of low to moderate height, generally higher in typical form than in form albellus; outline concave to almost straight. Larval shell of 1.75-2 whorls, maximum diameter 1.2-1.3 mm. First 2-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; in similarly sized specimens, typical form with slightly more postnuclear whorls than form albellus (L 45 mm: ca. 9.25 vs. ca. 8.5 whorls). Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves. Last whorl with spiral ribs, ribbons and threads extending from base to shoulder in variable sequence; grooves between axially striate, wider towards base. In form albellus, sculpture of last whorl usually less prominent, with ribs concentrated near base and below shoulder and ribbons between; large specimens sometimes nearly smooth adapically.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with brown spots, streaks, flames and blotches fusing into 3 interrupted to solid spiral bands, just below shoulder and above as well as below centre; specimens of typical form may have additional spiral rows of small brown spots and narrow bars. Shells nearly without any pattern elements intergrade with shells that have almost solid brown last whorls. In form albellus, pattern elements usually sparse and less prominent than in typical form, white shells more frequent. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with brown radial markings partially extending beyond outer margins and matching last whorl pattern in prominence. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-55 mm
RW 0.11-0.37 g/mm
RD 0.57-0.68
(0.55 - 0.66 form albellus)
PMD 0.80-0.88
RSH 0.10-0.22
(0.07 - 0.16 form albellus)
Discussion:-C. minnamurra differs in its usually broader last whorl (RD 0.64-0.72), non-tuberculate early postnuclear whorls and in its generally fewer larval whorls (1.5-1.75 vs. 1.75-2). In addition, its spire outline is convex to straight instead of concave to almost straight.
C. colmani can be distinguished by its generally broader last whorl (RD 0.62-0.73), narrower larval shell (1.05-1.15 mm) mostly more uniform spiral sculpture of the last whorl and by its more axially oriented last whorl pattern. Subadult shells are rather pyriform in C. colmani but conical in C. limpusi. Strongly sculptured specimens of C. colmani are sometimes nearly inseparable from C. limpusi.
The typical form and form albellus of C. limpusi occur sympatrically and have almost identical bathymetric ranges. Although C. albellus was originally considered a separate species, additional material from several localities in the Swain Reefs includes shells intermediate in shape, sculpture and pattern between it and C. limpusi.

 

 

Conus  limpusi  f.  albellus  Röckel & Korn, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum Nr. 2,  p. 11, pl. 3, f. 1-5, pl. 4,  f. 1-7, pl. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: SE Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.6 x 22.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus limpusi Röckel & Korn, 1990
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-limpusi albellus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Queensland
Habitat:-form albellus was dredged from blue-grey mud and shell substrate.
Description:-
Shell Morphometry
L 30-55 mm
RW 0.11-0.37 g/mm
RD  0.55 - 0.66 form albellus
PMD 0.80-0.88
RSH 0.07 - 0.16 form albellus
Form C. l. albellus higher spire, body sculpture less prominent; some flat areas; patternless prominent, some white shells

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lindae   Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 55,  pl. 9, figs. 9 & 10
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off S. Coast of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas; 240 m. corrected to North of Bimini Island
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lindaconus Species:-lindae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Found in deep water around 250 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell solid, stocky, broad across shoulder, with relatively low spire; shoulder distinctly rounded; spire whorls slightly canaliculate; body whorl shiny, highly polished, with waxy feel; aperture narrow; protoconch very large, rounded, mamillate; shell color varying from pure white (paratype, Key collection) to pale pink, overlaid with 2 bands of salmon-pink dots (holotype); wide bands of salmon-pink blotches arranged with one above mid-body and one below mid-body near anterior end; rounded shoulder and canaliculate spire whorls marked with evenly-spaced, thin, radiating, pale salmon-orange flammules; interior of aperture white; periostracum thin, smooth, yellow, translucent.
Discussion:-Conus lindae does not closely resemble any known cone species from the western Atlantic.

 

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Conus  lineata  Crosse, 1878

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchyl. Xxvi,  p. 168,  pl. iii, f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 69 x 37 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- An available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. lineatus Solander, 1766 (fossil), of Hwass, 1792, of Röding, 1798, of Borson, 1820 (fossil) and of Christofori & Jan, 1832 (fossil)
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a specimen of C. crosseanus Bernardi, 1861
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name lineata

 

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Conus  lineolatus  Valenciennes,  1832

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Lectotype (Kohn) in MNHN

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Humboldt & Bonpland, Voyage dans l' intérieur de l' Amerique dans les Années 1799 – 1802 Recueil d'Obeservations de Zoologie et Anatomie comparee, pt. 2, book 14, p. 336, not figured

Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific

Type Locality: Acapulco, Mexico, (West coast)

Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 62.5 x 36 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus princeps

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Ductoconus Species:-princeps f. lineolatus

Synonyms:-

Geographic Range West Panama

Habitat:-Shallow water

Description:-Source Walls

Moderately to very heavy, often cumbersome, with a low gloss; obconical, the sides nearly straight; basal ridges and axial threads; shoulder roundly angled, with heavy but low coronations, broad; spire low/flat, the early whorls erode; whorls heavily coronated, slightly concave above; body whorl deep pink to bright orange, rarely yellowish, with/ without narrow/broad irregular axial flammules/threads of black/dark brown;spire color as body with curved blackish lines; early whorls eroded white; aperture narrow, uniform; outer lip sharp, straight; mouth dull pink to orange often milky white within; columella short narrow.

C. p. lineolatus covered with fine axial black hairlines closely following axial growth lines

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lineopunctatus   Kaicher,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in USNM Courtesy USNM

 

Published in: Card Cat. W-W Shells pack 13,  no. 1259
Ocean geography:East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Elefantes Bay, Angola
Type Data: Lectotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.1 x 21.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-lineopunctatus
Synonyms:- neoguttatus da Motta, 1991
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Buried in sand at 2-3 m, under rocks
Description:-With the validity of Kaicher names established by the ICZN, the name lineopunctatus will replace neoguttatus. See there.

