Conus  macarae   Bernardi,  1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 6,  p. 56, pl. 2, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-voluminalis macarae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E.  Indian Ocean; W.  Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m
Description:-
C.  macarae refers to specimens with weak orange colour plain pattern which have very weak spiral lines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mackintoshi  Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH  D. Sargent

Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 223; p. 95, fg. D & E
Ocean geography: Western Pacific
Type Locality: off Little St. James Island, U.S. Virgin Islands
Type Data: Holotype in FMNHdeposited and catalogued
Type Size: 13.7 x 7.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mackintoshi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- W.  Pacific
Habitat:-In clean carbonate sand and coral rubble, 10 m depth
Description:-
Shell elongated, with straight sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by sharp carina; spire pyramidal, stepped, body whorl smooth and shiny, with numerous very fine, faintly

Incised spiral sulci which become larger and more prominent at anterior end; aperture narrow, becoming slightly wider at anterior end; shell color pale salmon-pink with variable amounts of amorphous orange flammules; orange and pink base color overlaid with 20-30 very fine, closely packed reddish-brown spiral hairlines and scattered small white patches; shoulder carina white, marked with lines of widely spaced large orange spots; spire whorls whitish-salmon with evenly spaced large pale orange flammules that correspond to carina spots; early whorls and protoconch white; interior of aperture pale salmon-pink; protoconch proportionally very large, mamillate, projecting, composed of 2 whorls.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  maculospira   Pilsbry  &  Johnson,  1921

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad. 73,  p. 330
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known (C. planiliratus Sowerby, 1870)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued  (C. planiliratus)
Type Size: 41 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. planiliratus Sowerby, 1870.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus inscriptus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus maculospira forma
Synonyms:-
planiliratus Sowerby iii, 1870
Geographic Range:-Burma, W. Thailand.
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-80 m.
Description:-
C. planiliratus and C. maculospira refer to shells from Burma and W. Thailand with a rather ventricose and prominently sculptured last whorl, a paucispiral larval shell, and a white aperture.
Discussion:-C. planiliratus was renamed C. maculospira.

 

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Conus  madagascariensis  Sowerby ii,  1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 43, pl. 210 (24), f. 582
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar (Dubious)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-madagascariensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. India
Habitat:-From the infralittoral fringe to about 50 m, more common below 20 m; on shallow-subtidal reef flats, in coarse sand and rubble, often among sea-weed and beneath rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conoid-cylindrical; outline moderately convex at adapical third, less so to straight below; left side often slightly concave near base. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave to slightly sigmoid, with a straight-sided apex. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 3-4 weak to obsolete spiral grooves and many spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs on basal third.
Ground colour white, often variably tinged with violet, sometimes more prominently so at base. Last whorl with a rather fine and regular network of dark brown lines edging numerous tiny to medium-sized ground colour tents. Overlying light brown to reddish brown spiral streaks, spots, flecks or blotches generally arranged in an interrupted spiral band on each side of centre and interspersed with spiral lines of alternating darker brown and white markings. Larval shell white. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white to pink. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-69 mm
RW 0.20-0.36 g/mm
(L 45-57 mm)
RD 0.55-0.60
PMD 0.77-0.83
RSH 0.07-0.12
Discussion:-C. madagascariensis resembles C. omaria and C. pennaceus. C. omaria has a reddish violet and narrower larval shell (0.7-0.8 mm), its aperture is not pure white, and Indian Ocean shells differ additionally in their narrower and consistently conoid-cylindrical last whorls (RD 0.45-0.56).

 

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Conus  madecassina   Bozzetti,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Luigi Bozzettti

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 74, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Asperella Species:-madecassina
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Species with a shell of small size for the genus, profile conical, spire low, moderately stepped, with slightly concave outline, shoulder subangulate, body whorl sides almost straight. Aperture uniformly narrow, body whorl walls smooth with the exception of thick axial growth striae, and 4 spiral basal grooves. Background colour white, last whorl evenly covered by spiral rows of orange/brownish dots, sometimes fused in axial flames and blotches and forming one irregular, interrupted spiral band on the anterior third.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  magdalenae   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 293,  pl. 69,  f. 4

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 54 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus floccatus Sowerby, 1841
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-floccatus magdalenae forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Japan to Solomons and New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-80 m; from lagoon pinnacles to the outer side of barrier reefs, living in sand pockets and caves, beneath rocks and on diverse reef substrate
Description:-
C. magdalenae refers to the yellow colour form of C. floccatus, and C. circumsignatus seems to be based on a subadult shell of the same shape and similar colour with prominent dark blotches and spiral rows on its last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  magellanicus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers.,  Vol. 1,  p. 633
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Strait of Magellan [erroneous]
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus
Synonyms:-
maculiferus Sowerby ii, 1833; ornatus Sowerby ii, 1833; cidaris Kiener, 1845; colombianus Petuch, 1987; hilli Petuch, 1990
Geographic Range:-Martinique, Guadeloupe
Habitat:-Found at depths of 1-6 m
Description:-Source Vink
The type specimen (26 x 15 mm) is light yellow with a white shoulder and a white midbody band, both with scalloped edges. In addition there are scattered brown dots and markings. The spire is very low (and deformed in this specimen), the shoulder roundly angled with obsolete coronation, the body whorl smooth.
The colour pattern is quite variable: shells can be yellow, red or red brown. In addition to a white mid-body band there often are longitudinal white 'flames'; other specimens are nearly entirely red. Various shells have spiral rows of very small dots. Most of the cones pictured are juvenile specimens of nearly 16 mm length with about 15 small but distinct nodules on the shoulder of the body whorl. Adult specimens of some 25 mm length have a very short spire, the coronation becomes obsolete. Walls (1979) erroneously identified C. flavescens Sowerby, 1834 from Florida with C. magellanicus
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magellanicus   f.  colombianus  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas. p. 114, pl. 17, f. 11 & 12
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Islas del Rosario, Colombia; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magellanicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus colombianus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Colombia
Habitat:-Found around 35m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus, stocky, broad across shoulder; spire low, flattened; shoulder sharp-angled; body whorl smooth, with 10 small spiral cords around anterior end; spire with 4 spiral threads; shell pale yellow with 4 closely- spaced brown lines around body whorl just below {anterior of) mid- body; brown flammules and white blotches run through 4 lines and extend over anterior tip; body whorl above (posterior of)   mid- body line without markings or pattern; spire marked with large, evenly-spaced orange-tan flammules; spire flammules extend onto sharp edge of shoulder, giving shoulder checkered appearance; interior of aperture white.
Discussion:-Filmer has as synonym of C. magellicanus but Western Atlantic DB has as synonym of C. amphiurgus.
Although dead- collected and quite faded, enough characteristics remain to show that Conus colombianus is quite different from any other known Caribbean cone shell. In shape, and in having a smooth, sharp-angled shoulder, it somewhat resembles C. mayaguensis Usticke from Puerto Rico (endemic to that island), but differs in having a two-toned color pattern, with an unpatterned posterior half and a flammuled and lined anterior half. Conus colombianus appears to belong to the C. magellanicus Hwass species complex and is the only species of the group to have such a two-toned color pattern. A fresh specimen would probably be orange with darker orange- brown markings. This new species may be endemic to the coral reef areas around the archipelago of the Islas del Rosario.
Tucker suggests a grouping with C.  havanensis.

 

 

Conus  magellanicus  f.  hilli  Petuch,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2), p. 68, f. 36 &  37
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Portobelo, Panama.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus magellanicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus hilli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Panama
Habitat:-Found at depths around 25 m
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell stocky, broad across shoulder; spire low, flattened; shoulder sharply-angled, subcarinated; shoulder and spire whorls obsoletely coronated, with low, evenly-spaced undulations along periphery; body whorl very smooth, polished, shiny; anterior tip with 10 small, slightly raised spiral cords; shell color deep purple-blue with blotchy, light blue band around midbody; light blue midbody band marked with 4 rows of tiny, closely-spaced reddish-brown dots; spire whorls white with evenly-spaced, large dark brown crescent-shaped flammules; protoconch mammillate. protracted, light orange in color; aperture narrow, purple within.
Discussion:-Conus hilli is most similar to, and apparently is a close relative of, Conus kulkulcan Petuch, 1980 from the Bay Islands of Honduras. The new species differs from C. kulkulcan, however, in having a lower, flatter spire, and in having a squatter, less elongated shape. The spire whorls and shoulder of C. kulkulcan are marked with numerous fine, dark brown hairlines, but these are absent on C. hilli. Conus kulkulcan is also a textured shell, having spiral rows of tiny pustules around the body whorl. Conus hilli, on the other hand, is an untextured shell, having a highly polished, shiny body whorl. Conus hilli forms an interesting species trio with closely-related Honduran and Colombian species. This complex, then, includes C. kulkulcan from Honduras, C. hilli from Panama, and C. colombianus Petuch, 1987 from northern Colombia. Other related species in this close-knit Caribbean complex include C. jucundus Sowerby,1887 (= C. abbotti Clench, 1942) and C. inconstans E. A. Smith, 1877 from the Bahamas, C. arangoi Sarasua, 1977 from Cuba, Cay Sal, and Turks and Caicos, C. cardinalis Hwass, 1792, mayaguensis Nowell-Usticke, 1968 from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, C. harasewychi Petuch, 1987 from Palm Beach, Florida, and possibly C. abrolhosensis Petuch, 1987 from the Abrolhos Archipelago of Brazil.
John Tucker proposes that this is a species close to C. arangoi.

 

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Conus magister  Doiteau, 1981

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Rossiniana no. xiii, p. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia; 20 m on muddy bottom
Type Data: Lectotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 97 x 51 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus crocatus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-crocatus magister forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Noumea, New Caledonia
Habitat:-Reported from from about 20 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. crocatus
Shell Morphometry
L - (-form magister 70-110 mm)
RW –

RD -(-form magister 0.55-0.64)
Discussion:-RKK consider C. magister to represent a large local form of C. crocatus from the Noumea area, New Caledonia.

 

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Conus  magnificus  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, pl. 6, sp. 32
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Matnog, Island of Luzon, Philippines
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 91.7 x 42.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-magnificus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Okinawa, Philippines, Solomon Is., Queensland (Low Is.), Tahiti, Marquesas, Samoa, and Marshall Is.
Habitat:-In 5-50 m; on lagoon pinnacles, reef flats and the outer slope of reefs, in sand or rubble often beneath rocks, or in caves.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid. Last whorl usually conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical or conical; outline slightly convex to straight, convex below shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, sometimes indistinct. Spire of moderate height; outline slightly concave to straight, with domed early postnuclear whorls. Larval shell multispiral and projecting, maximum diameter 0.6-0.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, often slightly concave in late whorls, with numerous obsolete spiral striae. Last whorl with closely spaced, rather weak spiral ribs basally and spiral threads above; surface with a high gloss.
Ground colour white, suffused with red. Last whorl overlaid with brown to red brown, leaving many tiny to medium-sized, separate or overlapping tentlike to rounded ground-colour markings; tents concentrated in 3-4 axial bands from base to shoulder, and in 3 spiral bands, below shoulder, below centre, and near base. Some shells with a rather regular network of brown lines and few small brown blotches. Brown zones interspersed with dark brown spiral lines articulated with small white dots or tents. Larval whorls and first postnuclear sutural ramps pinkish violet. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-92 mm
RW 0.30-0.71 g/mm
(L 55-76 mm)
RD 0.49-0.60
PMD 0.75-0.90
RSH 0.13-0.19
Discussion:-C. episcopatus is so similar to C. magnificus in shell characters and body colouration that they cannot always be unequivocally distinguished and are often considered conspecific. The latter species differs in having a finer reticulate pattern on the last whorl with a larger proportion of small ground-colour tents and in a usually higher spire (RSH 0.13-0.19). In the Pacific, where both species occur sympatrically, C. episcopatus lacks pink shades in the ground colour and the surface of its shell has a lower gloss. RKK therefore  provisionally favour the status of separate species.

 

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Conus  magnottei   Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 75,  pl. 12, figs. 7 &  8
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Roatan Island. Honduras; 2 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magnottei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Caribbean
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell small for genus, squat in form; spire low, smooth, without coronations; body whorl smooth, shiny, without sculpturing; anterior tip with few small, low cords; color bright purplish-pink to lilac, with numerous white patches and flammules; white or pale pink band around mid-body; holotype with band of dark brown and white patches around mid- body; spire white, with some specimens having scattered dark brown flammules (such as holotype); protoconch and early whorls bright pink; interior of aperture purple.
Discussion:-Conus magnottei is closest to C. kirkandersi from Cozumel Is., but differs in lacking the corded sculpturing of C. kirkandersi and by having a bright pink or lilac color pattern instead of white and brown-banded one. Conus magnottei is endemic to Roatan Is. John Tucker suggests that it is synonym of C hennequini.

 

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Conus  magus  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in ZIUU Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 716
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Neotype in ZIUU deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus
Synonyms:-
raphanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; caesius Röding, 1798; carinatus Swainson, 1822; indicus Küster, 1838; metcalfii Reeve, 1843; ustulatus Reeve, 1844; epistomium Reeve, 1844; boivini Kiener, 1845; fucatus Reeve, 1849; assimilis A. Adams, 1854; circae Sowerby ii, 1858; rollandi Bernardi, 1860; consul Boivin, 1864; frauenfeldi Crosse, 1865; signifer Crosse, 1865; borneensis Sowerby ii, 1866; tasmaniae Sowerby ii, 1866; epistomioides Weinkauff, 1875; ambaroides Shikama, 1977;  fulvobullatus da Motta, 1982; cernohorskyi da Motta, 1983
Geographic Range:-Indonesia to Japan and to the Marshall Is., Wallis and Fiji
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal; juveniles sometimes in 100 m and more. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy; relative weight varies in specimens of similar size by 50% within the same population. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical, or narrowly conical to ventricosely conical, sometimes narrowly ovate to ovate; outline almost straight to evenly convex. Aperture variably wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to convex. Larval shell of 1.75-2.0 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 3-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to often concave in last whorl, with 1- 2 increasing to 4- 7 spiral grooves; latest ramps often with punctate grooves, sometimes only 2 of them distinct. Last whorl usually with weak spiral ribs at base and finer wrinkled elevations above. Closely set axial threads sometimes produce a minute granulation on basal ribs.
Ground colour sometimes blue or pink, usually white but often grading to yellow or tan. Last whorl with one adapical and one abapical spiral colour band, dashed and dotted spiral lines and irregular axial streaks, flames or blotches.
Colour bands and axial markings pink, orange, olive, greenish to bluish grey or shading from yellow to dark brown or black; spiral bands and axial markings either of the same or different colour. Bands vary considerably in width, ranging from completely absent to leaving remnants of ground colour only at centre, shoulder and base; axial markings varying considerably either set off from or merging with spiral bands. Spiral rows of brown to black dots and dashes vary from absent to numerous and pronounced, often with intermittent light dots and dashes. Pattern ranges from monochrome to multicoloured, heavily patterned shells intergrade with immaculate white shells. Larval whorls and a few of adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps white to beige, pink or brown; colour may vary considerably within population. Late sutural ramps sparsely to heavily marked with radial lines, streaks or blotches, usually matching pattern of last whorl in one or two of its major colours. Aperture white, occasionally pale pink or with brown blotches.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-94 mm
RW 0.10-0.83 g/mm
(L 30-89 mm)
RD 0.47-0.69
(0.47 form epistomium; 0.57-0.69 form cernohorskyi)
PMD 0.72-0.91
RSH 0.05-0.19
Discussion:- C. magus is often very similar to C. consors and sometimes similar to C. fischoederi. C. magus and C. consors often cannot be distinguished by shape, sculpture or colour pattern of the shell. C. consors is usually larger
(51-118 rnm), and it differs in its multispiral (about 3 whorls) larval shell, as would be expected in a species with a smaller egg and planktonic larva. Shells of C. consors with beige to brown larval shells can be separated for similar shells of C. magus by this character. In addition, the spiral ribs on the sutural ramps are usually weaker in C. consors. Very close to C. consors in colour pattern is C. magus form raphanus, but the latter can easily be distinguished by its pink apex and yellow and olive dots on the adjacent post-
nuclear sutural ramps. Specimens of C. fischoederi with a reduced reticulate pattern resemble similarly patterned forms of C. magus. The latter shells are less ventricose and have a more angulate shoulder; their pattern shows no remnants of a meshwork and tents. es.
In Indonesia and Philippines, C. magus is characterized by a remarkable conchological divergence between separate populations, while the species is rather uniform from New Caledonia to Queensland. Within the same population,
C. magus may be either largely uniform or fairly variable in shell morphology The taxonomic status of most nominal species assigned to C. magus therefore remains hypothetical and disputed.RKK consider the following as forms:
-C. ambaroides : Last whorl reddish brown, with white axial flecks at centre; based on a subadult specimen.
-C. assimilis : Last whorl ventricosely conical. Known from various localities.
-C. carinatus : Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical or yentricosely conical. Ground colour white to tan. Colour pattern comparatively uniform, consisting of spiral bands and lines and axial streaks in various shades of brown. Known from Philippines (Sulu Sea, S.Luzon).
-C. cernohorskyi : Moderately small to medium- sized, moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; surface comparatively rough. Larval whorls consistently pink. Although this variant attains broader last whorls than all other fonus of C. magus, the overlap in relative diameter allows no clear separation; neither do the differences in surface sculpture. Known from various Philippine localities. RKK consider it a infrasubspecific form but perhaps it is a sibling species. C. cernohorskyi may be a synonym of C. metcalfii.
C. circae: Similar to C. raphanus in shell shape, but last whorl often less inflated below shoulder and grading to ventricosely conical. Known from New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands.
C. consul : Essentially similar to C. assimilis and C. fulvobullatus.
-C. epistomium: Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical; pattern similar to that of C. raphanus.
-C. frauenfeldi : In small specimens, last whorl conical to ventricosely conical. Pattern consists of blackish-brown axial flames and dotted or dashed spiral lines; spiral lines sometimes sparse, often with intermittent white dots and dashes. In E. Sumatra shells almost matching the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi occur and also intergrade with typical C. magus. They differ from the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi in an orange to brown instead of white to pink apex; however this difference is in the range of variability of C. magus. We therefore consider C. frauenfeldi a form of C. magus; the type locality 'Madagascar' needs to be conirmed.
-C..fulvobullatus: Essentially similar to C. assimilis.
-C. metcalfii: Relatively small and stout. Last whorl with yellow and dark brown to black blotches. Probably the same variant as C. cernohorskyi.
-C. raphanus: Shell relatively solid. Last whorl conical, usually more inflated below shoulder in adult specimens than in other forms of C. magus. Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral
bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Known from various localities in Indonesia and Philippines.
-C. rollandi: Last whorl white with red-brown flames and axial streaks.
-C. signifier: Last whorl tinged with reddish brown, with white flecks at centre and below In Fiji, this colour form lives sympatrically with other colour variants.
-C. tasmaniae: Last whorl comparatively narrow, with brown axial streaks.
-C. ustulatus : Last whorl with closely set spiral ribs from base to shoulder and 2 broad pale yellow spiral bands. Known from the Louisiade Archipelago (Solomon Sea) and Palawan, Philippines. Specimens from Papua New Guinea, sometimes erroneously called 'C. melancholicus Lamarck' (see Marsh & Rippingale, 1964): Last whorl narrowly ovate to ovate, with light to dark brown axial streaks and flames. Aperture comparatively wide. These specimens represent a geographic variant or a closely related species. RKK  regard the following as synonyms of C. magus rather than forms: C. caesius, C .fucatus , C. borneensis, and C. epistomioides (based on a subadult specimen).