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Conus  lischkeanus   Weinkauff,  1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LMD Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2, Lief. 233, p. 311,  pl. 56,  f. 2 & 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Japan
Type Data: Holotype in LMD deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus
Synonyms:-
kermadecensis Iredale, 1913; tropicensis Coomans & Filmer, 1985; subroseus Röckel & Korn, 1992; garywilsoni Lorenz & Morrison, 2004
Geographic Range:-Japan to Taiwan
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 200 m; reported from bare limestone pavement or sand, sometimes among weed or coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; heavier variants known from W. Australia and Somalia. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, sometimes ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical in Indian Ocean shells; outline variably convex adapically, straight below. Shoulder angulate, occasionally approaching subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to concave or slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 3.75 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, sometimes concave in late whorls, with 1 increasing to 2-6 spiral grooves; on latest ramps, grooves usually obsolete in Pacific shells, distinct to obsolete in Indian Ocean shells. Last whorl either almost smooth or with weak to distinct, sometimes paired spiral ribs on basal third; in small adults, ribs occasionally from base beyond centre and slightly granulose.
Ground colour white, often variably suffused with light to darker rose or violet in E. African shells. Last whorl generally with a variably broad brown to orange-brown spiral band above and below centre, leaving ground-colour bands at shoulder, at or just below centre, and at base. In Indian Ocean shells, colour bands often yellowish to light brown and covering the entire last whorl; some shells from E. Africa with dark brown to dark red-brown spiral bands, and with central ground-colour band either edged by darker brown spots or crossed by axial markings. Closely spaced, dotted and dashed darker brown spiral lines may occur over the entire geographical range of the species. Larval whorls white to light brown in the Pacific, brownish violet in W. Australia, and pale yellow to orange in the W. Indian Ocean. Postnuclear sutural ramps variably maculated with brown radial streaks and blotches, sometimes immaculate in Indian Ocean shells. Aperture usually white in Pacific shells, violet in W. Australian shells, and white to violet in shells from the w. Indian Ocean. Length 30 mm-75 mm
Shell Morphometry
L 30-75 mm
RW 0.12-0.53 g/mm
(L 30-60 mm; -heavier variants 0.25-0.67 g/mm (L 30-54 mm); (W. Australia; Somalia)
RD 0.61-0.73
PMD 0.82-0.95
RSH 0.07-0.25
Discussion:- There are probably lumped several valid species under this name.

 

 

Conus  lischkeanus  f.  garywilsoni   Lorenz & Morrison,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in WAMP Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conchiglia 35 (309), 43
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Offshore Exmouth, Western Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in WAMP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19 x 9 mm

Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus garywilsoni forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Exmouth, Western Australia
Habitat:-The depth varies from 35-45 metres. The habitat is a vast sand desert with absolutely no rock or reef within 3 km.
Description:-Source La Conchiglia Oct-Dec 2003
The holotype is rather heavy, small, conical, with a moderately high, pointed spire. The protoconch is conspicuous and smooth, consisting of three whorls with a maximum diameter of 0.4 mm. The postnuclear whorls are not tuberculate. The outline of the spire is slightly concave, the eight teleoconch whorls are slightly stepped. The shoulder is angulated. The sutural ramp shows five distinct, somewhat undulating spiral grooves. The last whorl is very slightly convex and smooth, except for the anterior fifth where there are shallow spiral ribs. These are rather distant at first, becoming denser towards the anterior tip. The aperture is straight, slightly widening anteriorly. The operculum is rather narrow and slightly curved, measuring one fifth of the aperture's length.
Coloration. The protoconch is reddish brown. The ground color of the teleoconch whorls is purplish, except for the shoulder, which is whitish. The purplish sutural ramps are ornamented with widely spaced, chestnut-colored radial streaks that extend just below the shoulder. The body whorl is uniformly brown in the upper half, forming a wavy, darker-bordered middle band. In the lower half, the holotype displays much of the ground color, interrupted by irregular brown blotches. The aperture and the anterior end are rich purple. The measurements are enumerated according to the shell formula proposed by Röckel et al. (1995): L = shell-length (mm); RW = relative weight (g/mm); RD = relative diameter of last whorl; PMD =: position of the maximum diameter of the last whorl; RSH= relative spire height.
L= 15 - 20
RW= 0.04 - 0.05
RD= 0.48 - 0.52
PMD= 0.68 - 0.71
RSH= 0.25 - 0.26
Discussion:-Considered a synonym juvenile form of C. lischkeanus, the description hightlights the differences as smaller size, different pattern and purple on the anterior end.

 

 

Conus  lisckeanus  f.  kermadecensis   Iredale, 1913

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in CMNZ Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. 10, p. 227, pl. 9, f. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sunday Is., Kermadec Is.
Type Data: Lectotype in CMNZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.2 x 21.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus  lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus kermadecensis subsp.
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Kermadecs, New Zealand, E. Australia, Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 200 m; reported from bare limestone pavement or sand, sometimes among weed or coral rubble.
Description:-
Discussion:-Coomans and Filmer (1985) recognized 3 geographic subspecies of C. lischkeanus, from the Kermadec Is., W. Australia, and the W. Indian Ocean. However, within these regions, rather straight-sided and usually multicoloured shells with comparatively higher spires occur sympatrically with heavier, low-spired, rather convex-sided and often uniformly coloured shells as well as intermediate specimens. The morphological differences indicated by Coomans and Filmer (1985) are now known to be either slight or not consistently associated with geographic distribution. RKK thus abandon separation of this species into geographic subspecies.

 

 

Conus  lischkeanus  f.  subroseus Röckel  & Korn,  1992

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3,  p. 19,  pl. 3,  f. 8-15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Gulf of Aden
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.3 x 11.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of  Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name subroseus

 

 

Conus  lischkeanus  f.  tropicensis  Coomans  &  Filmer,  1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Mike Filmer

Published in: Beaufortia 35,  p. 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East side of North West Cape, Exmouth Gulf, West Australia, (in sand, near reef)
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44.3 x 26.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus tropicensis forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W Australia, Oman
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 200 m; reported from bare limestone pavement or sand, sometimes among weed or coral rubble.
Description:-
C. tropicensis differs from C. lischkeanus by its heavier shell and stouter shape, lower spire, more rounded shoulders, and less obvious bands. The colouring is weaker and the aperture is violet.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  litoglyphus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 692
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-litoglyphus
Synonyms:- cinamomeus Röding, 1798; orleanus Röding, 1798; subcapitaneus Link, 1807; bicolor Sowerby ii, 1833; lithoglyphus Reeve, 1843; lacinulatus Kiener, 1845; carpenteri Crosse, 1865; seychellensis Nevill & Nevill, 1874
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to Hawaii
Habitat:-Usually subtidal to about 60 m: on reefs. lagoon pinnacles. rocky platforms exposed to wave action and more frequently below 10 m on sand or reef rock under dead corals. or on reef slopes.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium- sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually conical; outline straight, concave below shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low; outline usually concave, occasionally convex in early whorls. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleochonce sutural ramps flat, with 1-3 spiral grooves disappearing in late whorls. Last whorl with coarse, widely spaced, partially granulose spiral ribs basally, sometimes replaced by obsolete smooth ribs or followed by scattered spiral rows of granules to shoulder
Ground colour white. Last whorl overlaid with brownish olive or orangish to dark brown, leaving spiral groundcolour bands at shoulder and below centre. White bands solid, regularly or irregularly interrupted by axial colour markinngs, or covered with olive to dark brown. Base dark brown. Larval whorls and adjacent sutural ramps grey. Late ramps with confluent radial blotches matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture white or pale brown-dark brown at base.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-75 mm
RW 0.20-0.60 g/mm
(L 40-60 mm)
RD 0.51-0.60
PMD 0.83-0.95
RSH 0.04-0.13
Discussion:-C. litoglyphus may resemble specimens of C. planorbis form vitulinus in shape and pattern of the shell. However. the latter shells differ in their concave and more irregularly marked late sutural ramps, that also bear pronounced spiral grooves, and in the more closely spaced and usually stronger spiral ribs on the basal portion of the last whorl. The animal of C. planorbis form vitulinus is bright yellow, variably maculated with black.