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  assimilis  A.  Adams,  1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, pt. 21, no.255, p. 118
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Australia
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 27.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus assimilis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific, Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. assimilis: Last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  carinatus  Swainson,  1822

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Ill. ii pl. 112.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Swainson (1822,  pl. 112)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus carinatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. carinatus: Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical or ventricosely conical. Ground colour white to tan. Colour pattern comparatively uniform, consisting of spiral bands and lines and axial streaks in various shades of brown. Known from Philippines (Sulu Sea, S.Luzon).
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  cernohorskyi  da Motta,  1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 2,  p. 2, figs. 10 & 13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Borogon, Samar Oriental, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.4 x 26.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus cernohorskyi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus

C. cernohorskyi: moderately small to medium- sized, moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; surface comparatively rough. Larval whorls consistently pink. The type specimen is probably sub adult; white with axial flammules of dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  circae  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in Cuming collection Thes. Conch. pl. 21 (207), f. 513 & 514

Picture link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 39,  pl. 21 (207), f. 513 & 514. and pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype was in Cuming collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 52 x 26 fig.
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus circae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Solomons
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C.magus
C. circae: Type figures show conical shaped form white with tan or orange brown background with dark brown blotches and broken dark brown spiral lines.

Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  epistomioides  Weinkauff,  1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LMD Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2, Lief. 233, p. 315,  pl. 57,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Africa (dubious)
Type Data: Lectotype in LMD deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomioides forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
The type is a subadult specimen of C. magus; white with tan/yellow blotches and some white dots in blotches.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  epistomium  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 42,  sp. 227
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius (erroneus)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.2 x 21.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomium forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mauritius
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
-C. epistomium : Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical; Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Pattern, similar to that of C. raphanus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  frauenfeldi   Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. xiii,  p. 307,  pl. x,  f. 1 & 1a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar (erroneus), corrected to Padang, South West Sumatra, East Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.2 x 23.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus  magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus frauenfeldi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
C .frauenfeldi: In small specimens, last whorl conical to ventricosely conical. Pattern consists of blackish-brown axial flames and dotted or dashed spiral lines; spiral lines sometimes sparse, often with intermittent white dots and dashes. In E. Sumatra shells almost matching the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi occur and also intergrade with typical C. magus. They differ from the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi in an orange to brown instead of white to pink apex; however this difference is in the range of variability of C. magus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  fulvobullatus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 13, f. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off east coast of Malaysia
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.5 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus fulvobullatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. fulvobullatus: Essentially similar to C. assimilis. i.e. last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus magus   f.  metcalfii Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figured syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 36,  sp. 192
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 14.3 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus metcalfii forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal; juveniles sometimes in 100 m and more. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. metcalfii : Relatively small and stout. Last whorl with yellow tan blotches. Type is pustulose.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  raphanus   Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 722
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 61 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus raphanus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. raphanus: Shell relatively solid. Last whorl conical, usually more inflated below shoulder in adult specimens than in other forms of C. magus. Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Known from various localities in Indonesia and Philippines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  rollandi   Bernardi,  1860

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchyl. viii,  p. 332,  pl. xii, f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus rollandi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
No Data
Description:-
Form rollandi is white with reddish brown axial blotches
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus magus f. ustulatus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 44, sp. 239
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Holland (Australia)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus ustulatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific: Known from the Louisiade Archipelago (Solomon Sea) and Palawan, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
Last whorl with closely set spiral ribs from base to shoulder and two broad pale yellow spiral bands.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  mahogani  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 22, sp. 126
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Salango. Is., Ecuador
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 18.5 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Ximeniconus Species:-mahogani
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Gulf of california to Peru; Galapagos Islands
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
Normal length ranges between 20 and 40 mm. The body whorl has an elongated conical body. The spire is low to moderate, slightly concave in profileThe color pattern is variable and consists of two elements over a white ground color. This ground color is covered by dark brown markings in two bands. The interior of the aperture is blue white. The spire is also colored. The coloration consists of dark brown blotches. These may cross the shoulder angle. The color shade on the whorl tops is about the same shade as the blotches and bars in the bands. There is no spiral row of brown dots on the inner margin of the spire whorl tops.. The body whorl is sulcate. These sulci can be restricted to the anterior third of the shell or can nearly reach the shoulder. There are on some specimens rows of pustules between the sulci.
Discussion:-The whorl tops of X. ximenes have two rows of small dots on them. One borders the shoulder angle and the other is at the suture with the preceeding whorl. In contrast, X. mahogani does not have this second row of spots on the suture with the previous whorl.

 

----------

 

Conus  maioensis  Trovăo,  Rolán  &  Felix-Alves,  1990

 

Picture Link: Neotype in MNCN António Monteiro

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 15, p. 71, f. 11; Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 3 with pictures
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia do Navio Quebrado, North of Maio Id., Cabo Verde Archpelago
Type Data: Holotype was in MBL and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 36.3 x 22.6 mm; neotype: 24.5 mm deposed and catalogued
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-maioensis
Synonyms:-
Possibly marcocastellazzii Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Conus maioensis Trovăo, Rolán & Feliz-Alves, 1990 (Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., 1990, p. 69) - Holotype 36.3mm in length; shell dark brown with a midbody band of large, irregular, bluish blotches. It was at first considered a form of C. irregularis Sowerby, but differs in having a more raised spire, with a preponderance of light colored blotches. C. irregularis has the same color spire as the ground color of the body whorl. The authors have also found interspecific differences in the egg capsules of the two species, which have been found living sympatrically at Maio Is., Cape Verde, the type locality of the new species.
Discussion:-Monteiro, Afonso & Rosa conclude that the holotype has been lost.It cannot be found I the Museu Bocage (currently Museu de História Natural e da Cięnca) in Lisbon. They designate a neotype for the species; Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 3.

 

----------

 

Conus  malacanus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 325, fig. 9)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. vol. 1,  p. 645
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Strait of  Malacca
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798,  pl. 325 fig. 9)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Stellaconus Species:-malacanus
Synonyms:-
canaliculatus Dillwyn, 1817; subcarinatus Sowerby ii, 1865; cuneatus Sowerby iii, 1873
Geographic Range:-SE Asia; Bay of Bengal
Habitat:-In 5-55 m, mainly on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Usually medium-sized to moderately large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical; outline variably convex at adapical third, straight below. Shoulder carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to straight or sigmoid. Maximum diameter of larval shell 0.9-1 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, later whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave or sigmoid, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; on latest ramps, grooves weaker and with additional spiral striae. Last whorl with distinct or weak spiral ribs and ribbons at base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl usually with 2 variably broad, continuous or interrupted brown spiral bands, leaving ground- colour zones below shoulder, at centre and at base. White bands usually interspersed with dark brown axial streaks and flames and occasionally with additional brown spiral lines. Dashed dark brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder but vary in number and arrangement. Pattern very variable; largely white shells intergrade with shells overlaid with various shades of brown and shells with primarily spirally arranged pattern intergrade with shells with axial arrangement. Larval whorls pale orange. Later sutural ramps with very sparse to numerous brown markings; intensity of maculation not correlated with last whorl pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-83 mm
RW 0.35-1.13 g/mm
(L 45-85 mm)
RD 0.65-0.74
PMD 0.81-0.92
RSH 0.10-0.17
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  malcolmi  Monnier & Limpalaër, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Eric Monnier

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 7, p. 18-21, fig. 5; Pl. on p. 25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South Tower Reef, near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, East coast of the Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.90 x 20.60 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-malcomi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Red Sea
Habitat:-
Description:-Original Description
Medium sized shells. The shape is conical with adapically convex sides becoming straight anteriorly. The shoulder is ccarinate and undulate. The shells have about 10 whorls. The spire is slightly concave and moderately elevated. The teleoconch whorls are slightly detached and tuberculate with 9 to 10 whitish large knobs per whorl. The spiral suture is fairly undulate. Sutural ramp is flat with 4 to 6 weak spiral cords and grooves and weak radial threads. The body whorl has a smooth surface, decorated with more than 60 orange brown spiral lines rather regularly spaced on on a white to yellow cream background. Those numerous very narrow bands are undulate in the adapical first third of the last whorl and less tight in the center of the last whorl, near the base and below the shoulder showing variably broad paler spiral bands. Moreover some scarce faint axial orange brown dashes are more apparent in the paler bands and particularly on the shoulder of the holotype. The anterior end is uniformely stained with chestnut brown and appears to be darker than the other parts of the whorl. The spire is orange brown colored with large dull whitish nodules. The paterture is white and uniform in width, with a quite sinusoidal inner lip. The anal notch I V shaped and the origin of the lip has a  slightly winged profile.
Shell Morphometry
L 38.90mm
RD 0.640
PMD 09.25
RSH 0.172
Discussion:-Only two specimens are known. Both in the collection of the NHMUK.

 

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Conus  maldivus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 644
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maldive Islands
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 63 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-maldivus
Synonyms:-
dux Röding, 1798; filosus Röding, 1798; jaspideus Swainson, 1822; spirogloxus Deshayes, 1863; planaxis Deshayes, 1863; monteiroi Barros e Cunha, 1933
Geographic Range:-Mozambique to Red Sea and to S. India
Habitat:-Slightly subtidal to about 6 m on reefs and coastal flats, in sand, sandy gravel or rubble, sometimes beneath coral blocks among weed
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to narrowly conical, outline variably convex adapically and straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline deeply concave to almost straight, with a conoid apex of about 7-8 postnuclear whorls projecting from an otherwise nearly flat spire. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.75 mm. First 7 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with obsolete spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with fine spiral ribs at base, obsolete in larger specimens.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2 broad light to dark brown spiral bands, either solid or split into axial streaks, flames, blotches or bands, leaving ground-colour zones at shoulder, at or below centre and near base. White subshoulder band narrow, usually crossed by axial extensions of adapical colour band. White central band variable in width, almost immaculate to heavily maculated with extensions of colour bands, occasionally completely absent. White abapical zone broad or narrow, sparsely to heavily maculated with brown. Minutely dotted to largely solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder but vary widely in number and arrangement; occasionally, spiral lines partly interrupted by white dots and sparse, small white tents. Base dark brown to violet-brown. Larval whorls pink. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate; late ramps with curved brown radial markings. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-83 mm
RW 0.30-1.06 g/mm
(L 50-80 mm)
RD 0.48-0.62
PMD 0.85-0.92
RSH 0.03-0.18
Discussion:-C. maldivus is very similar to C. generalis and cannot always be unequivocally separated from this species by conchological characters. The only reliable difference is in the colour pattern: In C. generalis, the basic pattern consists of 2 spiral colour bands that are usually solid and rarely split into axial fragments, and that cross underlying darker axial streaks or flames extending over the entire last whorl; the adapical ground-colour band is usually broader and the dark spiral lines rarely consist of minute dots or become solid. C. maldivus occurs with C. generalis form krabiensis at Mandapam, S. India, without producing conchological intermediates (Röckel, 1989). RKK therefore consider them as separate species.
The shells of C. capreolus are lighter than those of C. maldivus, the bases are white, late postnuclear whorls are carinate and lack radial markings, and darker spiral lines are absent from their last whorl.
C. planaxis and C. spirogloxus refer to juvenile specimens assigned to C. maldivus mainly on account of their type localities.

 

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Conus  mappa  [Lightfoot],  1786

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Knorr (1757,  pl. 8, fig. 4)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus., p. 116,  no. 2554
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: China, (no. 142), [erroneous], corrected (Vink & von Cosel) Trinidad, Lower Caribbean
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Knorr (1757,  pl. 8, fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa
Synonyms:-
solidus Gmelin, 1791; mappa Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; surinamensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; trinitarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; granarius Kiener, 1845; sanctaemarthae Vink, 1977; jesusramirezi Cossignani, 2010
Geographic Range:-North coast of South America, probably from Panama to Trinidad, and also off the islands Los Testigos and Tobago.
Habitat:-Found on silty sand or silt and grit at depths of 15 to 40 m
Description:-Source Vink
A heavy shell, 30 to 65 mm., with moderately elevated to high, rather straight-sided and often somewhat stepped spire. Body whorl straight-sided, shoulder of body whorl smooth, spire whorls canaliculate. Surface varying from smooth with faint spiral threads to more or less strongly granulated. Protoconch highly elevated, following teleoconch whorls more or less with same steep slope, first postnuclear whorls coronated, later whorls smooth. Animal bright red, operculum small and elliptical, about 1/7 of aperture height. Radula tooth described and pictured by Vink & Cosel. Periostracum tends to be thicker than in C. cedonulli; some specimens have a thick red-brown periostracum.
Source Vink Cosel
Shell milky white, with irregular light greenish yellow to dark brown patches and maculations, outlined with dark brown. White dots in spiral lines in dark areas outlined dark and interconnected by dark brown threads. Spire low to moderately high. Typical form
Shell whitish, with light yellowish green to black maculations and patches often not uniformly colored and not consistently darker outlined. White dots in spiral lines very close-set or replaced by white streaks. Lighter brown or orange patches sometimes axially connected by darker brown markings. Aperture bluish white to pale violet. Internal restrictions variable from very strong to very weak. Spire low to moderately high, in deep water specimens very high...C. mappa trinitarius.
Shell whitish or purplish grey to bluish violet, with often only a few orange to dark brown patches or maculations, sometimes reduced to narrow spiral bands only. Surface more or less strongly granulated. Internal restriction always strong to very strong. Aperture white to pale violet or brownish. Spire moderately high to very high......C. mappa granarius.
A typical feature of C. mappa is an internal restriction within the aperture which can be seen when the shell is viewed from the base, and which is only found in this species, and to a weaker extent in C. curassaviensis. The restriction is caused by a hump on the anterior third of the columella, which is a part of the outer shell layer that during growth is not dissolved in the same amount as the surrounding parts of the outer shell layer on the columella. Colour and pattern extremely variable, populations with differentiated pattern in adjacent geographic areas can be distinguished which must be recognized as subspecies: C. mappa trinitarius and C. mappa granarius besides typical C. mappa. Typical C. mappa has a milky white to pinkish white background with two spiral bands broken into irregular maculations and patches which can be greenish yellow to yellowish orange (Tobago) or brown to dark brown (Trinidad). In addition about 40 close- set spiral lines of dark dots in the light areas and white dots with dark outlines in the brown areas, interconnected by dark brown threads. The pattern resembles that of some forms of C. cedonulli but apart from morphological differences, the spiral lines of white and brown dots are more close-set in C. mappa, a distinctive feature already observed by Hwass (1792).
Discussion:-C. mappa could be confused with C. cedonulli (which usually has a lower and more concave-sided spire, and which lacks an internal restriction within the aperture) and C. curassaviensis (which is smaller with distinctly convex body whorl, less canaliculate whorls and only weakly developed internal restriction.