 

Conus  litoglyphus  f.  seychellensis  Nevill  &  Nevill, 1874

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZSIC Mike Filmer ZSIC

 

Published in: J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 43,  pt. 2, no. 1,  p. 22
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Seychelles
Type Data: Holotype in ZSIC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus litoglyphus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-litoglyphus seychellensis forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Seychelles

Habitat:-Usually subtidal to about 60 m: on reefs. lagoon pinnacles. rocky platforms exposed to wave action and more frequently below 10 m on sand or reef rock under dead corals. or on reef slopes.
Description:-
C. seychellensis is a colour form completely lacking white bands.
Discussion:-No Data

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Conus  litteratus  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 712
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Asiatic Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 91 x 52 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-litteratus
Synonyms:-
pardus Röding, 1798; arabicus Lamarck, 1810; grueneri Reeve, 1844
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific, except for Red Sea and Hawaiian Archipelago
Habitat:-Slightly subtidal to 50 m, juveniles sometimes dredged in 60 m. C. litteratus inhabits channels to large patches of fine or more often coarse sand, rubble and sand, silty rubble, sand with vegetation and even dense beds of seaweed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical; outline almost straight, sometimes convex below shoulder. Base moderately pointed. Shoulder sharply angulate. Spire low, outline usually sigmoid. Middle and late teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 3 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves; grooves often weak to obsolete. Last whorl almost smooth.
Ground colour white. Last whorl usually encircled with 3 yellowish orange bands, at centre and within adapical and abapical thirds. Spiral rows of blackish brown, medium-sized, round to squarish spots, sometimes axially elongate or arrow- shaped, extend from base to shoulder. Base and siphonal fasciole bluish brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps with blackish brown oblique axial streaks. Aperture white, usually with a bluish brown basal edge. Periostracum brown to blackish brown, variably thick, translucent to opaque, and velvety to rough.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-170 mm
RW 0.67-2.42 g/mm
(L 60-115 mm)
RD 0.54-0.65
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.00-0.08
Discussion:-C. litteratus differs from C. eburneus in its larger size, sharply angulate shoulder, bluish brown pointed base, and less pronounced spiral sculpture of sutural ramps and last whorl; its last whorl is less convex below the shoulder and tends to be narrower.

 

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Conus  lividus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 630
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Antilles [erroneous]
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-lividus
Synonyms:-
monachos Röding, 1798; plebejus Link, 1807; fasciata Menke, 1828; detritus Menke, 1830; primula Reeve, 1849;
Geographic Range:-Indo-W.  Pacific
Habitat:-Infrequently intertidal, common on subtidal coral reef platforms. C. lividus occupies diverse microhabitats: sand patches and pockets, coral rubble with and without sand, reef limestone with algal turf, bare reef limestone, dead coral heads, and beach rock .
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly conical; outline almost straight, somewhat convex within adapical fourth. Shoulder angulate, strongly to weakly tuberculate; tubercles occasionally obsolete. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of about 4 whorls. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 increasing to 4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with often variably granulose spiral ribs above the base, sometimes to centre.
Last whorl light olive or yellowish brown with narrow white spiral bands at centre and below shoulder that may be suffused with bluish-grey or rose. Base dark purple. Apex usually pink; larval shell yellow (Hawaii; Perron, 1981a). Later spire whorls and shoulder white, occasionally suffused with bluish grey or pale orangish violet. Aperture deep purple-violet behind a narrow orange-brown margin, with pale bands at centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-81 mm
RW 0.20-0.94 g/mm
(L 30-70mm)
RD 0.59-0.73
PMD 0.87-0.93
RSH 0.06-0.20
Discussion:-C. lividus differs in its somewhat larger maximum size, strictly conical last whorl and in its immaculate later sutural ramps. The pale central band on the last whorl and within the aperture characteristic of C. lividus is faint or totally absent in C. sanguinolentus.

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Conus  lizardensis  Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. xiii, p. 305, pl., ix, f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lizard Is., N.E. Australia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-lizardensis
Synonyms:-
sibogae Schepman, 1913
Geographic Range:-Keppel Bay (S. Queensland, Australia) to Arafura Sea (Aru, Indonesia) and Timor Sea (Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, N. W. Australia)
Habitat:-Reported from 25-60 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical, outline slightly convex at adapical third and straight below. Shoulder usually sharply angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 0.75-3 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate; specimens of about 45 mm with about 10 postnuclear whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, sometimes concave in late whorls, with 1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably broad spiral ribbons extending from base to shoulder, sometimes replaced by ribs near base and just below shoulder; intervening grooves axially striate, wider at base and often containing a fine spiral rib; large specimens almost smooth on adapical third to half.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with rather sparse spiral rows of widely separated brown spots, concentrated and fusing into larger axial markings below shoulder and within adapical as well as basal third. Brown spots often irregularly scattered. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps sparsely maculated with brown spots or radial streaks. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-55 mm
RW 0.10-0.22 g/mm
RD 0.52-0.63
PMD 0.83-0.91
RSH 0.08-0.15
Discussion:-C. lizardensis resembles C. minnamurra, C. colmani, and C. limpusi. C. minnamurra can be distinguished from C. lizardensis by its broader last whorl (RD 0.64-0.72), non tuberculate postnuclear whorls, straight to convex spire outline and usually smaller size (to 36 mm). C. colmani has a broader last whorl (RD 0.62-0.73), an angulate rather than sharply angulate shoulder, and strong tubercles on its first 3-6 postnuclear whorls. In similarly sized specimens, C. colmani is heavier but has fewer postnuclear whorls (8.5) than C. lizardensis. C. limpusi differs in its more solid shell (L 55 mm: RW 0.30-0.40 g/mm), generally more convex-sided last whorl, angulate rather than sharply angulate shoulder, and in its strongly tuberculate 2-7 early postnuclear whorls.
This species is often referred to as C. sibogae (see Walls, [1979]). Cernohorsky (1978) and Coomans & Filmer (1985) considered C. sibogae a junior synonym of C. lizardensis. Rockel & Korn (1990) agreed with this conclusion, in particular as the same larval shell diameter (0.8-0.9 mm) suggests conspecific status for the (subadult) type specimens of C. lizardensis Crosse and C. mucronatus var. sibogae Schepman. Bathymetric and zoogeographical data support this taxonomic hypothesis: The type localities of C. lizardensis and C. sibogae as well as the depth in which the latter holotype was collected (57 m) do not correspond with the geographical and bathymetrical ranges of C. limpusi, C. minnamurra or C. colmani.