 

 

Conus  mappa  granarius   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Kiener (1845 pl. 98,  fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p.215,  pl. 98, f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: There is a cited figure : Kiener (1845,  pl. 98,  fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa granarius subsp.
Synonyms:-
interstinctus Guppy, 1866; desmotus Tomlin, 1937; panamicus Petuch, 1990
Geographic Range:-Panama to Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on muddy sand or silt, often with calcareous algae and sponges at depths of 3 to 50 m
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa granarius from the mineral substrate in the Santa Marta area differs from other populations of C. mappa in having the background colour purplish grey to bluish violet. In some specimens the background even looks darker than the light orange patches and maculations. On the other hand specimens from calcareous algae bottoms usually have a white, cream or pinkish white background. The patches or maculations may be orange, yellowish brown, reddish brown or dark chocolate brown and may sometimes even be missing. The shape of C. mappa granarius is variable with deeper water specimens being very high-spired. The surface is often strongly granulated. The internal restriction is very strong.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish or purplish grey to bluish violet, with often only a few orange to dark brown patches or maculations, sometimes reduced to narrow spiral bands only. Surface more or less strongly granulated. Internal restriction always strong to very strong. Aperture white to pale violet or brownish. Spire moderately high to very high
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus mappa  panamicus  Petuch,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2), p. 67, f. 26 & 27
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Portobelo, Panama.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus granarius Kiener, 1845.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name panamicus

 

 

Conus  mappa  f.  sanctaemarthae  Vink,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RNHL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Meded. (Leiden). li. no. 5,  p. 91,  pl. 1,  f. 5, pl. 4, f. 4-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Ten km. north of Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: Holotype in RNHL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 29.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786 or Conus  granarius   Kiener,  1845

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa sanctaemarthae forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Columbia
Habitat:-Offshore.
Description:-Source Original description
The background is purplish grey with various, somewhat darker bands and numerous spiral lines of alternating cream and dark brown streaks. The spiral lines , weakly sculptured near base are close together. On several specimens there are addtional yellow brown to reddish brown maculations. Spire moderately concave, whorls caniculate except for early whorls which are tuberculated. Shoulder on body whorl smooth. There is strong internal restriction in aperture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus mappa  trinitarius   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 603

Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Trinidad, altered (Vink & von Cosel) to Los Testigos Iles, Venezuela
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus  mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa trinitarius subsp
Synonyms:-
caracanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Geographic Range:-Eastern part of the coast of Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on silty sand or silt at depths of 10 to 20 m. Occasionally in more shallow water.
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa trinitarius differs from typical C. mappa in having the maculations and patches not darker outlined and not uniformly coloured, but e.g. light brown with dark brown or yellowish with brown. In the same population the colour of the patches is quite variable from specimen to specimen, from black or orange to light greenish yellow. Also an albino specimen was found (M. Mailly, personal communication 1984). Some specimens have dark brown markings axially connecting some of the ochreous to orange brown patches and partially outlining a few patches. The dark outlined white dots in the spiral lines are very close-set (e.g. in the holotype) or re- placed by short dark brown and white streaks.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish, with light yellowish green to black maculations and patches often not uniformly colored and not consistently darker outlined. White dots in spiral lines very close-set or replaced by white streaks. Lighter brown or orange patches sometimes axially connected by darker brown markings. Aperture bluish white to pale violet. Internal restrictions variable from very strong to very weak. Spire low to moderately high, in deep water specimens very high.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  marchionatus   Hinds,  1843

 

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11,  p. 256,  Apr.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Marquesas Is.
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Belcher and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 34mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-marchionatus
Synonyms:-
caelatus A. Adams, 1854; eudoxus Tryon, 1883
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-In 12 - 40 m on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, outline variably convex at adapical third and straight below. Shoulder carinate. Spire low, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2.0-2.25 whorls; maximum diameter 0.7-0.9 mm. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls distinctly tuberculate, later whorls sharply angulate to carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, variably concave in late whorls, with strong axial threads; 3 increasing to 5 wide spiral grooves and raised interstitial ribs on lateramps, containing spiral threads in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably spaced weak spiral grooves on basal third, separating ribs anteriorly and a few ribbons above.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with a rather regular network of reddish brown or sometimes yellow lines and triangular to rhomboid spots, edging larger sometimes confluent white tents and rhomboid flecks. Pattern may concentrate in 2 spiral band within adapical and abapical third. Apex white to violet., with white larval whorls. Later sutural ramps with reddish brown or yellow radial lines and streaks. Aperture white, sometimes suffused with pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-68 mm
RW 0.10-0.65 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.67
PMD 0.88-0.90
RSH 0.02-0.12
Discussion:-C. marchionatus is very close to C. cordigera; both have been synonymized with C. nobilis. Typical shells of C. cordigera have narrower last whorls (RD 0.50-0.58), while shells of form bitleri have similarly broad but more ventricose last whorls (PMD 0.83-0.90). The shoulder is not carinate but angulate in C. cordigera, and its colour pattern yellowish brown to brown instead of primarly redish brown. These differences as well as the widely disjunct ranges suggest a separation on the species level. A 2 million years old fossil from Fiji, highly similar to C. cordigera, supports the close relationship. C. nobilis differs from C. marchionatus in its narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.57), its non-tuberculate early postnuclear whorls, and its dark coloured base. It can be additionally distinguished by the very fine darker axial lines and the coarse alternating brown and white spiral lines within the colour zones of its last whorl.

 

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Conus  marckeppensi  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2017

               

Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 96, p. 32 – 34, with picture
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Ervatăo, Baia Fátima, Boa Vista, Cabo Verde Archpelago
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 22.1 x 13,3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Status unsure, possibly a morph of Africonus borgesi
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-borgesi f. marckeppensi
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:- Cape Verde
Habitat:-No Data
Description:- Shell of medium size from 15 to 25mm, with pyriform profile and low spire. The colour pattern of the spire consists white and chestnut brown alternating maculations; the top of the spire is white. The aperture is wide with a bluish white colour. Large irregular white spots are found  in a middle band on last whorl. The shoulder is rounded and the profile of the whorl is convex becoming straighter in lower part. The base colour of the last whorl is the same as the spire, chestnut brown. Several spiral cords are visible in the basal area. The siphonal canal is wide and in the axis of the development of the shell.

The siphonal canal is wide and in the axis of the development of the shell. The new species lives in the same area as Africonus teodorae and Africonus borgesi, but is more comparable to  Africonus josephinae (Rolán, 1980). A. marckeppensi has a lower spire and the presence of a spiral band of white spots that are absent in comparable species. Compared to Africonus salreiensis (Rolán, 1980), it has a similar shape but completely different patte
Discussion:- Tenorio et al. studied these shells and comment on it in their work with the description of A. swinneni and A. fiadeiroi. See there.

 

----------

Conus  marcocastellazzii  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 83, p. 14 -15
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Praia Real, Maio, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.1 x 9.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym of Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-marcocastellazzii
Synonyms:-
Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:- the specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 5 meters deep, over and under rock
Description:-
Pyriform shell of small dimensions, about average for the genus, with a range from 15 to 18 mm in height;a spire with moderately elevated profile which is slightly concave; sutures slightly stepped, he shoulder in line with the spire;lip exterior which creates an angle of 110deg and continues with a slight convexity. The aperture is wide and the columellar margin follows almost perfectly the shape the outer lip with slight enlargement adapically .

The protoconch is dome-shaped , pinkish in color, detected with respect to the spire. 4 small spiral grooves , not

properly spaced , are highlighted on the whorl tops that have a brown background colour tending to ebony alternating with white patches. Last whorl round , smooth, with 7 wide-spaced grooves  which adapically occupy the 2/5 of whorl.,It has an ebony colour with a homogeneous white speckled band at center and weaker bands at the top and bottom . The color inside is waxy -brown . The siphonal canal is wide .
Discussion:-

The valid status of this species has recently disputed by several workers. They believe we deal with specimens of Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990.

 

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Conus marcusi   Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2016

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 48; p. 176 ; fig. 1: G & H

Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 

Type Locality:  off Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera Island, eastern Exuma Sound, Bahamas

Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 9 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE

Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-marcusi

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Known only from the Exuma Sound area of southern Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, near Tarpum Bay

Habitat:- On carbonate sand in 3 m depth

Description:-Source Original description

Shell very small for genus, averaging only 9 mm, stocky, truncated, broad across shoulder; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by thin sharp carina; spire proportionally low, subpyramidal, only slightly stepped; body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 10-12 deeply-incised spiral sulci around anterior one-half; base shell color pale Canary yellow, overlaid with wide, evenlyspaced deep orange-yellow amorphous longitudinal flammules arranged in zebra pattern; shoulder carina white, marked with widely-spaced dark reddish-brown elongated spots; spire whorls bright yellow, marked with large, widely-spaced dark reddish-brown flammules; aperture proportionally wide, bright yellow within interior; protoconch proportionally very large, rounded, bulbous, composed of 2 whorls, bright cherry red in color; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mariaodeteae  Petuch & Myers, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 33 & 34, with pic., fig. 2 A - F
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Camocim, Ceará State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 25 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-mariaodetteae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Till now only known from the type locality: Camocim, Ceará State, Brazil
Habitat:-Found dead in fishing traps, from rocky sea floor area in 40 m depth
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell large for genus, stocky, broad across shoulder, tapering toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled,

edged with small raised carina; spire low, broadly subpyramidal, with slightly concave outline; spire whorls smooth; body

whorl shiny and highly polished, ornamented with 6-8 large, widely-separated spiral cords around anterior end; body whorl

colored uniformly bright orange, orange-tan, or occasionally deep red-orange with single wide white spiral band around

mid-body; white spiral band with 4-5 rows of small brown dots and large longitudinal brown flammules; some specimens with

rows of faint brown dots overlying base color of body whorl; spire whorls white, overlaid with dense, closely-packed dark

tan-brown crescent-shaped flammules; white spire color and brown flammules extend onto edge of shoulder carina, producing

checkered band around shoulder; early whorls bright reddish-pink; aperture uniformly narrow; interior of aperture

orange; protoconch proportionally large, projecting, mammillate, composed of 2 large rounded whorls.
Discussion:-The species is compared with Conus mauricioi and Conus brasiliensis

 

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Conus  maribelae   Tenorio & Castelin,  2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paratype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Published in: European Journal of Taxonomy; p. 18 – 20; fig. 7 A-F
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Gualdalcanal, New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.5 x 12.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONOLITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-maribelae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Solomon Islands, including New Georgia Group (Vella Lavella Isl.), Santa Isabel and Guadalcanal
Habitat:-Found at depths of 336 – 690 m
Description:-Original Description
Shell moderately small to medium sized. Maximum length: 42.5 mm. Shell profile ventricosely conical, with a spire moderate to high. Spire profile sigmoid. Multispiral protoconch with 3–3.5 whorls, white, glossy and translucent. Early 4–5 teleoconch whorls stepped, ridged with small nodules, which tend to disappear after the fifth whorl. Sutural ramp flat to slightly concave, with 3 to 6 fine spiral cords becoming obsolete in late spire whorls. Shoulder subangulate, forming a characteristic ridge, covered with axial costae on the last whorl. Early teleoconch whorls are creamy white with a brown spiral band on the periphery, extending over the row of nodules. On later whorls, this brown band is interrupted by white areas. Spire creamy white with sparse small brown blotches present in the areas near the suture. Last whorl smooth or with very fine striae, and with spiral ribs on basal third. Ground colour creamy white overlaid with orange-brown to purplish brown irregular blotches or axially arranged flammules, interrupted by a ground-colour band at the midbody. Columella white. Aperture creamy white. Anal notch shallow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  marielae   Rehder  & Wilson,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Smithson. Contrib. Zool. no. 203,  pl. 4,  f. 10, frontispiece f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Half mile off Baie Motu-Hee, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40.3 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-marielae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas; Tuamotus; Marshall Islands
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble
Description:- In C. m. marielae, teleoconch spire similar to that of typical C. m. moluccensis or suffused with rose or light red brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-60 mm
RW 0.17-0.32 g/mm (L 40-52 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH - (--C. m. marielae 0.10-0.18)
Discussion:-Seen by some as a valid species

 

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Conus  marileeae  Harasewych, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM M. G. Harasewych

Published in: The Nautilus, 128(2): 55–58, figs. 12 - 18

Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off the Sea Aquarium, Bapor Kibra,Willemstad, Curaçao
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23,7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Attenuiconus Species:-marileeae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Curaçao
Habitat:- This new species is presently known only from off the southeastern coast of Curaçao, at depths

of 130–168 m. Nearly all specimens have broken lips as well as one or more major repaired breaks, the latter

indicative of prior, severe but unsuccessful attacks by crustaceans.
Description:- Shell of moderate size for genus (to 23 mm), with solid, narrow (L/W _ 2.1), straight-sided,

conical, low-conical spire, projecting protoconch, and narrow aperture. Protoconch tall, conical, increasing in

diameter from 291 mm to 850 mm in 3Ľ evenly rounded, pitted glassy whorls.

Protoconch forms a broad, smooth varix prior to transition to teleoconch marked by development

of strongly tuberculate shoulder (17 tubercles on first teleoconch whorl, tubercles becoming weaker in subsequent

whorls, absent by 5th whorl). Teleoconch with up to 8 sharply shouldered, straight-sided whorls. Suture

adpressed in early whorls, may become shallowly impressed in later whorls. Sutural ramp narrow, weakly

concave to flat, with 4–6 rounded cords between suture and shoulder. Last whorl smooth except for 5–6 broad,

rounded spiral cords near anterior margin of shell. Aperture long, narrow (L/W_11) with parallel sides, deflected

from shell axis by 11–14_. Shell base color golden orange to orange red, with three bands of irregular white markings:

one at and below the shoulder, one at mid-whorl, and one near the anterior margin of the shell. Band below

shoulder broadest, consisting of very irregular, vaguely sigmoidal white flammules, which may be divided. White

flammules extend over shoulder onto sutural ramp, but rarely reach suture. White blotches in relatively narrow

band at mid-whorl range from small and compact (Figure 8) to large and amorphous while flammules near anterior

margin tend to form diffuse, oblique lines. Aperture color white.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  marinae  Petuch & Myers , 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

Picture link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 4, 35, 37 & 38 with pic., pl. 4 E - F
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 
Type Locality: off Porto de Itaparica, northern coast of Itaparica Island, at the mouth of Todos os Santos, Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x  9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-marinae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Northern coast of Itaparica Island, at the mouth of Todos os Santos, Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, endemic

Habitat:- In muddy sand, 1 m depth
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, elongated,

proportionally slender, with straight sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by large smooth carina; spire elevated,

pagoda-shaped, distinctly stepped; body whorl shiny, completely sculptured with 18-20 incised spiral sulci, which become

larger and more deeply-incised toward anterior end; shell base color variable, ranging from purple and violet (as in holotype),

to purplish-red, to brick red, and dark purple-brown; base colors overlaid with variable amounts of large amorphous

dark brown or reddish-brown patches and flammules; areas between incised sulci often with rows of large white and dark

tan elongated spots; shoulder carina and edges of spire whorls pale violet or pale salmon, marked with large, prominent,

evenly-spaced dark brown spots; aperture proportionally wide, violet within interior on purple specimens (like holotype) and

brick-red within interior of red specimens; early whorls dark tan; protoconch proportionally large, mammillate, composed

of 2 rounded whorls, pale tan in color.