 

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Conus  lizarum  Raybaudi,  G. & da  Motta,  1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 16,  p. 65, f. 1-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Cape Guardafui, Somalia
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.1 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-lizarum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Somalia
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl conical, outline slightly convex adapically and straight towards base; left side may be slightly concave above base. Shoulder angulate or slightly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9- 1 mm. First 0.25-1.25 postnuclear whorls weakly to sometimes obsoletely tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with prominent radial threads; early ramps with 1 adaxial spiral groove or with 1-2 increasing to 2-3 equally spaced spiral grooves, later ramps with obsolete spiral sculpture. Basal half of last whorl with punctate to axially striate spiral grooves; intervening ribbons grade to ribs at anterior end.
Ground colour white, last whorl usually shaded with pink. Last whorl with orangish brown to brown axial blotches, fusing into an interrupted or solid spiral band on each side of centre. Closely spaced spiral rows of alternating reddish brown and white dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, sometimes obscured by spiral colour bands. Base orange to brown. Larval whorls grey to brown; following 2 sutural ramps of similar colour. Postnuclear sutural ramps with regularly aligned brown subsutural dots and orange-brown radial blotches that extend over outer margins and may fuse into an adaxial spiral band. Aperture pink to orange.
Shell Morphometry
L 22-36 mm
RW 0.03-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.56
PMD 0.87-0.95
RSH 0.08-0.14
Discussion:-C. lizarum is similar to C. dictator, C. traversianus and C. stocki. C. dictator attains larger size and has a higher spire (RSH 0.17-0.26), more tuberculate postnuclear whorls (4-7), and distinct spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps. Its last whorl is generally encircled with 3 colour bands, its larval whorls are white, and its teleoconch spire lacks subsutural dots. C. traversianus is also larger, has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.45-0.48), a higher spire (RSH 0.14-0.20), more tuberculate postnuclear whorls (2.5- 4), and 3-4 distinct spiral grooves on its later sutural ramps. Its larval whorls are white, its teleoconch spire lacks subsutural dots, and its last whorl is not shaded with pink. C. stocki also attains larger size, has a higher, gradually sloping spire (RSH 0.16-0.18), more pronounced spiral sculpture on the later sutural ramps, a pale brown aperture, and a dark brown pattern that tends to fuse into an additional subshoulder band. However, obvious similarities in shape, sculpture, and pattern elements of their teleoconchs as well as in their larval shells suggest close relationship between C. lizarum and C. stocki.

 

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Conus  locumtenens   Blumenbach,  1791

 

Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

 

Published in: Handbuch der Naturges., 4th ed,  p. 448
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype was in MUG and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 47 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-locumtenens
Synonyms:-
acuminatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; vicarius Röding, 1798; substitutus Link, 1807; insignis Sowerby ii, 1833; multicatenatus Sowerby ii, 1865; schech Weinkauff, 1873; coxianus Sowerby iii, 1895; viaderi Fenaux, 1942
Geographic Range:-Central and S. Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and N. Somalia
Habitat:-In 2-10 m; under seaweed, on sand and mud
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually conical; outline either almost straight or convex on adapical third. Shoulder angulate to slightly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height; stepped; outline concave to straight. Early postnuclear whorls appear weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or concave toward shoulder; late ramps with 2-3 often weak spiral grooves changing to a varying number of weak to obsolete striae. Last whorl with variably broad, weak spiral ribbons, often posteriorly edged with a fine spiral rib, on basal third.
Ground colour white, occasionally tinged with blue. Last whorl with usually fme yellowish to blackish brown reticulation bordering white tents that vary widely in size. Reticulate pattern often concentrated in 2 or more darker spiral bands of variable width, solidity and colour. Within dark bands, reticulated lines may turn into wavy axial lines.
Postnuclear sutural ramps with reddish to blackish brown radial streaks and blotches that cross the outer margins.Aperture white, violet-brown deep within
Shell Morphometry
L 35-66 mm
RW 0.10-0.40
(L 35-60 mm)
RD 0.57-0.69
PMD 0.85-0.91
RSH 0.10-0.20
Discussion:-The list of synonyms refers to intergrading colourforms.
C. l. schech complex pattern of axial lines, dark brown blotches, and spiral dashes.
C. insignis is broadly spiral banded form;
C. coxianus has reduced axial pattern;
C. hamanni may resemble subadults of C. locumtenens, but the latter differs in its reticulate pattern, more angulate shoulder, rather concave spire outline, and the weaker spiral sculpture on the teleoconch sutural ramps.

 

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Conus  lohri   Kilburn, 1972

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in NMP  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Natal Mus. 21 (2), p. 428, figs 8a & 14b - d

Type Locality: Baie dos Cocos, between Inhambane & Jangamo Beach. Mozambique

Type Data: Holotype in NMP

Type Size: 40.2 x 23.4 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus pennaceus according to Tucker. Provisionally seen as a valid species by Tenorio & Monteiro (2008)

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus lohri                                                                                                                                                                                                            

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- East Africa to Natal, South Africa

Habitat: Rock ledge, 2 – 3 mtrs

Description: Medium-sized to large shell . last whorl ventricosely conical, with a low spire. Shoulder rounded. Ground color reddish brown to brown or greyish violet. Last whorl usually patternless, but some shells display traces of what seems to be an incoplte dark brown tented pattern. Aperture pale violet.

 

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Conus  lombei  Sowerby iii,  1881

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 637,  pl. 56,  f. 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus articulatus Sowerby iii, 1873
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-articulatus lombei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mauritius
Habitat:-Sand coral rubble 30-60 m
Description:  
C. lombei refers to a colour pattern variant of C. articulatus with an evenly reddish brown last whorl.

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Conus  longilineus  Röckel,  Rolán  &  Monteiro,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Cone Shells form Cape Verde Is., p. 85, f. 56-7
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal Is., Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.8 x 8.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym or a subspecies form of Conus grahami Röckel, von Cosel & Burnay, 1980
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-grahami longilineus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
C. g. longilineus s.sp.
The specimens from Sal are much smaller and more elongated, with a fine pattern of white dots on a light green ground colour. The strongly elongated shape and the particularly fine pattern separate the present subspecies from C. grahami grahami and C. grahami pseudoventricosus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  longurionis  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in collection Prevost Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.,  pl. 92, f. 6