Discussion:

 

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Conus  marmoreus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten  Varieties

Picture Link: Paul Kersten  Red variety from New Caledonia

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 712
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Asia
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus
Synonyms:-
proarchithalassus Röding, 1798; maculatus Perry, 1811; granulatus Sowerby ii, 1839; crosseanus Bernardi, 1861; suffusus Sowerby iii, 1870; pseudomarmoreus Crosse, 1875
Geographic Range:-India to Marshall Is. and Fiji
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy. Shells from New Caledonia consistently smaller than shells from other areas; form suffusus also lighter than other forms. Last whorl conical, broadest in form crosseanus; outline almost straight, somewhat convex adapically. Shoulder angulate, strongly tuberculate to. almost smooth. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Postnuclear spire whorls strongly to weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave in late whorls, with 2-4 weak spiral grooves and additional spiral striae; spiral sculpture often obsolete. Last whorl with usually weak, regularly spaced spiral ribs on basal fourth to half.
Ground colour usually white; may be bluish white, pale pink or pale yellow in shells from New Caledonia. Last whorl generally with a regular network of dark brown to black lines and triangular to rhomboid areas, outlining white tents that are often quite uniform in shape and arrangement and usually separate from each other. In New Caledonia, colour of network may grade to orangish red or orangish brown, axial lines may replace network, and pattern may be reduced or absent. Apex purplish red. Postnuclear sutural ramps with a dark brown to black network of lines, streaks and blotches. Aperture white to pinkish orange behind a white marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-150 mm (New Caledonia 40 - 65 mm)
RW 0.45-1.95 g/mm (L 50-113 mm) (form suffusus 0.21 - 0.60 g/mm)
RD 0.56-0.65 (form crosseanus 0.60 - 0.67)
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.05-0.15
Discussion:-C. bandanus is a close relative of C. marmoreus, and some authors have included it in the latter species. The conchological differences are comparatively slight, consisting of more pronounced spire tubercles and a less regular pattern with 2 distinct dark colour bands in C. bandanus, while the pattern of C. marmoreus is generally uniform and lacks bands. Ecological differences also favour separation on the species level: C. bandanus usually lives in deeper water and often occupies a different microhabitat where both occur in sympatry. In Kwajalein, Marshall Is., C. marmoreus is found on inter-island coral reef and at the east side of the lagoon on sand bottom, while C. bandanus is restricted to rock and rubble bottoms of the ocean-side and the lagoon-side of the west reef; co-occurrence has not been observed
The New Caledonian populations of C. marmoreus are often considered to represent a separate subspecies (C. m. crosseanus) or species (C. crosseanus). However, except for their smaller size, New Caledonian shells intergrade with C. marmoreus from other localities in all morphological characters and we consider them as form crosseanus, characterized by weakly tuberculate post-nuclear whorls and a rather axially line ate dark brown pattern on an often bluish white ground. Specimens with additional spiral ground-colour lines were named var. lineata.
Form suffusus has distinct spire tubercles, lacks any pattern elements on its white, pale pink or pale yellow background, and its aperture is pink to orange. Immaculate white shells with a white aperture were described as C. suffusus var .noumeensis .
Form pseudomarmoreus is characterized by an almost smooth shoulder. Shells with a typically arranged reddish to brownish orange pattern are known from the Isle of Pines (New Caledonia).

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f. batarde  Prigent, 1983  A nomen nudum; only listed for reference

 

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Rossiniana 21, 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bourail, New Caledonia
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as form after 1960
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f. crosseanus  Bernardi,  1861

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten   "lineata"

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 9,  p. 168, pl. 6,  f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 66.8 x 39.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus crosseanus forma
Synonyms:-
lineata Crosse, 1878
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. marmoreus
Shell Morphometry
(form crosseanus 0.60 - 0.67)
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.05-0.15
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  pseudomarmoreus  Crosse, 1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchyl. xxiii,  p. 223,  pl. ix,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50.5 x 20.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of C.marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus pseudomarmoreus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. marmoreus.
Form pseudomarmoreus is characterized by an almost smooth shoulder. Shells with a typically arranged reddish to brownish orange pattern are known from the Isle of Pines (New Caledonia).
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f.  suffusus   Sowerby iii,  1870

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870,  38 (pt.2),  p. 255,  pl. 22,  f. 9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus suffusus forma
Synonyms:-
noumeensis Crosse, 1872
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-
Form suffusus has distinct spire tubercles, lacks any pattern elements on its white, pale pink or pale yellow background, and its aperture is pink to orange. Immaculate white shells with a white aperture were described as C. suffusus var. noumeensis.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  marmoricolor  Melvill,  1900

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Syntype in NMWC (51.5 x 26 mm)  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conch. London 9 (10), p. 310, not figured

Type Locality: Not mentioned;  designated (Lauer) Mauritius

Type Data: Two syntypes in NMWC                                                                                               

Type Size: 51.5 x 26 mm and 51 x 25.5 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus pennaceus

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus f. marmoricolor

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Mauritius

Habitat:

Description: A form with a ventricosely conical to conical last whorl; low spire; regular dark reddish brown tents.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  martensi  Smith, 1884

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Rept. Zool. Collns. Alert (1881-2),  p. 488,  pl. 44,  f. A
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Providence Reef, Mascarenes.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Still regarded as a valid species but possibly it is Conus sazanka  Shikama, 1970
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-martensi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Seychelles
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, outline convex at adapical fourth and straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to sigmoid or concave. Larval shell of about 3 whorls (Moolenbeek & Coomans, 1987), maximum diameter of about 1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 3 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves; latest ramps may only have 3-4 grooves. Last whorl with weak or obsolete spiral ribs at base.
Colour range. Last whorl with 2 paler spiral bands, at centre and at shoulder. Larval whorls brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps white, suffused with colour tones of last whorl. Aperture white.
Discussion:-Comment
Known only from subadult specimen. RKK considered it a juvenile of later described species C. alconnelli. In fact we deal with a worn specimen of Conus sazanka Shikama, 1970 (Personal comm. Eric Monnier)
Filmer and SA Iconography accept that C. alconnelli is separate species based on orange tones of martensi, shell pyriform shape, spire structure and no of spiral grooves on whorl tops.(3 v 5-6).

 

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Conus  martinianus Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Specimen from INHS

Published in: Conch. Icon. 1 (Conus): pl. 40, sp. 217, (published Jan.), (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. pt. 11, no. 130: p. 173, not figured, published Jun.)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Putao, Albay Province, Luzon Island, Philppines
Type Data: Three syntypes in BMNH
Type Size: 54.7x 25.6 mm; 52.7 x 26.3 mm; 50.5 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Re-established as a valid species by Tucker & Tenorio 2013; seen as a synonym of Conus radiatus  Gmelin, 1791 by most authors
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-radiatus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Solomon Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
Discussion:-Comment
Seen as a synonym of Conus radiatus Gmelin, 1791 by most authors

 

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Conus masinoi   Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2016

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM

 

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 48; p. 176 - 177 ; fig. 1: I & J

Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 

Type Locality:  off Sanday Cay, Utila Cays, Honduras, Western Caribbean Sea

Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 12.1 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE

Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-masinoi

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Known only from the Utila Cays of the Caribbean coast of Honduras

Habitat:- 5-7 m depth on fine, clean carbonate sand near Turtle Grass beds

Description:-Source Original description

Shell of average size for genus, fusiform, slightly inflated, with rounded sides; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by low, rounded carina; spire distinctly subpyramidal, only slightly stepped; body whorl smooth and shiny, sculptured with 12-15 incised spiral sulci, which become deeper and closer together toward anterior end; body whorl base color pink or pale lavender (as on holotype), overlaid with 12-15 rows of alternating brown and white spots and also numerous widely-spaced amorphous

dark tan or brown longitudinal flammules; shoulder carina white, marked with widelyspaced small brown dots; suture of spire whorls edged with tiny, evenly-spaced brown dots; some specimens (such as the specimen in the Poremski collection) are uniformly pale pink, with only traces of longitudinal flammules and bands of dots; aperture proportionally wide and flaring, becoming wider at the anterior end, deep purplish-pink within interior; protoconch and early whorls pale orange-white; protoconch proportionally large, rounded, composed of 2 whorls; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  massemini  Monnier & Limpalaër, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Eric Monnier

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy No. 13, p. 9-11, fig. 3, Pl. 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Iracoubo, French Guyana

Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 35.75 x 16.92 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-massemini
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-French Guyana, Surinam
Habitat:-Found at depths between 102-104 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell conical and medium-sized to moderately large with an average length of 41.8 mm. the adult shell has about 12 whorls. The protoconch is smooth and ivory coloured and has at least 2.5 whorls. The spire is of moderate height. Its outline is concave with a raised apex. The profile of the spire whorls is slightly stepped with the 4 or 5 first early postnuclear whorls more stepped. The suture is linear and rather deeply incised. The sutural ramp is sculptured with about five fading to three spiral grooves and radial threads. The last whorl is smooth with a carinate shoulder. The basal area has about 12 to 15 spiral ribs. The outline is slightly convex in the daapcal third of the last whorl with nearly straight sides basally. The position of the maximum diameter is of 97% of the aperture length of the shell. The aperture is long, straight and does not widen anteriorly.

The ground colour of the shell is light purple, the last whorl is yellow ochre to orange brown coloured. There is a white spiral band at the middle of the last whorl which is generally overlaid by chestnut brown blotches. Blotches of the same colour are also present below the spiral band although they are less conspicuous. One or two irregular interrupted white bands are situated under the shoulder. These are very variable in width and sometimes obsolete. The last whorl is covered by a variable number of spiral rows of rather regularly spaced chestnut brown dots or streaks. The distribution of these spiral rows over the last whorl is very irregular in some specimens and may include broad undotted zones. The color of the basal part of the columella varies between whitish to orange yellow and orange brown radial streaks and blotches running from the shoulder to the last 6 last whorls. The interior of the aperture is tinged with lavender to violet.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mauricioi  Coltro,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11,  p. 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Rio do Fogo, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size :19 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-archetypus mauricioi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on coral sand bottom at 10-25 meters on offshore reefs
Description:-Source: Original description
Length: 17 to 22 mm, concave-sided, almost straight moderately elevated spire (1/5 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth. Body whorl slightly convex with 6-8 light incised lines on the base. Apex pink, nucleus with 2 to 2.5 whorls. Spire with 6 up 8 whorls. A medium deep suture between the whorls. Color body extremely variable, from bright yellow or pink-red to brown, green, purple and even bluish-grey. Always with white blotches or marks. Spiral cord bands are present on 90% of the examined specimens. Top with white and brown marks on shell color background. Pink white aperture, colored inner margin.
Discussion:-During many years this species was confused with the Caribbean species Conus beddomei Sowerby, 1901. Conus mauricioi is very variable in color and patterns, the body whorl is comparatively shorter and wider than in C. beddomei and even in the others species of the C. archetypus complex which occur in Brazil.

 

----------

 

Conus  maya  Petuch & Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM  Bill Fenzan  LACMw

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 42
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Yucatan
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.9 x 13.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-maya
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Yucatan, E. Mexico
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, moderately elongated, with slightly convex sides in profile; spire elevated, stepped and scalariform, subpyramidal. Body whorl polished and shiny, sculptured with 20 thin, narrow, shallow, incised spiral grooves,; color deep yellow-orange with widely-scattered amorphous white flammules;.paler yellow-white band present around mid-body; base color overlaid with 14 spiral rows of large, closely-packed,elongated reddish-brown dots and dashes; anterior tip paler yellow-orange. Spire distinctly stepped, scalariform; color pale yellow-orange or white with regularly-spaced, large crescent-shaped reddish-brown flammules; early whorls yellow. Shoulder smooth, sharply-angled. Aperture narrow, interior pink, grading to orange near edge of lip.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  mayaguensis   Nowell-Usticke,  1968

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in AMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Caribbean Cones from St. Croix and Lesser Antilles p. 15,  pl. II,  f. 1003
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Pta. Guanajibos and Pta. Arenas, west coast of Puerto Rico.
Type Data: Lectotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-mayaguensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Puerto Rico
Habitat:-Found at depths of some 10m under coral heads
Description:-Source Vink
A smallish shell, 20 to 25 mm, with spire of medium height and rather straight-sides. Body whorl slightly convex from top to bottom and rather slender. Shoulder fairly sharp with the appearance of being beaded, due to the presence of regular white patches. Body whorl with fine raised spiral lines. Tops of whorls with faint spiral sculpture in fresh specimens. Nucleus 1.5 whorls; post- nuclear whorls smooth. Most shells known are beach specimens, which can be orange, reddish brown or bright pink (holotype yellowish orange). A live collected specimen olive-green. There is a white mid-body band bordered at the upper side by a row of brown markings, which can be so large that the white band is broken up into irregular patches. In addition faint spiral lines of brown dots. Spire with alternating white and brown markings, tip of base white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus mazei  Deshayes,  1874

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: J. Conchyl. xxii,  p. 64,  pl. I,  f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Martinique; 90 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 58 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-mazei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Florida, USA - Martinique; Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Vink
Very thin and light in weight, fragile, with a good gloss; elongate biconical, the sides nearly straight then tapering to very narrow base; body whorl with numerous flat spiral ribs basally and extending to third or all; ribs separated by narrower grooves containing fine axial threads; posterior third smooth or covered with heavy ribs; shoulder broad, carinate, smooth; spire tall, sharply pointed, the sides slightly concave; spire whorls slightly concave to flat above, weakly/strongly carinate, early 3-5 whorls wwith fine nodules and hheavy axial ridges posterior to margin; Body whorl creamy white to pale straw/orange covered with 10-15 spiral rows of squarish reddish brown spots evenly spaced; tendency for spots to fuse into axial flammules or broad bands below shoulder and midbody; base often stained pale brown; spire whitish, covered with bright reddish brown spots axially elongated; aperture very narrow, uniform; outer lip thin and fragile, slightly convex; mouth white; columella internal;
Discussion:-
C. m. mazei poorly known large >50 mm early whorls weakly undulate, whorl margins not with projecting carinae and flat not concave above; pattern of 9 rows very distinct spots; deep water off Lesser Antilles;

I prefer to list the following species as valid; see there.
C. m. rainsae spiral ribs extending to midbody;early whorls distinctly nodulose; whorls projecting carinae and flat not concave; spotting distinct, greater than 9 rows showing some tendency to fuse or be covered with larger clouds of pale reddish brown; size small under 30mm; shallow water S. Florida to Yucatan;
C. m. mcgintyi larger and more elongate (60mm) covered with low distinct spiral ribs; grooves between ribs with heavy axial ridges or threads; reddish brown spotting tending to be fused into short axial flammules, below shoulder and midbody; deeper water S. Florida to Brazil

 

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Conus  mazzolii  Petuch & Sargent, 2011

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan LACM

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Visaya 3 (4), 99
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Little Torch Key, Florida.
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.7 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum mazzolii subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida Keys
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus, elongated, slender, biconic, with very high, elevated spire; profile with straight sides, becoming slightly constricted at anterior end; spire stepped, distinctly scalariform.
Smooth, glossy; anterior tip encircled with 6-8 thin spiral cords; base color white, pink, or pale salmon-orange (as on holotype), overlaid with dark orange-tan to dark brown irregular longitudinal flammules and patches; larger flammules marked with 6-8 thin brown spiral lines, often composed of tiny dots and dashes; anterior tip yellow orange or pale orange.
Shoulder sharply-angled.bordered by thin, sharp carina: subsutural area flattened or slightly sloping.
Spire extremely high and elevated. stepped. composed of 8-9 whorls; spire whorls smooth and shiny, ornamented with numerous extremely fine crescent-shaped threads; spire white or pink marked with large, regularly-spaced dark brown amorphous flammules or checker-shaped spots; early whorls pale brown or orange-brown; protoconch pale orange. proportionally large, rounded. mamillate. Aperture proportionally very narrow, straight, uniformly wide; interior of aperture white or pale pinkish-white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mcbridei  Lorenz,  2006

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in HNC Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Schriften zur Malakozoologie 22, 671
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sulawesi, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in HNC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10.9 x 5.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-mcbridei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-15 to 50 m
Description:-Source original description
The shell is small, solid, slender and ventricosely conical. The spire is slightly dome-shaped, with a distinctly projecting knob-like protoconch. The shoulder is rounded and very indistinctly coronate. The sides are very slightly convex posteriorly, straight towards the tapering anterior. The body whorl seems smooth and glossy posteriorly, but on magnificaton shows distinct, narrow spiral grooves all over. In the basal area, there are distinct spiral ribs becoming denser towards the anterior end. Two thirds of the posterior area, including the spire and the protoconch, are white, with a very faint bluish tint towards the middle of the shell. The anterior third (or even more) is distinctly separated optically by a rich black tint. The interior reflects the coloration of the outer shell.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mcgintyi   Pilsbry,  1955

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ANSP Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Nautilus. lxix,  no. 2,  p. 47,  pl. 3, f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Pensacola, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in ANSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41.6 x 11.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-mcgintyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida to Brazil
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:- Source Walls/original description
Very thin and light in weight, fragile, with a good gloss; nucleus of 3 glassy whorls; elongate biconical, the sides nearly straight then tapering to very narrow base; body whorl with numerous flattened spiral ribs; ribs separated grooves containing delicate axial ridges or threads giving a pustulate appearance to whorls; shoulder broad, carinate, smooth; spire tall, sharply pointed, the sides slightly concave; spire whorls slightly concave to flat above, weakly/strongly carinate, early 3-5 whorls with fine nodules becoming obsolete on later whorls;4-6 spiral threads. Body whorl creamy white to pale straw/orange covered with reddish brown spots which fuse into axial flammules or broad bands below shoulder and midbody; spire whitish, covered with bright reddish brown spots axially elongated; aperture very narrow, uniform; outer lip thin and fragile,slightly convex; mouth white; columella internal;
Discussion:-C. mcgintyi larger and more elongate (60mm) than C. mazei and is covered with low distinct spiral ribs; grooves between ribs with heavy axial ridges or threads;reddish brown spotting tending to be fused into short axial flammules, below shoulder and midbody; deeper water S Florida;

Recently, the well known Brazilean shells have been described as a valid species Dalliconus edpetuchi  Monnier, Limpalaër, Roux & Berschauer, 2015; see there.
Tucker comments: Recently, a Brazilian member of this complex was described, Dalliconus roberti. These shells are like D. mcgintyi in that the pattern is blotchy. At present, I see no
means to distinguish these from D. mcgintyi.