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 308, pl. 92, f. 6
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Prevost and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-longurionis
Synonyms:-
kantanganus da Motta, 1982
Geographic Range:-Taiwan - Sri Lanka; E. Africa
Habitat:-Subtidal fringe, buried in sand, 1-2.5 cm below surface in habitats sheltered from heavy wave action.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly conical; outline nearly straight, occasionally sigmoid. Shoulder angulate, to subangulate in form kantanganus , to carinate in shells from Philippines and Taiwan; exhalent notch variably deep. Spire of moderate height to high, outline slightly concave to almost straight. Larval shell of 3 or more whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1 mm. First 5-8 postnuclear whorls distinctly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with radial threads crossing 1 broad central spiral groove in first 3-5 (sometimes to 8) whorls and 1-2 (sometimes to 3) grooves in following whorls; sutures deep and wide. Last whorl with regularly spaced, axially striate spiral grooves and ribbons or occasionally ribs between; surface sculpture less prominent in E. African shells.
Ground colour white (shells from Mozambique) to beige (shells from India to Taiwan). Last whorl with spiral rows of regular or irregular brown dots or rectangular spots on ribbons and ribs, partly fusing into irregularly sized axial flecks and streaks that cluster into spiral bands above and below centre; a weaker spiral band sometimes present below shoulder. Pattern of shells from Mozambique often reduced to axial streaks of both sides of centre and below shoulder. Larval whorls grey, also brown in shells from Philippines and Taiwan. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in pattern. Aperture translucent.
Shell Morphometry
L 29-46 mm
(- 36 mm form kantanganus)
RW 0.03-0.10 g/mm
RD 0.39-0.45
(- 0.48 Philippines, Taiwan)
PMD 0.83-0.90
RSH 0.19-0.30
Discussion:-C. longurionis resembles C. aculeiformis, C. vimineus, C. hopwoodi, and C. elegans. C. aculeiformis has a lower, concave-sided rather than straight-sided spire (RSH 0.17-0.22) and lacks tubercles on the postnuclear whorls; its last whorl is more conical (PMD 0.86-0.95), and the spiral grooves on its teleoconch sutural ramps are differently arranged. C. vimineus has a broader larval shell (1.1-1.2 mm) with 4.0-4.5 whorls separated by deep and wide sutures; its spire is generally lower (RSH 0.15-0.25) and has a slightly concave to sigmoid rather than straight outline; the early teleoconch sutural ramps have 3 spiral grooves, and the spire whorls lack tubercles.
C. hopwoodi closely resembles C. longurionis in shape and pattern. This species differs from C. hopwoodi in its larger size (to 46 mm), often higher spire (RSH 0.19-0.30), larger number of tuberculate teleoconch spire whorls (5-8), and in it’s often more conical and broader last whorl (RD 0.39-0.48; PMD 0.83-0.90). It is possible that the two are conspecific.
C. longurionis has a broader larval shell (0.9-1 mm) of generally more whorls (2.25-3) than C. elegans and a more conical last whorl (PMD 0.83-0.90); its postnuclear sutural ramps are separated by deeper and wider sutures and have only 1 central spiral groove in first 3-5 or more whorls; the surface sculpture of its last whorl is more prominent.
Shells from India and W. Thailand were described as C. kantanganus, while the original figure of C. longurionis refers to E. African shells. C. kantanganus and the similar shells from Taiwan and Philippines cannot be separated from C. longurionis at the species level and are considered geographical forms.

 

 

Conus  longurionis  f.  kantanganus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1,  p. 11, f. 10
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off Kantang, Southwest Thailand
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus longurionis Kiener, 1845
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Fusiconus Species:-longurionis kantanganus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongately fusiform with 12 spire whorls of which 2 are globulose protoconch; with subsequent 6-7 minutely beaded but becoming progressively obsolete; spaace between deeply grooves sutures grooved with perpendicular riblets.There is no angulation at shoulder, the flat sides being slightly rounded at its periphery as it tapers down its extended length of the narrow body whorl; the body whorl with over 30 spiral grooves intersected by same riblets as spiral whorls.Ground colour is white with light brown quadrangular blotches.sprinkled acroos whorl and spire with some concentration forming brown bands at middle and base. Aperture is straight and narrow with white interior; outer lip moderately undulated.
Discussion:-Da Motta compares C. kantanganus with C. aculeiformis which is larger with shorter spire, carinated shoulder; smooth body whorl with shallow spiral incisions.
It should also be comapered to C.  longurionis which has stepped spire, obtuse shoulder, rather large spiral grooves and a pointed base which is recurved.

 

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Conus  lorenzi  Monnier  &  Limpalaër,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conch. 11, p. 17 – 26, pl. 1,  pl. 3, fig. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ramsgate, Kwa-Zulu Natal
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.5 x 12.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:

Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:- Conasprella Species:-lorenzi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:-Found at 80-120 m on substrate with rubble and sponges.
Description:-Source Original description. The spire is distinctly stepped with a straight profile. The adult shell has around ten whorls.
The shoulder is sharply angulate, the last whorl shape is almost straight being only slightly concave near the base. The last whorl is sculptured with 22 to 26 flat ribbons separated by narrow striae. The ground color of the shell is white flecked with brown dots. There are three salmon coloured bands at the shoulder, center and at the base of the last whorl. In some specimens the bands are overlaid with brown flames. The sutural ramp is coloured with brown radial blotches ending at the periphery as darker brown spots.
The base is lavender to purple tint.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lorenzianus  Dillwyn, 1817

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1795,  pl. 181, figs 1754 & 1755)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Descr. Cat. Rec. Shells I,  p. 370
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: East Indian Seas, (Chemnitz), Coast of Africa (Lamarck), (both erroneous), corrected (Vink) Gulf of Morrosquillo, Colombia (East Coast).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1795,  pl. 181, figs 1754 & 1755)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lindaconus Species:-spurius lorenzianus subsp.
Synonyms:- undatus Kiener, 1845; weinkauffii Löbbecke, 1882; phlogopus Tomlin, 1937
Geographic Range:-Colombia
Habitat:-Moderately deep
Description:-Source Vink
A heavy shell, 40 to 80 mm, with low to moderate strongly concave sided spire. Body whorl straight to slightly convex, and smooth. In some populations distinct spiral ridges near the base which may cover nearly the whole body whorl.
Shoulder roundly angulate, spire whorls smooth with rounded margins, slightly stepped and concave above. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; first 2 to 4 postnuclear whorls coronated, coronation gradually diminishing in subsequent whorls and often not apparent because of erosion. Animal cream-coloured, operculum ungulate and large, often longer than 1/3 of aperture height. Radula tooth with serration over 1/2 length of tooth and very short blade (Warmke, 1960). Periostracum light brown to red brown, mostly transparent but also thick and obscuring the contrasting colour pattern underneath.
C. spurius lorenzianus has a pattern of undulating longitudinal chocolate brown or yellowish brown stripes, regularly interrupted so that one or more transverse white bands become evident. There is always such a white band at the shoulder .
Discussion:-John Tucker comments: As noted above this is one of three southern subspecies. It occurs between Spuriconus spurius quadratus (invalid name sensu Vink, Fig. 18) to the west and S. s. baylei to the east. Ridges that extend the full length of the body whorl are the hallmark of this subspecies. Such ridges only reach midbody in S. s. quadratus and S. s. baylei. In the northern subspecies ridges are pretty well limited to the anterior third of the body whorl. The subspecies S. s. quadratus and S. s. baylei may be intergrade populations between the northern subspecies and S. s. lorenzianus.

 

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Conus  loroisii  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in coll. Lorois and coll. Boivin Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 91, pl. 65, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mer de L'Inde
Type Data: Syntype was in coll. Lorois and coll. Boivin and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 70 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-loroisii
Synonyms:-
agrestis Morch., 1850; violascens Barros e Cunha, 1933; insignis Dautzenberg, 1937; huberorum da Motta, 1989
Geographic Range:-India and Sri Lanka eastwards to Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Habitat:-In 5 to 70 m; reported from sandy bottoms. Typical form found in depths of 9 - 18 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight towards base. Aperture almost uniform in width. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire usually low, sometimes of moderate height; outline variably concave. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave or faintly convex, with closely spaced spiral striae. Basal third of last whorl with variably spaced spiral grooves separating ribs and ribbons. Form insignis with a sometimes lower spire, a less rounded shoulder and sometimes pyriform subadults. Form huberorum smaller and lighter in weight. Last whorl ventricosely conical to distorted conoid-cylindrical with straighter outline. In distorted specimens, aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly sigmoid to concave; in distorted specimens, early postnuclear whorls stepped.
Ground colour grey mixed with pale blue, tan to brown and sometimes darker violet. Colours arranged in blending spiral and axial zones. Last whorl with contrasting light narrow spiral bands at shoulder and below centre; shoulder band always present but often very narrow and inconspicuous; subcentral band may be absent or faint. Solid or interrupted reddish to blackish brown lines occur infrequently on last whorl. Base of columella and siphonal fasciole partially or completely brown to dark violet-brown. Early teleoconch sutural ramps brown; later ramps match last whorl in colouration, with obsolete to fairly distinct brown radial streaks. Aperture usually white to bluish white, sometimes orange. Periostracum brown, fairly thick, and opaque, with raised spiral ridges (Kohn, 1978) or tufted spiral lines (India). In form huberorum, ground colour grades to darker olive-grey with a greater number of more pronounced violet or brownish violet axial zones on last whorl and axial streaks on later sutural ramps. Shoulder band often darker than in typical form, shading from creamy grey to pale violet grey; subcentral band often obscured or absent. Dashed or dotted spiral lines on last whorl as rare as in typical form. Colouration of aperture usually darker than in typical form. In form insignis, last whorl tinged with whitish to bluish or greenish grey, or various shades of brown; colours arranged in blending spiral zones. Shoulder band usually pronounced, shading from milky white to light brown or violet-grey; subcentral band usually present, often somewhat wider than in other forms and similar to shoulder band in colour. Closely spaced and variably fine, blackish brown lines extend from base to shoulder band, usually faint or absent on basal fourth. Lines often with an alternation of reddish brown lines; occasionally, lines become dashed or dotted. Staining of columella and siphonal fasciole more pronounced than in other forms.Teleoconch sutural ramps brown to blackish brown, either solidly coloured or irregularly streaked with shades of brown
Form C. l. insignis last whorl tinged grey and shades brown in blending spiral zones; shoulder band pronounced white to brown or grey; subcentral band usually present; closely spaced and variably fine blackish brown lines from base to shoulder; reddish brown and blackish lines often alternate; staining of columella more pronounced; whorl tops brown to blackish brown solidly colored or streaked with shades of brown;
Discussion:-Specimens of C. loroisii with dashed spiral lines resemble C. glaucus in colour pattern. The latter species is of smaller size, its ground colour is rather bluish grey than brownish grey, the radial blotches on its sutural ramps are darker and rather separate than confluent, and the spiral lines on its last whorl consist of smaller and more separate markings.
C. huberorum is considered to represent an ecological form of C. loroisii, because both intergrade in shape and colour pattern. This form is sympatric with the typical form along the Coromandel coast but has a different bathymetric range. Distortion during growth causes the differences in relative diameter spire height.
Dautzenberg`s var. insignis and typical C. loroisii are almost identical in shell morphometry and differ only in colour pattern. Specimens with and without closely spaced spiral lines occur sympatrically both in the Bay of Bengal and in Philippines. Lineate specimens intergrade with typical non-lineate C. loroisii in the former region; in the Philippines, the lineate pattern of var. insignis may be reduced. These data strongly suggest that var. insignis is a variant of C. loroisii. Tucker (1984) separates C. loroisii and var. insignis on the subspecies level but intergradation in Philippines and the absence of geographic variation does not support this.

 

 

Conus  loroissii  f.  huberorum  da Motta,  1989

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: La Conchiglia xxi,  no. 242-245,  p. 9-11, 2 text figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off the Coromandel Coast, Bay of Bengal, north of Madras, India.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.2 x 24.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus  loroisii Kiener, 1845
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-loroisii huberorum forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bay of Bengal
Habitat:-Found at 35-70 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C.  loroisii
Form huberorum smaller and lighter in weight. Last whorl ventricosely conical to distorted conoid-cylindrical with straighter outline. In distorted specimens, aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly sigmoid to concave; in distorted specimens, early postnuclear whorls stepped.
A common freak form.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  loroissii  f.  insignis   Dautzenberg,  1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. ii,  fasc. 18,  p. 108,  pl. I,  f. 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amboina
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 75 x 49 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- An available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. insignis Sowerby, 1833
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym colour form of C. loroisii Kiener, 1845.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name insignis
Geographic Range:-India; Sri Lanka - Philippines; Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Although this name is a homonym and invalid it is widely used.
Form C. l. insignis last whorl tinged grey and shades brown in blending spiral zones; shoulder band pronounced white to brown or grey; subcentral band usually present; closely spaced and variably fine blackish brown lines from base to shoulder; reddish brown and blackish lines often alternate; staining of columella more pronounced; whorl tops brown to blackish brown solidly colored or streaked with shades of brown;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lovellreevei Raybaudi G. (Massilia),1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris xxxii no. 1,  p. 3,  pl. 1,  f. 4 & 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madras, India.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.5 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus asiaticus da Motta, 1985
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-asiaticus lovellreevei subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-SE India
Habitat:-In depths of 25-60 m.
Description:- Brown dashes on the body whorl
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  loyaltiensis  Röckel  & Moolenbeek,  1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. clxvii,  p. 577, figs. 1. 10,  11 & 55
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Loyalty Ridge, Chesterfield Is. (21deg 04' S. 167deg 32' E); 480 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.8 x 10.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-loyaltiensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Loyalty Islands.
Habitat:-Found at depths around 500 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small, light and biconic. Protoconch of 1.75 glassy whorls; spire of moderate height (RSH=0.24) consisting of 7.25 whorls; outline deeply concave. Subsutural ramps concave with one spiral groove initially become 3-4 deep grooves with axial threads. Nodules present on 2-6 whorls gradually diminish towards shoulder. Shoulder tuberculate and weakly carinate with a ridge just below it. Sides of last whorl slightly sigmoid and attenuated towards base. Basal half of whorl with 20 flat spiral ribbons. Aperture straight; outer lip thin. Colour plain milky white.
Discussion:-The specimens from the Chesterfield Islands have lower spire and weaker nodules.
Similar to C.  vaubani in size and colour but C. loyaltiensis differs in having a slightly stepped spire, 4 strong spiral grooves instead of 8-9, deeply concave spire rather than sigmoid, spiral ribbons rather than fine ribs and axial costae and brown streaks below shoulder are missing.

 

----------

 

Cous  lozeti  Richard,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: Cahiers de L'Indo-Pacifique  ii, no. 1,  p. 9,  f. 1-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Fort-Dauphin, SW Madagascar; 100-120 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 56 x 30 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-
Malagasyconus Species:-lozeti

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southernmost Madagascar
Habitat:-Rather deep (50 to 200 meters) and temperate waters
Description:-Monnier & Tenorio in Xenophora Taxonomy 6, p. 47- 51
Shell conical, with a porcellaneous surface; spire low, scalariform, with a subangulated to angulated shoulder; cords are absent on the sutural ramps, which exhibit weak radial arcuate threads; nodules are absent; strong tooth-like fold (dentiform plait) nearly perpendicular to the columella in the anterior part of the aperture; protoconch large, flattened, mamillate and paucispiral; the anal notch is deep; pattern of spiral lines of minute tents usually present; textile bars are absent.