 

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Conus  mediterraneus   Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 330, fig. 4)

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 701
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Mediterranean Sea
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798,  pl. 330, fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus ventricosus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name mediterraneus

 

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Conus  medoci   Lorenz, F.,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (2),  p. 19
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavonono, Madagascar.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-medoci
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southern Madagascar
Habitat:-Probably sublitoral zone
Description:-Source original description Visaya 2004
Medium sized to large, heavy and solid. The sides are straight, the shoulder area convex. The spire is low, shows seven whorls, the last whorl slightly overlaps the previous one. The body whorl is smooth except for the anterior third where it has fine and dense spiral grooves. The aperture is rather narrow and straight, very slightly widening anteriorly. The shell is brown, with two paler narrow transverse bands, decorated with numerous conspicuous transverse lines of darker brown and white intermitted stripes. The shoulder is mottled with white and brown.

 

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Conus medvedevi   Monteiro, Afonso, Tenorio, Rosado & Pirinhas, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten


Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 5, P. 64-68; Pl. 2, fig. 1-6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baía do Bom Fim (Lucira area) in the Namibe Province, Angola, Southern Angola, West Africa
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 26.0 x 14.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-medvedevi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-It occurs between 0.5 and 7 meters depth, partially buried in sand under rocks or in rock holes and fissures, normally close to the wave action zone.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorlventricosely conical, slightly elongated. Profile more or less straight and with a rounded shoulder. Spire moderately high, convex, teleoconch whorls smooth. Last whorl smooth,except for about four spiral raised lines near the anterior tip. tip. The ground color of the shell is dark brown, occasionally olive-brown, with many light bluish specks (prone to fading over time) that normally form a wide central spiral band, but can also be present almost over the entire last whorl of the teleoconch, usually more numerous between the central band and the shoulder. In some specimens the bluish specks can give way to reticulated arrow shaped patterns. The spiral ramps present light bluish axial streaks. The aperture is bluish gray inside, with a dark violet zone parallel to the lip, interrupted about half the length of the lip and again near the shoulder; the interior of the lip is white, with the outer color showing by transparency. Aperture banded at the central portion and just below the shoulder.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  meleus Sowerby iii,1913

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xi,  p. 558,  pl. ix, f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Kii, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus boeticus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-boeticus meleus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan - Australia
Habitat:-Sand shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C boeticus
C. meleus has a white shell with yellow axial blotches of both sides of centre
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  melinus   Shikama,  1964

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Venus vol. xxiii, no. 1,  p. 36, pl. 3, f. 3-6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arafura Sea
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 70.8 x 42.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus mustelinus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-mustelinus melinus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Australia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and shallow subtidal; on reefs, on sand often beneath dead coral rocks, on rock or in holes and crevices

 

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Conus  melissae  Tenorio,  Afonso,  Rolán,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 8-10
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia de Parda, Sal, CVI
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.5 x 10.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-melissae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in algae at 1-2 m
Description:- Last whorl with a tendency to be slightly convex; shoulder well marked; a greenish or yellowish ground color, which varies from dark green to light yellow; a reticulated pattern of white flecks or blotches forming bands which are variable in number and width, usually three; a thin one at the shoulder, another larger one at the height of the maximum diameter of the shell and another broader one slightly below the midbody; aperture is purplish brown with two white bands, one in the middle portion and another one in the upper part; inner lip white with some traces of yellow or brown near the edge; spire with white blotches, sometimes brown ones; columella purple
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  melvilli  Sowerby iii,  1879

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.46 (pt.4),  p. 795, pl. 48, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Key West, Florida [erroneous]
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.8 x 11.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Quasiconus Species:-melvilli
Synonyms:-
pusio Sowerby ii, 1834; boschi Clover, 1972
Geographic Range:-Oman - Persian Gulf; Maldives
Habitat:-Shallow water; on sand at protected sites
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to broadly or ventricosely conical, outline convex. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex or sigmoid. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1.3 mm (shells from Oman) to 2.1 mm (shell from Persian Gulf). Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with closely spaced axial threads and obsolete spiral striae only on latest ramps; sutures usually depressed and moderately wide. Last whorl sculpture grades from a few spiral ribbons at base to variably spaced spiral ribs on basal half.
Ground colour white to bluish grey. Last whorl with a red-brown 'brick wall' pattern of about 16-26 fine spiral lines and irregular, numerous to very sparse axial dashes. Shells with a spiral row of variously sized dark greyish blue or brown flecks just above centre and often within basal third (described as C. boschi) intergrade with shells with large axial blotches across entire last whorl except for subshoulder area (represented by the holotype of C. melvilli). Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with dark brown radial streaks or lines; lines often overlying broad reddish brown spots. Aperture dark violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-32 mm
RW 0.09-0.17 g/mm
(L 20-30 mm)
RD 0.66-0.75
PMD 0.75-0.88
RSH 0.10-0.19
Discussion:-C. tuticorinensis is closely related to C. melvilli. The latter species differs in its wider sutures and the absence of spiral grooves from its sutural ramps. In addition, C. melvilli has a dark violet aperture, a less angulate shoulder, and tends to have a narrower last whorl.
In Oman, shells similar in shape to the holotype of C. melvilli and intergrading in colour pattern with specimens described as C. boschi strongly suggest the two to be conspecific. Shells from the Persian Gulf corresponding with the specimens from Oman in all conchological characters except for a wider larval shell (ca. 2.1 vs. 1.3-1.7 mm) are assigned to C. melvilli.

 

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Conus  memiae  Habe  &  Kosuge,  1970

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Pac. Shell News 1,  no. 1, p. , text f., March. 1970, Venus
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South China Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32.8 x 16.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:-memiae
Synonyms:- adonis Shikama, 1971
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines and Indonesia (Makassar); Solomon Is. and Fiji
Habitat:-Found at depths of 50-240 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually conical to ventricosely conical or pyriform, some specimens broader; outline convex adapically, straight to concave below. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire of moderate height to high, slightly stepped; outline concave. Larval shell of 3-3.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 2.5-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with arcuate radial threads and 0- 1 increasing to 4-9 spiral grooves; grooves usually obsolete on first ramps and weak but definite on latest ramps. Last whorl with spiral grooves, wider toward base and separated by ribbons; spiral sculpture weaker but definite on upper half.
Ground colour white, often suffused with pink, occasionally tinged with grey, beige, or yellow. Last whorl usually with 2 narrow white spiral bands, on each side of centre, showing 1 or 2 spiral rows of brown dots on ribbons, and other spiral rows of brown dots and dashes often fusing into axial streaks and flecks. Larval whorls grey. Postnuclear sutural ramps with fine, regularly spaced brown dots along the outer margin and with very sparse to densely set brown radial blotches. Aperture translucent.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-32 mm
RW 0.04-0.10 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.73
PMD 0.80-0.93
RSH 0.18-0.28
Discussion:-C. memiae closely resembles C. otohimeae, C. spirofilis, C. aphrodite, C. baileyi, C. eugrammatus, and C. wakayamaensis. C. otohimeae has a similar colour pattern but differs in its somewhat larger size (to 40 mm) and somewhat heavier shell (L 27-37 mm; RW 0.1 1-0.20). Its shoulder is tuberculate to undulate, its spire lower (RSH 0.12-0.20), and its last whorl narrower (RD 0.59-0.64) and has spiral ribs rather than ribbons. C. aphrodite has a smaller shell (to 24 mm), without spiral ribbons adapically on its last whorl and without spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps. C. spirofilis is similar in shape, but lacks spiral grooves on the sutural ramps and has a usually lower spire (RSH 0.14-0.22); its last whorl bears many brown spiral lines and may be sculptured with ribs rather than ribbons.
C. memiae can be distinguished from C. baileyi by its broader (RD 0.62- 0.73) and often ventricose or pyriform last whorl, finer dots along the shoulder edge, and often pink ground colour.
C. memiae is also very similar to C. eugrammatus, but it is smaller (to 32 mm) and its last whorl is often slightly pyriform. C. memiae usually has strong spiral grooves on the late sutural ramps, and its colour pattern is more complex, with narrower white spiral bands and spiral rows of brown dots and dashes often fusing into axial streaks and flecks.
C. memiae also differs from C. wakayamaensis in having distinct spiral grooves on the late sutural ramps; the outer margins of its teleoconch sutural ramps have regularly spaced brown dots and its last whorl pattern is more complex with usually narrower white spiral bands centrally
There are minor conchological differences among shells of C. memiae from different geographic areas: In Japan, specimens attain larger size (32 mm); shells from Solomon Is. have a beige ground colour and relatively low spires. The highest variability in shell characters is found in Philippines.

 

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Conus mercator  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 715
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 13.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-mercator
Synonyms:-
reticulatus Born, 1778; aurelius Röding, 1798; reticularis Bory, 1827; lamarckii Kiener, 1845; orri Ninomiya & da Motta in da Motta, 1982; cacao Ferrario, 1983
Geographic Range:-W. Africa Endemic to Senegal
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy, with a low gloss; low conical, the posterior sides convex and then tapered to narrow base; basal ridges; shoulder rounded convex above, not very distinct from spire; spire low to moderate, bluntly pointed, the sides straight/concave; body whorl usually waxy yellowish, with two broad bands of black reticulations leaving oval white spots, the widest band at shoulder, narrower at midbody; base paler; pattern variable , sometimes much finer reticulations covering most of whorl, or with broken reticulations to produce axial flammules; spire yellowish whitish later whorls with body pattern; early whorls whitish/bluish; aperture narrow widening; outer lip thin slightly convex; mouth light bluish white pattern showing through; columella narrow, internal, indented;
Patterns include:
1) Typical with distinct black and white reticulation on yellow or whitish background;the reticulation in two bands
2) Shells with brown ground colour with small white spots forming reticulate pattern over whole shell. Described as reticulatus Born, 1780, reticularis Bory, 1827 and orri Ninomiya, 1982.
3) pattern with off white ground colour and thin reticulate net of brown over whole shell. Named as aurelius Röding 1798.
4) pattern with white ground and wavy brown axial flammules from Zoff area of Senegal is not named.
Discussion:-The colour and pattern of C. belairensis resemble those of C. mercator but C. belairensis is more turbinated, with an almost straight profile; the spire of C. mercator often has a concave profile whereas that of C. belairensis is normally higher with slightly convex profile.

 

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Conus  merleti  Mayissian,  1974

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntypes Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Cat. Nom. Tax. Conidae,  p. 182
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntype in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name merleti

 

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Conus  messiasi   Rolán  &  Fernandez  in Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2, p. 17,  pl. 1, f. 6, pl. 2, f. 6,  pl. 4, f
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Derrubado, Boavista I., Cape Verde Is.; 1-3 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-messiasi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in depths of 1-3 meters, among stones on beaches with scarce quantity of sand.
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension of the majority of the specimens falls between 20 and 28 mm. The silhouette is not very extended, with a width of the upper part of the last whorl proportionally greater than that other species of the islands, showing a quite definite shoulder. It spire is a little high, not stepped, with two to four spiral grooves well marked and has the same coloring as the seashell. This coloring seems, on first impression, to be between green yellowish and greenish light olive. The color has even tones and with two clearer bands, one under the shoulder and another on the lower half of the last whorl. Toward the base the color becomes slightly brownish. The variability is very limited, the pattern of color being repeated in all the specimens. The aperture has on its lip yellow color or clear in an extension of more than 1 mm. Toward the interior, a spot of color appears dark purple interrupted by two clear lines, one near the top end and another in the middle; towards the interior, the color returns again clear. The columela has variable color varying between light rose and violet. The periostracum is yellow, what gives a darker greenish tone to the specimens that possess it.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  metcalfii  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon., i,  Conus,  pl. 36,  sp. 192
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 14.3 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus metcalfii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms

 

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Conus  meyeri  Walls, 1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Pariah no. 5, p. 3
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Genezano, Natl. South Africa
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 24.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus biliosus Röding, 1798
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-biliosus meyeri forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Africa; Madagascar; Mozambique
Habitat:-Intertidal and slightly subtidal
Description:-
Discussion:- form meyeri Walls; South Africa; smaller, convex dome spire and flared aperture; weaker tubercules.

 

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Conus  micropunctatus   Röckel  &  Rolán,  2000

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Argonauta 8 (2), p. 35, f. 72-76
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Lucira, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32.5 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-micropunctatus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Equimini to Lucira, Angola
Habitat:-Under rocks buried in sand, 1-2 m
Description:-Source Original description
Moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, slightly pyriform. Outline convex at adapical half; straight to slightly concave (left side) below. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with 8-10 ribs at base. Periostracum yellow, thin, and smooth.
Ground colour white or bluish white. Last whorl with 30-50 spiral rows of minute brown dots; spire whorls and sometimes base with axial hairlines. Aperture white, occasionally with brown flecks.
Shell morphometry:
L25-35 mm
RD 0.63-0.68
RSH 0.08-0.17
PMD 0.75-0.79
RW 0.10-0.15 /mm
Discussion:-There are some Angolan Conus populations, which might be affiliated to C. micropunctatus with respect to their similar shell pattern. One of them, having a smaller size (L < 26 mm) and orange shade, could be an ecotype of C. naranjus or another valid species. Its punctated spiral lines are very dense and often fuse in continuous lines. Tenorio & Monteiro provisionally separate them from C. micropunctatus. C. micropunctatus may be similar to C. neoguttatus and C. fuscolineatus. The relative diameter of similar patterned specimens of C. neoguttatus is usually larger (>0.70), the number of dotted spiral lines is fewer ( <30) and the distance of dots is larger. C. fuscolineatus differs by it brown, sometimes interrupted spiral lines instead of punctated lines and its greenish white ground colour. The radular tooth of C. neoguttatus is very different: without D in S and without F. More similar is that of C. fuscolineatus but F is usually not noticeable.

 

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Conus  mighelsi   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Figure Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl. 103,  f.1

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 352, pl. 103, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Largilliert and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-musicus mighelsi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E.  Indian Ocean; W Pacific
Habitat:-In 1-18 m, living on rock benches, subtidal reef flats, the reef rim and on lagoon pinnacles. Mostly found on sand-binding algal mats, limestone pavement, dead coral rocks or heads and in crevices of rocks or coral reefs. Somewhat more common in subtidal habitats.
Description:-
Form mighelsi characterized by a broad pinkish red to orangish red spiral band above centre.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  miguelfiadeiroi  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima

Picture Link: Paratype Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 88, p. 3 -4 
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia das Gatas, Boavista I., Cape Verde Is.; 2-6 m
Type Data: Holotype in MMM
Type Size: 35.2 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Probably a form of Africonus vulcanus
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-miguelfiadeiroi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-2 – 6 m on rocks
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of small to medium size (25-40 mm), pyriform, with a low spire which is slightly concave. The whorl tops are lined The protoconch is slightly raised and cup shaped. The reticulate white markings show on the dark brown base colour and are more accentuated in  the middle band of the whorl. The shoulder has a rounded shape The profile of the whorl has a convex shape adapically and almost straight in abapical area . The aperture is wide and  blue brown internally. A strong characteristic is the pattern of the last whorl described above; the very fine reticulation can be found over the entire surface which has a dark brown base colour often washed over reticulations. The overall colour of shell is greenish brown with fine striae covering the back of the last whorl.