 

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Conus  lucasi  Bozzetti,  2010

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN L. Bozzetti

Picture Link:  Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 68,  4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.05 x 11.90 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-lucasi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Species with a ventricosely conical  profile; spire of moderate height with concave outline; shoulder subangulate; body whorl sides convex adapically,  almost straight below; body whorl surface covered by spiral micro-cordlets and thick axial growth striae; Background colour from whitish to light grey, with a more or less marked lilac nuance, with irregular beige blotches at times forming 2 spiral bands above the midbody and above the base; even spiral lines of articulated whitish and light brown/lilac dots present on the whole surface of body whorI sides. Inside of the mouth from beige to lilac; protoconch whitish or yellowish

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  lucaya   Petuch,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMCI Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ruthenica x, no. 2, p. 83, figs. 1F-1I
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off West End of Grand Bahama Is., Bahamas
Type Data: Holotype in FMCI deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species; according to Filmer a synonym of Conus cardinalis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-lucaya

Habitat: Under living coral in 15 mtrs

Description: Shell small for the subgenus, elongated, with rounded, convex sides on body whorl; widest part of the body whorl between shoulder and mid body line; shoulder angled, weakly coronated, ornamented with 15-18 small, low, rounded knobs per whorl; spire whorls, between suture and shoulder edge, distinctly sloping, protracted, scalariform; body whorl smooth and polished, without spiral ornamentation; anterior tip of the shell encircled with 10-12 closely-packed, large spiral cords; protoconch large, proracted, mammillate, composed of 2 whorls; shell color consistently bright cherry red with variable amounts of white clouding and amorphous flammules; most specimens (like holotype) have wide midbody band composed of disconnected, large white checkerlike flammules; spire whorls bright cherry red with alternating large white flammules, producing checkered pattern; early whorls and protoconch deep orange; interior of aperture deep rose-pink; periostracum thin, transparent, smooth, pale yellow in color.


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Conus  luciae   Moolenbeek,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Bull. Zool. Mus. Univ. Amsterdam  x, no. 25,  p. 211,  f. 1-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Coral Sea, Banc Nova; 296 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.6 x 28.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-luciae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Coral Sea; New Caledonia; Loyalty Islands
Habitat:-Found at depths of 250-600 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl conical, outline convex at adapical fourth, straight below. Base of columella with a projecting plait, more pronounced in larger specimens. Shoulder angulate or subangulate, slightly outwardly curved. Spire usually of moderate height and variably stepped, outline almost straight to concave. First 5-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with 2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour pale violet, grading to white on spire. Last whorl with variably spaced dotted brown spiral lines, very sparse on central and subshoulder areas. A few brown spots and axial streaks are spirally aligned above and below centre; oblique brown axial dashes arrayed below shoulder edge, partially extending onto shoulder ramp. Teleoconch sutural ramps may have irregularly set brown blotches and stripes. Aperture purple.
Shell Morphometry
L 37-62 mm
RW -0.10 g/mm
(L 37 mm)
RD 0.59-0.62
PMD 0.89-0.94
RSH 0.15-0.25
Discussion:-C. ione is similar in colour pattern but differs in its slightly pyriform last whorl, the carinate shoulders of its postnuclear whorls, prominent spiral sculpture of its last whorl, and in the absence of spiral grooves on its sutural ramps. In addition, C. ione has brown dots at the outer margins of its teleoconch sutural ramps and lacks a plait at the base of its columella.

 

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Conus  lucidus   Wood,  1828

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Test. Suppl.,  p. 8, pl. 3,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: South Sea
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Wood, pl. 3, fig. 4
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Perplexiconus Species:-lucidus
Synonyms:-
reticulatus Sowerby ii, 1834
Geographic Range:-Baja California, Mexico - Peru; Galapagos
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Walls
Fairly light in weight but thick, with a high gloss; low biconical, the sides convex; body whorl half covered with heavy narrow spiral ridges, widely seperated; shoulder roundly angled, not distinct from spire; spire moderate, sharply pointed, the sides straight/concave; body whorl white to pale cream, covered with numerous widely spaced brown spiral lines; many irregular axial brown lines connecting spiral lines and forming rectangles;often irregular dark blotches near midbody/base; shoulder and spire like body whorl. whitish with dark brown lines; aperture moderately narrow, widening; outer lip variable; mouth pale violet to white with violet blotch; columella short,narrow, projecting anteriorly;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lugubris   Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

Published in: Conch. Icon., i. Conus, Suppl. pl.  ix.,  sp. 279
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18 x 11.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-lugubris
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-San Vicente, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
The shell is moderately small to medium sized (normal length: about 25 mm), with rounded shoulder. Spire moderately low, with more or less straight sides and spiral striae. Shell generally very dark brown, almost black, with spiral lines of small whitish blotches, one near the shoulder and two or three others on the last whorl. Aperture dark, becoming lighter towards the interior. Light columella.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  luquei   Rolán  &  Trovao  in  Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 50,  pl. 1, f. 2,  pl. 2, f. 2,  pl. 4. f
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Gata, Isla de Boavista, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.6 x 18.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-luquei
Synonyms:-
olivaceus Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-It is found among rocks to depth between 3 and 5 m in the more open and exterior zone of the rocky reef.
Description:-Source Original description
The seashells studied have a maximum dimension between 20 and 32 mm. The silhouette is pyriform with the shoulder well formed and spire is a little elevated, striated and not stepped, with a sharp apex and the slightly concave profile. The coloring is cream-yellowish or siena, plain in a normal vision; with magnification, it is appreciated that it has white ground with spiral brown lines, broeken or continuous and, at times, also axial lines axiales although rarely reticulate pattern is formed; these lines are broken by white areas, more abundant in the middle of the last whorl and, less frequently, under the shoulder. There are darker zones in an axial sense that mark periods of growth. The variability is quite considerable in the detail of the pattern and the intensity of the color although, in general, the changes have little impact on the macroscopic aspect of the seashell. The aperture is white with a zone of violet color , marked a little toward its upper part; in the seashells with lip less developed appears a violet color in the whole interior of the aperture that only is interrupted by two white lines. The lip edge of the aperture is light or dark according to the exterior color. The columella has a coloring that can vary from white to light violet. The periostracum is smooth, of yellow
Discussion:-

 

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Conus lusca  Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LACM

Published in: Festivus Vol. 49, Issue 3, p. 241 – 242, Fig. 1, D
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: In 3 m depth on sand near patch reef, off the northern end of Providenciales Island (“Provo Island”), Turks and Caicos Islands
Type Data: Lectotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15.3 x 8.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-lusca
Synonyms:-
Geographic Range:- Known only from the Turks and Caicos Islands, in the vicinity of Providenciales Island
Habitat:- On coarse carbonate sand patches between sparse Turtle Grass and small patch reefs of living corals, in 2-3 m depths
Description:-
Shell small for genus, very stocky and rotund, inflated, wide across shoulder, with slightly convex sides; spire distinctly pyramidal, slightly scalariform; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by distinctive undulating carina, producing coronated appearance; body whorl polished and shiny, sculpted with 10-12 deeply incised spiral sulci around the anterior one-half of shell; smaller secondary sulci present on cords formed by pairs of primary sulci; shell base color white or pale cream-white, overlaid with 18-20 spiral rows of small reddish-brown dots; some specimens with scattered large patches of dark reddish-brown; shoulder carina marked with widely-spaced small brown dots along edge, corresponding to depressions in carina undulations; aperture proportionally wide, becoming wider toward anterior end, pale yellow color within interior; protoconch white, proportionally large, mammilate, composed of two whorls.