Discussion:

Personal comment from Manuel Tenorio: this miguelfiadeiroi is just a local form of Africonus vulcanus from Praia Canto, not only according to radula but also according to DNA.

 

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Conus  miles   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture :Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 713
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: India
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-miles
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-W. Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal, more common in upper subtidal to about 50 m; on intertidal benches and reefs, in bays, on slightly subtidal reef flats and in deeper subtidal habitats. In shallow water on sand or gravel among rocks, on beachrock, rough truncated reef limestone and lagoon pinnacles.
Description:-Source Living Conidae.
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical, rarely broadly conical; outline almost straight at right side, convex at left side and concave at basal fourth. Subadult specimens often with slightly pyriform last whorl. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 3 or more whorls, maximum diameter about 0.95 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave in late whorls, with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves, obsolete in late whorls. Last whorl with widely spaced spiral ribs on basal third and a few spiral threads between; sculpture often obsolete in large specimens.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with a variably broad dark brown spiral band above centre, also dark brown on basal fourth to third. Remaining areas clouded with lighter brown or olive, crossed by closely spaced to well separated, fine, brown to orange axial lines that extend to shoulder ramp. In New Caledonia, shells occasionally have almost the entire last whorl black. Larval whorls and adjacent sutural ramps pale yellow. Later sutural ramps white, with fine brown or orange axial lines partly overlying tan or olive blotches. Aperture translucent, even in large specimens.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-132 mm
RW 0.51-1.50 g/mm
(L 50-99 mm)
RD 0.61-0.75
PMD 0.81-0.91
RSH 0.09-0.15
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  milesi  Smith,  1887

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchol. V, p. 244
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Muscat
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.7 x 7.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:-milesi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Gulf of Oman; Persian Gulf
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-50 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light. Last whorl conical; outline straight or slightly convex adapically and straight (right side) to concave (left side) below. Shoulder angulate, completely or partly tuberculate. Spire high, outline slightly concave. Larval shell of 1.75-2.0 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. Shells of 21-26 mm with 8-9.25 postnuclear whorls, the first 7.5-9.0 tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 2-4 spiral grooves; latest ramps may have additional spiral striae. Entire last whorl with nearly regularly spaced spiral grooves separated by ribs at anterior end and by ribbons above; very large specimens grade to smooth adapically.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with largely separate brown axial flecks, streaks and flames. Larval whorls white. Later teleoconch sutural ramps with partially confluent brown radial blotches. Aperture white, suffused with pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 17-27 mm
RW 0.02-0.06 g/mm
RD 0.49-0.59
PMD 0.88-0.95
RSH 0.29-0.38
Discussion:-Moolenbeek & Coomans (1986) considered C. milesi the juvenile stage of C. dictator. Subadult specimens of C. dictator (L 17-28 mm) are similar to C. milesi in shape, weight and sculpture, and small ones may also be so in pattern. However, C. dictator has a generally lower spire (RSH 0.17-0.26), fewer postnuclear whorls (5.75-7.75), and only the first 4.5-7 postnuclear whorls are tuberculate. The periostracum of C. dictator is thinner, smoother and more translucent. Adults and large subadults of C. dictator also differ from C. milesi by their finer colour pattern with numerous spiral rows of dots. C. lentiginosus can be distinguished from C. milesi by its broader and more ventricose last whorl (RD 0.60-0.69; PMD 0.80-0.89), lower spire (RSH 0.18-0.24), and fewer tuberculate spire whorls (3-5) (Röckel, 1988a; Korn, 1990).
C. milesi has a higher spire (RSH 0.29-0.38) than C. elegans, a broader and more conical last whorl (RD 0.49-0.59; PMD 0.88-0.95), and its shoulder is tuberculate.

 

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Conus  miliaris   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 629
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-miliaris
Synonyms:-
fulgetrum Sowerby ii, 1834; granulatus Sowerby ii, 1834; pascuensis Rehder, 1980
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific, except for Marquesas Is. and Hawaii. C. m. miliaris: S. Africa to Red Sea and to French Polynesia and Marshall Is.
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 10 m. Typical form of C. m. miliaris is more common on intertidal benches of beachrock or truncated reef limestone than on slightly subtidal reef platforms. It can be found at protected or exposed sites, in or on sand, coral rubble or rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium-sized, usually moderately light to solid. Last whorl broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical, sometimes conical to ventricosely conical in Lndian Ocean shells; outline slightly to distinctly convex. In large specimens, aperture often with a distinct median pad and an oblique abapical ridge. Shoulder variably tuberculate, angulate (C. m. miliaris) or subangulate to rounded (C. m. pascuensis). Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex (C. m. miliaris) or domeshaped (C. m. pascuensis). Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.7 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls weakly to strongly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or faintly concave. with 2 increasing to4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with widely spaced granulose spiral ribs basally, smooth or with ribbons separated by grooves adapically. In form fulgetrum, widely set, fine, punctate grooves encircling a variable adapical portion of last whorl.
Ground colour white. Last whorl heavily tinged with apricot-tan or greyish rose leaving only blotches, broad axial zigzag lines, and broad arrow-shaped markings. White blotches fusing into a spiral band at centre and a faint band below shoulder. Variously spaced spiral rows of alternating brown and opaque white dots and dashes from base to shoulder. Larval whorls white, beige, pink or violet-red. Postnuclear sutural ramps with broad red-orange to red-brown dashes composed of collabral lines between tubercles. Aperture purplish pink to brownish violet, with paler bands at centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 22-43 mm
RW 0.12-0.48 g/mm
RD 0.67-0.83
(0.70 - 0.79 Pacific Ocean)
PMD 0.79-0.92
RSH 0.06-0.20
Similar to C. fulgetrum which is usually brighr brown with numerous white obique lines forming axial bands and more developed granulose ridges;
C. tiaratus has contrasting zones of brownish bluish, has white midbody and shoulder and distinct large brown dashes;
C. encaustus is very finely flecked with brown and white dashes/dots and heavily mottled opaque white;
C. m. pascuensis :-lineate variant from Easter Island ;
Body is tinged with shades of olive brown and pronounced light color band without dots and dashes below shoulder;dome shaped spire;
Pinkish rosy specimens from India;
Discussion:-The endemic Hawaiian species C. abbreviatus is closely related to C. miliaris, which is not known from Hawaii and differs in its smaller maximum size (ca. 40 mm), variously granulose surface and intermittent white dashes usually present within the dotted brown lines around the last whorl, and in the colour pattern of its animal.
Compared to C. encaustus,C. miliaris tends to have a broader, often ventricosely conical last whorl, lacks the pronounced brown lining of the shoulder edges, and has the white and brown elements less regularly arranged within the spiral rows. The colour of typical C. miliaris lacks grey, bluish and olive tones.
C. m. pascuensis differs from C. m. miliaris in morphometry of the shell and radular teeth, in some ecological characters, and to some extent in colour pattern of both shell and animal. These differences may be explained by geographic separation, perhaps over a period of 1-2.5 my and by adaptation to different environmental conditions. The differences are balanced by striking morphological and ecological similarities, which strongly suggest subspecies status for the population from Easter Island (Rehder, 1980). The name C. fulgetrum (syn. C. scaber) appears to apply to populations from Japan southwards to the Solomons Is. We tentatively consider this nominal species a form of C. m. miliaris. It is not distinct from typical C. m. miliaris in shell morphometry but differs constantly in the colour pattern of the shell without intergrading. More data on additional aspects of morphology, ecology and zoogeography are needed for a conclusive assignment of these populations as valid species or as form of C. m. miliaris. A form from the Indian Ocean often referred to as C. fulgetrum is actually fairly typical of C. m. miliaris and not intermediate between form fulgetrum from the Western Pacific, as described above, and the typical Indo-West Pacific form.

 

 

Conus  miliaris  f.  fulgetrum   Sowerby ii,  1834

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus., pt. 56-7, f. 82
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus miliaris Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-miliaris fulgetrum forma
Synonyms:-
scaber Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Japan to Solomons
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. miliaris
Form fulgetrum differs from typical C. m. miliaris in the dark orange-brown colouration of its last whorl, with fine brown reticulate lines and narrow crosshatchings, small spots and axial zigzag flames of white. Spiral rows of brown and white dots or dashes are absent. Aperture grey to brown, edged with violet-brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  miliaris pascuensis  Rehder, 1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Smithson. Contrib. Zool. no. 289,  p. 91, pl. 9, f. 21-22
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Hanga Piko, Easter Is.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus miliaris Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-miliaris pascuensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Easter Island; Chile
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 10 m.
Description:-
C. m. pascuenisis may be tinged with various shades of olive-brown and has a pronounced light coloured band without dots and dashes below edge of shoulder.

Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  milneedwardsi   Jousseaume,  1894

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris ser 8, Vol. vi,  p. 99
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aden
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi
Synonyms:-
clytospira Melvill and Standen, 1899; unsure: kawamurai Habe, 1962; lemuriensis Wils & Delsaerdt, 1989
Geographic Range:-KwaZuluNatal, RSA - Red Sea; Typical form
Habitat:-Founds at depths of 50-180 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; specimens smallest in C. m. kawamurai, largest in C. m. milneedwardsi. Last whorl narrowly conical, also conical in C. m. kawamurai and C. m. lemuriensis; outline nearly straight. Depth of exhalent notch about 1/3 to about 2/5 of maximum diameter. Shoulder angulate to sharply angulate. Spire stepped and usually high, also of moderate height in C. m. kawamurai and C. m. lemuriensis; outline generally straight, also variably concave in C. m. kawamurai. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.9 mm. First 6-10 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to concave, often less so in C. m. kawamurai, with 0-1 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be very weak in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably weak, axially striate spiral grooves near base, separated by ribs at anterior end and by ribbons above; spiral grooves weak or obsolete in C. m. lemuriensis, sometimes extending to shoulder in C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira.
Ground colour white, generally with 2 pink spiral bands on last whorl, just above centre and within basal third; bands most prominent in C. m. clytospira, often weak in C. m. kawamurai; latest sutural ramps sometimes suffused with pink in C. m. milneedwardsi. Last whorl generally with reddish brown reticulated lines forming small to large triangular, quadrangular and round markings, and with similarly coloured triangular spots to variably shaped blotches concentrated in 2-3 spiral bands, within basal third, just above centre and sometimes somewhat below shoulder. Larval shell white to grey. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture pink to orangish pink deep within, white to cream in C. m. kawamurai.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-174 mm
RW 0.15-0.53 g/mm
(L 60-110 mm)
RD -
(-C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.42 - 0.46;-C. m. kawamurai and C. m. lemuriensis 0.46 - 0.54)
PMD 0.86-0.94
RSH -
(C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.28 - 0.33;-C. m. kawamurai 0.20 - 0.31;-C. m. lemuriensis 0.20 - 0.36)
Discussion:-C. milneedwardsi may be similar to C. bengalensis. The latter species has a generally narrower and often narrowly conoid-cylindrical last whorl (RD 0.36-0.46; PMD 0.80-0.96), a less angulate shoulder, a usually lower spire (RSH 0.16-0.24) with fewer tuberculate whorls (4-5 vs. 6-10), and broad axial brown lines within the yellowish brown areas of last whorl and spire.
The nominal species-group taxa C. milneedwardsi, C. clytospira, C. kawamurai and C. lemuriensis may be regarded as geographical forms or subspecies of the same species: C. m. milneedwardsi is the largest form (L 80-174 mm). C. m. clytospira is morphologically very close to the former subspecies, differing in its smaller size (L 65-110 mm) and usually more prominent pink background bands around the last whorl. C. m. lemuriensis is similar in size to C. m. clytospira; it is distinguished from C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira by its broader last whorl and its more uniformly reticulated pattern with less numerous and larger white markings, mainly below shoulder. C. m. kawamurai is the smallest form (L 60-81 mm), otherwise not separable by shell morphometry from C. m. lemuriensis, and intergrading with C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira in shell shape and sculpture except for the broader last whorl. Its last whorl pattern varies from densely to widely meshed and includes sparse brown spots to prominent axially fused spiral colour bands. Pattern varieties of C. m. milneedwardsi, C. m. clytospira and C. m. lemuriensis fall within the range of variation observed in C. m. kawamurai. Whether the recent populations of C. m. kawamurai and the Pleistocene C. aratispira Pilsbry, 1905 from Kikai, Osumi (Japan), are the same species, as considered by Matsukuma, Okutani & Habe, 1991, cannot be unequivocally determined (Walls, [1979], Yoshiba, 1990); similarities in shape are not sufficient to justify such a hypothesis.

 

 

Conus  milneedwardsi  clytospira  Melvill & Standen, 1899

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7,  p. 461, 45 f.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arabian Sea, about 125 miles W. S-W of Bombay, 45 fathoms
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 180 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus milneedwardsi Jousseaume, 1894
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi clytospira subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Pakistan - Sri Lanka
Habitat:-Founds at depths of 50-180 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid; Last whorl narrowly conical; outline nearly straight. Shoulder angulate to sharply angulate. Spire stepped and usually high,; outline generally straight. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.9 mm. First 6-10 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to concave, with 0-1 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be very weak in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably weak, axially striate spiral grooves near base, separated by ribs at anterior end and by ribbons above; spiral grooves sometimes extending to shoulder in C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira.
Ground colour white, generally with 2 pink spiral bands on last whorl, just above centre and within basal third; bands most prominent in C. m. clytospira; latest sutural ramps sometimes suffused with pink in C. m. milneedwardsi. Last whorl generally with reddish brown reticulated lines forming small to large triangular, quadrangular and round markings, and with similarly coloured triangular spots to variably shaped blotches concentrated in 2-3 spiral bands, within basal third, just above centre and sometimes somewhat below shoulder. Larval shell white to grey. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture pink to orangish pink deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-174 mm
RW 0.15-0.53 g/mm (L 60-110 mm)
RD - (-C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.42 - 0.46PMD 0.86-0.94)
RSH - (C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira 0.28 - 0.33)
C. m. clytospira is morphologically very close to the former subspecies, differing in its smaller size (L 65-110 mm) and usually more prominent pink background bands around the last whorl, spiral grooves often extending to shoulder.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  milneedwardsi  kawamurai  Habe,  1961

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Colored Illus. Shells of Japan III,  App,  p. 45,  pl. 37,  f. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Amami Islands, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 80.5 x 33.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus milneedwardsi Jousseaume, 1894; we could deal with a valid species in my opinion (PK)
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi kawamurai forma
Synonyms:-
aratispira Pilsbry, 1905
Geographic Range:-Ryukyu Islands
Habitat:-C. m. kawamurai known from rocky substrate in about 50 m
Description:-Note: There is much debate whether this is a valid species or a geographic form of C. milneedwardsi.
Discussion:-C. m. kawamurai is the smallest form (L 60-81 mm) intergrading with C. m. milneedwardsi and C. m. clytospira in shell shape and sculpture except for the broader last whorl. Its last whorl pattern varies from densely to widely meshed and includes sparse brown spots to prominent axially fused spiral colour bands. Pattern varieties of  C. m. milneedwardsi, C. m. clytospira fall within the range of variation observed in C. m. kawamurai.

 

 

Conus  milneedwardsi  lemuriensis  Wils  &  Delsaerdt,  1989

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer

Published in: Gloria Maris xxviii,  no. 6,  p. 105
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Reunion Is.
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 110.4 x 35.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of  Conus milneedwardsi  Jousseaume, 1894
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-milneedwardsi lemuriensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Reunion; Mauritius
Habitat:-C. m. lemuriensis from sand bottoms in 50-60 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Last whorl narrowly conical, outline nearly straight. Spire stepped and of moderate height.

Shell Morphometry
L 60-174 mm
RW 0.15-0.53 g/mm (L 60-110 mm)
RD - (-0.46 - 0.54)
RSH - ( 0.20 - 0.36)
C.  m.  lemuriensis Reunion ; spiral grooves obsolete, spire moderate; broader last whorl more uniform reticulated pattern with less numerous large markings below shoulder
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  mindanus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 711
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: N. of Nellies Point, South Lake Worth, Florida; 46 m
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus
Synonyms:- elventinus Duclos, 1833; rosaceus Sowerby ii, 1834; cretaceus Kiener, 1845; agassizii Dall, 1886; lymani Clench, 1942; bermudensis Clench, 1942; vanhyningi Rehder, 1944; karinae Nowell-Usticke, 1968; iansa Petuch, 1979; bodarti Coltro, 2004; fluviamaris Petuch & Sargent, 2011; vanhyningi, iansa, bodarti and fluviamaris are here listed as valid species
Geographic Range:-Bermuda - Brazil
Habitat:-Normally found at depths of 10 to 30 m where it prefers sandy gravel and broken coral covered with a thin layer of green algae.
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 25 to 35 mm (up to 55 mm in specimens from Bermuda) with slightly convex sides of the body whorl and a typical outline of the spire, i.e. strongly concave whorls, while the spire itself is rather straight and producing an angle of 80 to 90deg. Shoulder angled, usually concave above, body whorl with about 10 rather deeply incised spiral lines near the base. In juvenile specimens the grooves may extend to the shoulder. Aperture widened anteriorly. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, mamillate, early whorls less concave than later whorls, smooth. There are pustulouse forms of C. mindanus which usually have a nodulous shoulder of the body whorl and of one or two penultimate whorls. Also in smooth specimens the shoulder of the body whorl may be somewhat undulate or close to coronate.
Most specimens of C. mindanus have a white, pinkish white, pale orange or pale yellow background often with a somewhat lighter band below midbody, and often with large or small clouds of reddish brown, orange or yellow. In addition there are spiral rows of small reddish brown and milk-white dashes (the milk-white quite distinct even against a 'white' background), but there spiral rows and/or clouds may also be absent. Dark reddish brown dashes may be present on the margin of the shoulder and spire whorls, a second row of more close-set reddish brown dots are often distinguished near the suture, furthermore some reddish brown patches may be found on the spire. In some pale specimens distinct rose- pink spots on the shoulder and margin of the spire whorls are the only obvious markings.
Discussion:-C. mindanus could be confused with C. pusio (which is smaller with a relatively higher spire and less concave tops of the spire whorls), C. anaglypticus (which has a more convex-sided body whorl, rather flat tops of the spire whorls and much smaller granulations on the body whorl in granulated specimens), C. branhamae (which has rather flat tops of the spire whorls and a distinctive pattern of brown axial patches) and various species traditionally associated with C. jaspideus (which have a straight to concave spire with rather flat tops of the carinated spire whorls).

 

 

Conus  mindanus  agassizii  Dall, 1886

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xii,  no. 6,  pl. 9,  f. 8 &  8a
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off St. Croix, Virgin Is.
Type Data: Lectotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.4 x 11. 3mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus agassizii subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-A deepwater species occurring in the Eastern Caribbean and off Brazil with records from off St. Croix, off Barbados and off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Habitat:-Dredged from sand and shell gravel-rubble bottoms at depths of 50 to 250 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell, 25 to 35 mm (up to 55 mm in specimens from Bermuda) with slightly convex sides of the body whorl and a typical outline of the spire, i.e. strongly concave whorls, while the spire itself is rather straight and producing an angle of 80 to 90 deg. Shoulder angled, usually concave above, body whorl with about 10 rather deeply incised spiral lines near the base. In juvenile specimens the grooves may extend to the shoulder. Aperture widened anteriorly. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, mamillate, early whorls less concave than later whorls, smooth. There are pustulouse forms of C. mindanus which usually have a nodulous shoulder of the body whorl and of one or two penultimate whorls. Also in smooth specimens the shoulder of the body whorl may be somewhat undulate or close to coronate.
C. mindanus agassizii differs from typical C. mindanus in being a less heavy, somewhat larger, and more slender shell.  The outer lip is often slightly concave at midbody. Typical specimens from Barbados have a beautiful pink background with darker pink and yellow maculations and with spiral rows of predominantly milk-white dashes. Dead collected specimens from Mustique are white with spiral rows of milk-white dashes. Specimens from Brazil are larger (up to 50 mm) with often brownish maculations and more prominent reddish brown dashes.
Discussion:-The shells that are commonly offered as this subspecies are wrongly identified:

See here: link

 

 

Conus  mindanus  f.  bermudensis  Clench,  1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MCZ Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Johnsonia 1,  p. 34,  pl. 13, f. 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dyer Is., Bermuda
Type Data: Holotype in MCZ deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 22.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus bermudensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bermuda, E. Florida
Habitat:-Found at depths of 5 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell up to 50 mm in length, heavy and smooth. Colour porcelain white with pinkish irregular blotches or bands. Aperture tinged with pink. Some specimens have spiral rows of many very fine reddish dots. Whorls tapering and slightly convex. Sculpture of numerous incised lines which are most visible at base.

 

 

Conus  mindanus  f.  bodarti  Coltro, 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11,  p. 2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 125 km NE Abrolhos Arch., off Alcobaça, Bahia State, Brazil (15deg 50' S, 37deg 57' W)
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus bodarti forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil
Habitat:-On rubble and coral sand bottom at 20-35 meters
Description:-Source Original description
Length: 12 to 16 mm, with convex sides of the body whorl in adult specimens, weak deflection in 1/6 anterior body. Straight-sided spire. Shoulder roundly angulated and nodulose. Body whorl with 12- 14 incised lines, starting near the siphonal canal up to middle of the body. Apex yellowish smooth with 2 to 2 1/ 5 whorls. Spire with 6 up 8 whorls, with medium deep suture, angle 80-85deg.Color body red-brown with grey and white marks, 18-20 spiral cords with interrupted brown and white dots, purple mark on the siphonal canal. Some specimens have yellowish marks. White aperture.
Discussion:-The shell differs from C. mindanus Hwass, 1792 and Conus iansa Petuch, 1979 in shape, spire angle, aperture and color apex. Conus iansa is more wide, has more spiral cords (22 up to 25), and the aperture is widely open near the siphonal canal. Conus mindanus is more slender and smoother, with fewer incised lines near the siphonal canal. Both species live near the continental area, and have not been found on the offshore reefs.
Filmer considers it form of mindanus.
Tucker suggests that iansa, bodarti, delucai, schirrmeisteri are a group of synonyms separate from mindanus.

 

 

Conus  mindanus  f.  fluviamaris  Petuch & Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3),  44
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Delray Beach, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.2  x 8.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According To Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus  mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus fluviamaris forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Florida
Habitat:-Found at 10 m on sand
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, subcylindrical, with straight sides; spire elevated, low pyramidal, with slightly stepped whorls. Body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 8-10 deeply-incised spiral grooves around anterior one-half of shell (holotype with 8 grooves ); posterior one-half ornamented with 6- 7 faintly-incised, almost obsolete spiral grooves; faint posterior grooves more prominent on juvenile specimens, almost disappearing on mature specimens; anterior tip with 5-6 small spiral cords; color variable, from pure white, to uniform pale pink, to intense pink with large amorphous dark pink flarnrnules (as in holotype ).
Shoulder sharply-angled, edged with large, sharp, smooth raised carina; subsutural area depressed and canaliculate due to strong carina.Spire whorls stepped, moderately scalariform, distinctly canaliculate; spire height variable, from low and subpyramidal to high and elevated; color varying from uniform white to pink (as in holotype); protoconch proportionally large, rounded, mamillate, composed of 2 whorls, white or pink in color. Aperture proportionally wide, becoming wider and more flaring at anterior end; interior color varying from white to bright pink (as in holotype).
Discussion:-

 

 

Conus mindanus  f.  iansa Petuch, 1979

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcii,  no. 3,  p. 524, f. 4g & h
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Abrolhos Arch., 2 km E. Sta Barbara Is. (17deg 57' S. 38deg 41' W); 25 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus iansa forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Abrolhos, Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths from 1-25 m.
Description:-Source: Original description
Small, shiny squat, with wide, heavily coronated shoulder; anterior half of last whorl with 8-15 deeply impressed spiral sulci, posterior half smooth; spire elevated with mamillate protoconch; color variable, ranging from white to shades of pink and orange; color pattern composed of series of dots and dashes in close-packed spiral rows overlaid with large amorphous patches of darker color; some specimens greyish-white with bright white color pattern; spire with alternating patches of darker color; interior of aperture white; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow, with small shaggy tufts on shoulder.
Discussion:-Conus iansa resembles no other known Western Atlantic cone shell. In some aspects. such as shell coloring and the coronated spire. The new species resembles some forms of C. otohimeae Kuroda and Ito, 1961, from Japan and Taiwan. Conus iansa may be allied to the Conus magellanicus Hwass, 1972-Conus speciosissimus Reeve, 1848 species complex of the West Indies; this assumption is based on the small shell size and strongly coronated shoulder, Members of this complex are always associated with hard-bottom communities on Caribbean reefs, and the soft-bottom habitat of C. iansa is unusual.
Note that Vink and subsequent reviewers have assigned the name to mindanus complex.
Tucker comments: I do not agree with Vink that Jaspidiconus iansa Petuch is a synonym of J. mindanus. These two differ in shape. Specimens of J. mindanus have more of the shell length made up of the spire. In contrast, J. iansa has a longer body and a shorter spire. Most specimens of J. iansa are nodulose. In contrast, most nonpustulose specimens of J. mindanus are not nodulose. Moreover the nodules of J. iansa project more laterally than do those of J. mindanus.
Tucker suggests that iansa, bodarti,delucai, schirrmeisteri are a group of synonyms seperate from mindanus.

 

 

Conus  mindanus  f.  lymani   Clench,  1942

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Johnsonia 1, p. 35, pl. 13, f. 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dredged off Neillies Pt., south of Lake Worth. Florida
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 17.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name lymani

 

 

Conus  mindanus  f.  vanhyningi   Rehder,  1944

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus,  lvii. no. 3, p. 105
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Pompano Beach, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 10.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: according to Filmer a synonym form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; but I think it is a valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus vanhyningi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-.
It was described as pinkish in tone with pink lip becoming orange yellow in aperture.
Discussion:-Tucker suggests that this is a synonym of C.  anaglypticus, Crosse

 

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Conus  miniexcelsus   Olivera  &  Biggs,  2010

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus 124, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 19.6 mm(Stated width? 9.6mm)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kurodaconus Species:-miniexcelsus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Trawled at 30-150 m
Description:-Source Original Description
A moderately small shell; adult size range, 25-37 mm. High-spired, with both spire and body whorl having a straight outline, making the shell narrowly biconical. The ground color is white, with chestnut-brown spots. On the body whorl there are a series of flat spiral ribbons. Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  minimus  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 87, p. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal Is., Cape Verde Is., Praia do Monte Grande and Ponta do Linguincho
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 7.2 x 3.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-minimus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-At 0.3 – 3 m, rock fissures covered with algae
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small (5.5 to 9 mm) pyriform, with quite high spire with slightly concave almost linear outline; the whorl tops on the spire are stepped, and concave. The protoconch is wide and cup shaped.  Broad white maculations cover the spire  and the much of the body whorl; the shoulder has a significant angle; the profile of the last whorl has a slight convexity adapically and is almost straight in the abapical area.

The aperture is wide with brown internal colouring and with two whitish bands.  Another characteristic is the pattern of the last whorl;  a not too wide band of irregular white crosses in lower part;  The overall colour is brownish green.  15  dark spiral grooves characterize the base of the last lap and  the space between them is reduced significantly nearing the base. In the siphonal area is a dark brown band.

The aperture is wide with brown internal colouring and with two whitish bands.  Another characteristic is the pattern of the last whorl; a not too wide band of irregular white crosses in lower part;  The overall colour is brownish green. 15 dark spiral grooves characterize the base of the last lap and  the space between them is reduced significantly nearing the base. In the siphonal area is a dark brown band.

Discussion:- The new species has some affinity to A. miruchae but has a slightly higher spire; the colours and pattern are fundamentally different and the profile is much slimmer;  and overall it is a much smaller species.

 

----------

Conus miniturritus  Bozzetti 2017

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Copyrights MNHN Paris, France

 

Published in: Malacologia 94, p. 18 - 19

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific

Type Locality: Tolagnaro, South-Eastern Madasgascar

Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 29.3 x 13.3 mm

Nomenclature: An available Name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus pennaceusBorn, 1778

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus f. miniturritus

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:-Madagascar

Habitat:- Found crabbed, intertidally

Small size shell, profile narrowly conoid-cylindrical, spire stepped, of moderate height with a straight outline, shoulder from sunangulate to indistinct, body whorl uniformly convex on right side of apertural view, very slightly concave at the base and convex above on left side. Protoconch flat, eroded, teleoconch of 5 vwhorls, with convex profile. Sutural ramps covered by thick and thin axial growth lines and spiral striae, the siprals becoming stronger in the basal area. Body whorl ground color dark brown, ramps covered by spiral lines of alternate black and whitish dots, three discontinuous spiral bands of irregular blotches overlap the previous pattern, the blotches are white stained shading into bluish in the left direction, bands positioned at the shoulder, central area and base. The shoulder band is partially visible on the spiral whorl sutural ramps with the exception of the first three ones which are whitish-pink stained as the protoconch. Inside outer lip of aperture light bluish.

 

----------

 

Conus  minnamurra   Garrard,  1961

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust. no. 5,  p. 32,  pl. 1, f. 4a. b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East of Botany Bay, N. S. W., Australia; 60 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Eremiconus Species:-minnamurra
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New South Wales to Queensland, Australia
Habitat:-In 50 to 100  m. C. minnamurra seems to be restricted to the warm temperate and subtropical waters of the E. Australian overlap region.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, outline straight to slightly convex; left side concave above base. Shoulder angulate to slightly carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, slightly stepped in later whorls; outline straight to domed. Larval shell of 1.5-1.75 whorls, maximum diameter about 1.1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, concave in late whorls, with 1 increasing to 5-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with closely spaced spiral ribs.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 3 variably solid spiral bands of brown axial streaks and flecks, below shoulder, at centre and within abapical third; intervening white bands may have sparse spiral rows of widely set brown dots. Larval shell white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with rather sparse brown radial streaks and blotches extending beyond outer margins, partially reduced to marginal spots. Aperture white to pale brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-36 mm
RW 0.06-0.14 g/mm
RD 0.64-0.72
PMD 0.86-0.93
RSH 0.07-0.16
Discussion:-C. minnamurra differs from C. limpusi, in its usually broader last whorl (RD 0.64-0.72), non-tuberculate early postnuclear whorls and in its generally fewer larval whorls (1.5-1.75 vs. 1.75-2). In addition, its spire outline is convex to straight instead of concave to almost straight.

 

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Conus  miruchae   Röckel,  Rolán  &  Monteiro,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Cone Shells form Cape Verde Is.,  p. 89, f. 62-65
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal Is., Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 11.9 x 7.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-miruchae
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found near high tide line in small ponds in rocks which are exposed during low tide, often inside crevices
Description:-Source Original description
The shell is small to very small and jet black, although the smaller specimens often present an interrupted light band below midbody. The shell is smooth, except for the usual anterior grooving, which occupies almost one third of the total length of the body whorl. The shoulder is broad and quite rounded, giving the shell, especially in larger specimens, a slightly pyriform aspect. The spire is moderately high, straight to slightly convex-sided and the whorls usually present three clearly marked spiral striae. The inner edge of the fairly thick lip is black, whereas the interior of the aperture is bluish, with some deep violet zones and a slightly lighter band at the shoulder and a second one at about mid-body.
The thought that the population under discussion could be formed by juveniles of one of the already known species has crossed our minds, because of the small size of the specimens observed. However, the constancy of their distinctive features (size, colour, pattern and shoulder profile) allowed us to separate it from all other known Cape Verde species, the juveniles of which are always different from C. miruchae.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mitratus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 738
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-mitratus
Synonyms:-
pupaeformis Sowerby iii, 1870
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific; absent from Red Sea and Hawaii
Habitat:-In 1-25 m, in sand pockets among corals and seaweed and on lagoon pinnacles.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually ovate to ventricosely conical; outline convex. Shoulder indistinct. Spire high; outline convex. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.70- 0.75 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with with 1 increasing to 2-6 spiral grooves and some striae; intervening ribs and subsutural ridge pronounced and often granulose. Last whorl with granulose spiral ribs or spiral rows of granules basally or to shoulder.
Ground colour cream. Last whorl with light to dark brown blurred axial streaks and blotches and spiral dashes. Pattern elements fusing into a spiral band at centre and a similar but narrower band above base. Apex white to cream; shoulder edges of early postnuclear whorls incl. tubercles sometimes with a light brown band. Later sutural ramps with brown radial blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 28-50 mm
RW 0.04-0.10 g/mm
(L 29-45 mm)
RD 0.49-0.57
PMD 0.62-0.82
RSH 0.28-0.38
Discussion:- C. cylindraceus closely resembles C. mitratus in size and shape. The latter species is distinguished by its less glossy and less smooth last whorl with granulose spiral ribs or spiral rows of granules and the stronger spiral ribs on its sutural ramps. The early postnuclear sutural ramps have 1 spiral groove in C. cylindraceus but 1 increasing to 2-3 grooves in C. mitratus.