 

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Conus  luteus   Sowerby i,  1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus.,  pt. 25, f. 8 &  8*
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Anaa, Tuamotu Islands.
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38 x 15.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-luteus
Synonyms:-
sometimes Conus richardsae Röckel & Korn, 1992 is seen as a subspecies; I prefer to list this species as a valid one.
Geographic Range:-French Polynesia to Marshall Is.
Habitat:-Moderately deep
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical or narrowly conical to conical, narrower in C. l. richardsae; outline almost straight to slightly convex; left side may be concave basally. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, more angulate in C. l. richardsae. Spire of moderate height; outline convex to domed. In C. l. richardsae, larval shell of 3- 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.95 mm; maximum diameter about 1-1.1 mm in C. l. luteus. In C. l. luteus, first 1-2.5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate; first 0.5-4 whorls in C. l. richardsae.Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves in C. l. richardsae, to 4-6 grooves in C. l. luteus; spiral sculpture may be very weak in latest whorls. Last whorl with a few weak spiral ribs near base.
Ground colour red or yellow in C. l. luteus, reddish violet in C. l. richardsae. C. l. luteus with a spiral row of red-brown axial blotches on each side of centre, and with dotted and dashed reddish brown spiral lines from base to shoulder, or restricted to centre. In C. l. richardsae, last whorl with 3 spiral bands of brown axial clouds, below shoulder and on both sides of centre; dashed spiral lines from base almost to the shoulder. Larval shell white to pale yellow in C. l. luteus, slightly darker in C. l. richardsae. In C. l. luteus, early postnuclear sutural ramps light yellow with brown dots at inner margins, following ramps with brown axial blotches. In C. l. richardsae, sutural ramps grey to reddish violet with brown radial blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-54 mm
RW 0.03-0.10 g/mm
RD -(- C. l. luteus 0.48-0.53;-C. l. richardsae 0.42-0.48;)
PMD -(- C. l. luteus 0.77-0.90;-C. l. richardsae 0.76-0.94;)
RSH 0.13-0.21
Form C. l. richardsae Philippines; narrower,ground color reddish violet with 3 spiral bands of brown axial clouds and dashed spriral lines from base to shoulder; apex darker and spire grey to reddish violet with brown radial blotches;
Discussion:-We consider the differences between the allopatric populations in French Polynesia to the Marshall Islands, and the Philippines, insufficient for separation at the species level, and we regard them as geographic subspecies.
C. luteus has a more conical last whorl (PMD 0.76-0.94) than C. viola and a white aperture; its late sutural ramps are not stepped and steep.

 

 

Conus  luteus  richardsae  Röckel  &  Korn,  1992

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMC Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Acta Conchyliorum 3, p. 16,  pl. 3, f. 1-7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bohol, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36.5 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a subspecies of  Conus luteus Sowerby i, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-luteus richardsae subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
Form C. l. richardsae Philippines; narrower,ground color reddish violet with 3 spiral bands of brown axial clouds and dashed spriral lines from base to shoulder; apex darker and spire grey to reddish violet with brown radial blotches
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  luziensis  Rolán,  Röckel  &  Monteiro, 1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype C. pseudoventricosus Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Alexander Medvedev

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xv,  no. 174-175, p. 17
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Santa Luzia, Cape Verde Islands.(C. pseudoventricosus)
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Tursch (C. pseudoventricosus) and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 30.5 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. pseudoventricosus Röckel, Rolán, Monteiro.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus grahami  Röckel, von Cosel & Burnay, 1980
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-grahami luziensis forma
Synonyms:-
pseudoventricosus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-On sand bottoms
Description:-Source Original description C. pseudoventricosus
The specimens collected have a bluish-white ground colour, with yellowish to dark olive green spiral zones, and presenting some light coloured spiral bands, usually near the shoulder, on the upper third of the body whorl and below mid-body. The entire surface of the body whorl is covered with very fine spiral lines, consisting of white and dark dots. The aperture is dark violet with two white bands, at the shoulder and below mid-body, near the lip, whereas the inner portion is white.
The body whorl is heavily inflated, with convex sides, giving the shell a broad appearance. The spire whorls show three strong spiral grooves and the first post-embrionic whorls are dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  lymani   Clench,  1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 35, pl. 13, f. 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dredged off Neillies Pt., south of Lake Worth. Florida
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 17.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name lymani

 

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Conus  lynceus  Sowerby ii,  1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii, p. 33,  pl. 19 (205), f. 469
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 59 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-lynceus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan, Philippines, Java, Solomon Is., Queensland, and W. Thailand; probably Moluccas.
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-50 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical third, less so or straight below. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire usually of moderate height, outline concave to nearly straight. Larval shell of 3 or more whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 2-4 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 7, sometimes to 11 spiral grooves that contain spiral threads in latest whorls. Last whorl usually almost smooth; in subadult and some adult shells, rather widely spaced weak spiral grooves below or to shoulder, with variably broad ribbons between.
Ground colour white to pale grey or beige, sometimes with pale bluish violet axial streaks. Last whorl with spiral rows of yellowish to reddish or dark brown dots, bars, and flecks, generally fusing into 2-3 interrupted or almost solid spiral bands, on each side of centre and sometimes below shoulder. Some shells have spiral rows replaced by distinct to obsolete, narrow light brown bands, also concentrated into 2-3 broader bands. Larval whorls white to brown. In shells with usual last whorl pattern, postnuclear sutural ramps with brown to reddish or dark brown radial markings. Aperture white, violet to orange, paler deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-89 mm
RW 0.15-0.70 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.58
PMD 0.75-0.86
RSH 0.11-0.18
Discussion:-C. pretiosus (C. phuketensis) is essentially identical to C. lynceus in sculpture and colour pattern. C. lynceus tends to have a broader last whorl (RD 0.50- 0.58); its spire is not stepped, the spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps more prominent but with narrower elevations between, its periostracum grey instead of brown. C. pretiosus may represent a variant of C. lynceus, occurring in deeper water (50-150 m vs. 20-50 m) where it lives sympatrically in W. Thailand. RKK  provisionally consider C. pretiosus a separate species.
Some variants of C. inscriptus closely resemble C. lynceus; they differ in a more prominent spiral sculpture of the last whorl and a brown instead of grey periostracum. In W. Thailand where both species occur sympatrically, C. inscriptus is smaller (L 40-56 mm), tends to have a somewhat less ventricose and broader last whorl (PMD 0.79-0.86; RD 0.55-0.64), and its aperture is white to beige rather than violet.

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update August 2017