 

----------

 

Conus  molaerivus  Dekkers, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RMNH  A.M. Dekkers
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Basteria 80 (1-3); p. 77-81 (2016); fig. 1-7
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines, Central Visayas, Mactan Island
Type Data: Holotype in RMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 4.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym of Conus traillii  A. Adams, 1855
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Pseudolilliconus Species:-molaerivus
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-Only known from the Philippines: Central Visayas (Mactan), Samar (Guian) and Mindanao (Surigao)
Habitat:-At 10-20 m in rocky environment in rather shallow water
Description:-shell tiny, almost biconic, with 4.5 convex whorls, well-marked but not very deep sutures. protoconch white. On the first postnuclear whorl a small alternate white and brown line appears just above the suture. On the second postnuclear whorl whitish axially aligned flames on a more cream background; the flames are a little raised and not sharply marked. The whole spire is of the same design including the upper part of the body whorl. On the body whorl the alternate white and brown line proves to be close set lines of which one is apparently covered by the following whorl on the spire. Thereunder about 14-15 similar thin lines which get coarser and broader towards the abapical end of the shell. These lines are a little raised. The alternate white and brown parts on the lines are roughly on the same axial place on the shell which therefore looks like bearing (imaginary) flames. Shoulder rounded, sutural ramp smooth. The part of the ramp that is covered with the white flames is a little bit raised compared to the spaces between them. Mouth slender; widens a little towards the abapical end because of the concavity of the shell.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  moluccensis   Küster,  1838

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representative figure in Kuster, 1838
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2 Lief. 8, p. 121,  pl. 23,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Moluccas
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Küster (1838,  pl. 23,  figs 4, 5)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-moluccensis
Synonyms:-
stainforthii Reeve, 1843; merleti Mayissian, 1974; marielae Rehder & Wilson, 1975; vappereaui Monteiro, 2009
Geographic Range:-W.  Pacific; Reunion - Laccadives
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline slightly convex to convex below shoulder, almost straight below; left side may be constricted near base. Columella often deflected to left at siphonal fasciole. Shoulder with 11-17 small to large pointed tubercles. Spire low in C. m. moluccensis , of low to moderate height in C. m. marielae ; slightly stepped; outline straight to concave, sometimes sigmoid. Larval shell of 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.70-0.85 mm. Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 3-8 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be obsolete on last 2 ramps. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate, sometimes domed. In typical form of C. m. moluccensis, last whorl with granulose spiral ribs at base followed adapically by wide ribbons; ribbons weaker toward shoulder and may be obsolete within adapical third. Form stainforthii with variably spaced granulose spiral ribs from base to shoulder; grooves between with an adapical spiral thread. In C. m. marielae, last whorl sculptured with spiral ribs or ribbons, mostly arranged in unequal pairs.
Ground colour white, often variably suffused with cream or pink. Colour pattern of last whorl variable in C. m. moluccensis: Last whorl typically with orange to red or reddish brown axial flames and blotches, often fusing into 2-3 spiral bands, on both sides of centre and below shoulder; occasionally with traces of spirally aligned dots. In form stainforthii, smaller orangish to blackish brown flecks and axial blotches forming 3 spiral bands below shoulder, above centre, and on basal third. Rows of brown dots and dashes on spiral ribs and ribbons. C. m. marielae with rows of red to orange bars, spots and dashes on ribs and ribbons of last whorl; similarly coloured axial markings located below shoulder and on both sides of centre, occasionally fusing into 2-3 spiral bands. Larval whorls and first 1-4 postnuclear sutural ramps white. In typical C. m. moluccensis, following sutural ramps sparsely maculated with radial blotches matching last whorl pattern in colour. In form stainforthii, following sutural ramps with light to dark brown radial streaks and blotches. In C. m. marielae, teleoconch spire similar to that of typical C. m. moluccensis or suffused with rose or light red brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-60 mm
RW 0.17-0.32 g/mm
(L 40-52 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH -
(-C. m. moluccensis 0.06-0.12; -C. m. marielae 0.10-0.18)
C. m. merleti applied by dealers to specimens from New Caledonia
Discussion:-C. sulcocastaneus has less acute shoulder tubercles, a more regular, more prominent and less granulose sculpture of the last whorl, its periostracum is rather thick and opaque, and its colour pattern lacks orange to red shades.
C. moluccensis is very similar in shell characters to C. proximus and in the colouration of the animal. It differs from C. proximus mainly in its multispiral (3.5 or more vs. 2 whorls) larval shell and in its larger size (to 60 mm).
The original figure of C. moluccensis given by Küster shows the comparatively smooth red variant from New Caledonia or Okinawa. The name C. stainforthii applies to a heavily sculptured variant from Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Is; we consider it a form of C. m. moluccensis. In Philippines, most populations of C. m. moluccensis are somewhat intermediate in sculpture and colour pattern between the typical form and form stainforthii. All these are so similar in their conchological features that they must be regarded as conspecific. C. merletti is a junior synonym of typical C. moluccensis. Morphological differences between C. moluccensis and C. marielae do not justify separation at the species level. The character states that Rehder and Wilson attributed to C. marielae but not to C. moluccensis - scarlet rather than brown colour markings, more tubercles (12-15) on the shoulder and no granules on the spiral elevations - are all known to occur in C. m. moluccensis. Moreover specimens of C. m. marielae with granulose ribs on the last whorl are known. Because of their allopatric distribution (C. m. moluccensis: Indian Ocean and W. Pacific; C. m. marielae: French Polynesia and Marshall Is.), RKK favour subspecific rank for these taxa.

 

 

Conus  moluccensis  marielae   Rehder  & Wilson,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Eric Monnier

Published in: Smithson. Contrib. Zool. no. 203,  pl. 4, f. 10, frontispiece f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Half mile off Baie Motu-Hee, Noku Hiva, Marquesas
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40.3 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a form of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-marielae
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas; Tuamotus; Marshall Islands
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble
Description:- In C. m. marielae, teleoconch spire similar to that of typical C. m. moluccensis or suffused with rose or light red brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-60 mm
RW 0.17-0.32 g/mm
(L 40-52 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH - (--C. m. marielae 0.10-0.18)
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  moluccensis  f.  merleti  Mayissian,  1974

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntypes Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Coquillages de Nouvelle-Caledonie et de  Melanesie,  p.46

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntypes (2) in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 68 x 33 mm  &  62 x 30 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name merleti

 

 

Conus moluccensis  f.  stainforthii   Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Conch. Icon. (1843,  Pl. 1 sp. 1a, b)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon., I, Conus, pl. 1. sp. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-moluccensis stainforthii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Is.
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble
Description:-
The name C. stainforthii applies to a heavily sculptured variant. Form stainforthii with variably spaced granulose spiral ribs from base to shoulder; grooves between with an adapical spiral thread.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  moluccensis  vappereaui   Monteiro,  2009

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Antonio Monteiro

 

Published in: Visaya Sept 2009, 88
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arue, Tahiti
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.7 x 26.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a subspecies of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-moluccensis vappereaui subsp.
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Tahiti
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble.
Description:- A more slender form than the nominate species; higher spire and heavily sculptured body.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  monachus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Regenfuss (1758, pl. 12, fig. 68)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 714
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Regenfuss (1758, pl. 12, fig. 68)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-monachus
Synonyms:-
nebulosus Gmelin, 1791; maculosus Röding, 1798; cinerarius Röding, 1798; contusus Reeve, 1848; vinctus A. Adams, 1854; frostiana Brazier, 1898; barbara Brazier, 1898
Geographic Range:-Indonesia to Philippines and Melanesia
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal; in sand, muddy sand and mud
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline variably convex. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate, occasionally subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 2.5-3 whorls. About first 4-5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to faintly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture weak on latest ramps. Last whorl with rather widely set, sometimes granulose spiral ribs on basal fourth or third.
Ground colour white, heavily suffused with various shades of blue-grey or beige. Last whorl with a nebulous pattern of greenish grey to blackish brown axial flames, clouds and flecks often coalescing into a coarse irregular meshwork. On either side of centre, axial markings denser and emphasized by an underlying greenish beige to tan spiral band; a paler spiral band often below shoulder. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes, with or without intermittent white dashes, cover entire last whorl or are restricted to the basal area. Larval whorls brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps heavily maculated with dark brown radial markings, sometimes with regularly spaced dots at both margins of the ramp. Aperture bluish white.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-70 mm
RW 0.15-0.28 g/mm
(L 35-50 mm)
RD 0.57-0.65
PMD 0.74-0.85
RSH 0.10-0.16
Discussion:-C. monachus is often confused with C. achatinus. C. monachus appears rather uniformly greenish blue, while C. achatinus is more variable in colour and pattern; the latter species has more pronounced dotted spiral lines on its last whorl, more tuberculate postnuclear whorls, a lighter-coloured larval shell, and more prominent spiral sculpture on both last whorl and sutural ramps. Where both species occur together, they apparently do not intergrade, supporting separation at the species level.
Compared to C. striolatus, C. monachus is larger, blue clouds and blotches dominate its last whorl, and its larval shell is brown.

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Conus  moncuri   Filmer,  2005

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Of Sea and Shore 27,  p. 59,  pls. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Northern Bohol Island, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 98.5 x 54 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-moncuri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
The spire is low with a concave profile and dome shaped apex. There is raised ridge or step on outer edge of later whorls. Later whorls are concave with some spiral cords. The off white ground colour has pink tinges and numerous curved axial brown-black strips. The shoulder is somewhat angulate, croosed by brown strips on spire. Body whorl convex below shoulder then straight. The sculpture consists of axial growth marks and some weak, well seperated grooves at base. The ground colour is whitish with pink tones with black-brown squares and flecks in spiral rows. Often the pattern is missing in sections. Two plae yellowish bands with numerous black brown flecks crossing them. Base with distinctive purple brown stain. The body whorl is smooth and usually shiny. Aperture fairly wide and stright; white with purple stain.
Discussion:-Closest to C. litteratus which differs in having a more regular pattern which is consistent. Its purple stain is never on internal side of base in aperture but visible on outer surface and edge of lip on a few specimens.Its apex is not dome shaped.It is generally broader, lighter and normally does not reach the size of C.  moncuri.

 

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Conus monicae  Petuch & Berschauer, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: David Berschauer

Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 47, Issue 3, p. 197 & 198, Figures 1, 3A, B, C; 6C; 7)
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Malmok, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 48.29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-monicae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Aruba Dutch Antilles
Habitat:-Found in 6 m depth, exposed on coarse carbonate sand beneath a filamentous green algal mat, Found in 6 m depth, exposed on coarse carbonate sand beneath a filamentous green algal mat
Description:-Original description
Shell of average size for genus, heavy and thickened, proportionally wide across shoulder, inflated and stocky; shoulders of penultimate whorl and body whorl both smooth and rounded, with broad, slightly raised carina, producing shallowly canaliculate spire whorls; spire proportionally high, protracted, elevated, and broadly pyramidal, with stepped, subscalariform whorls; subsutural areas sloping; early whorls of spire heavily ornamented with 18-20 large rounded knobs; concave spire channel sculptured with 3-4 thin, very fine spiral threads; body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 15-18 very thin, low spiral threads, which become more closely-packed toward anterior end; aperture proportionally narrow, flaring slightly toward anterior end; anterior end of columella with wide, broad cord, producing distinct constriction or narrowing of anterior apertural canal; base shell color pale violet-lavender or bluish-tan, overlaid with variable amounts of amorphous flammules and patches; flammules varying in color from dark reddish-orange (as in holotype), to orange-tan, to dark tannish-yellow, contrasting greatly with the pale violet or blue base color; amorphous flammules and base color overlaid with 52-60 thin, closely-packed lines of dark brown and white dots; edge of spire suture marked with single row of very small, thin, evenly-spaced hairline flammules; spire whorls marked with large, widely-spaced, elongated reddish-brown flammules, which often align in radiating rows; anterior end of body whorl darker purple or purple-tan; interior of aperture lavender-purple or pale lavender-tan; earliest whorls pale orange-tan; periostracum very thin, smooth, pale yellow to transparent.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  monile   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 646
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 70 x 36 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-monile
Synonyms:-
cereolus Röding, 1798; ornatus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-India and Sri Lanka to W. Thailand; probably also Gulf of Oman
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 20 m; on sand bottom with patches of clay and shell rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy. Last whorl conical, outline variably convex at adapical fourth to third and straight below. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline deeply concave with a projecting conical apex of 5-7 postnuclear whorls. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.9 mm. First 7-9 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with obsolete spiral striae. Last whorl with weak to obsolete spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white or cream. Last whorl suffused or spirally banded with pale orange or pink. Spiral rows of brown dots, dashes and variously shaped spots extend from base to shoulder but vary in number and arrangement, often concentrated at both sides of centre. Sometimes dark markings fuse into axial flames or blotches. Base pale orange or brown. Larval whorls greyish beige. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate; late ramps with a varying number of brown radial markings. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-95 mm
RW 0.23-1.15 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.61
PMD 0.85-0.90
RSH 0.07-0.14
Pattern at one extreme whole whorl is covered with squares or traingles of reddish brown and suffused with salmon;
Nearly all white shells with few scattered reddish brown spots and some salmon at base;
Commonly axial flammules connect some rows of squares but usually short;
uncommon pattern the squares are replaced with irregular blotches and narrow spiral bands of salmon.
Discussion:-C. capreolus is easily distinguished by the confluent, fawn axial streaks on its last whorl. C. bayani has a lighter shell with a white base and usually lacks pink bands; brown spiral bands overly its axial pattern elements and the larval whorls are brown. C. generalis has a taller, projecting apex, fewer tuberculate postnuclear whorls, a violet to black base and a pattern of spiral colour bands overlying axial elements that extend over the entire last whorl. C. maldivus has a dark brown to violet-brown base and its pattern consists of continuous to highly divided brown spiral bands with axial extensions into adjacent ground-colour zones.

 

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Conus  monilifer  Sowerby in Broderip,  1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833, p. 54
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Salango. Is., Ecuador
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-monilifer
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Gulf of California to Ecuador
Habitat:-Sand and mud from 20-70 m
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
Normal length ranges from 20 to 40 mm. The lectotype of G. monilifer is a large specimen for the species, measuring 50 x 22 mm. Shell shape is conical with an elevated, slightly concave spire. The spire is slightly scalariform. Sutural ramps may be flat but often they are slightly convex in cross section. The shoulders are angular. Sides are flat except for the shoulder region where they are slightly convex. Cords are absent on the whorl tops. Nodules are present only in the earliest whorls and these are actually flutes along the shoulder angle rather than well-marked hemispherical nodules. They become absent in early whorls. The shoulder is carinate, and the carina can be pronounced in shells that are not worn. The protoconch is paucispiral. Color pattern is variable but rather simple consisting of various shades of brown over a white ground color. These brown markings are exceedingly variable in pattern and color shade. When extensively developed, the bands are solidly brown to tan. Over these brown areas spiral lines of darker colored markings are present. The lines may be interrupted but they are always fairly thick along the longitudinal axis. At the minimum, the brown coloration is reduced to these lines alone with no brown bands or other longitudinal markings. This is the most frequent color pattern observed. Between these extremes, many specimens have the brown bands reduced to longitudinally elongated blotches. These blotches are usually interrupted at midbody. The anterior end is white. The interior of the aperture is white. The spire is often marked by crescent- shaped brown blotches or even nearly all brown colored. In fresh specimens the color shade on the spire is darker than the colar shade on the body whorl. The anal notch is deep. There is no anterior notch. The body whorl is usually smooth except for the anterior third of the shell, which may have spiral ridges.
Discussion:-This species superficially resembles Gradiconus scalaris. However, G. monilifer is lower spired than is G. scalaris. Moreover, spire color shade is darker than body color shade in G. monilifer but not in G. scalaris

 

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Conus  montillai   Röckel,  1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Heldia. i. Heft 2,  p. 61, pl. 9,  f. 1-5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Coron, Palawan, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.8 x 11.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus boeticus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-boeticus montillai forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Palawan, Philippines
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. montillai
Small, light to moderately light. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly ventricosely conical; outline variably convex, left side often sigmoid. Shoulder angulate, moderately to weakly tuberculate. Spire of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 1.75 whorls, maximum diameter 1 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Specimens with granulose spiral ribs from base to shoulder intergrade with specimens with granulose ribs restricted to basal third of last whorl; ribs stronger abapically.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with variably sized brown axial blotches, often fusing into 2 smeary spiral bands within adapical and abapical third. Usually with sparse spiral rows of brown dots and dashes, rarely extending from base to shoulder. Larval shell and a few adjacent sutural ramps pink. Later spire whorls crossed by brown streaks, often partially reduced to brown spots between marginal tubercles. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 17-23 mm
RW 0.04-0.09 g/mm
RD 0.66-0.76
PMD 0.78-0.89
RSH 0.16-0.22
Discussion:-C. montillai is closely related to C. boeticus; however, the latter species attains larger size (20-40 mm). Philippine specimens of C. boeticus have generally narrower last whorls (RD 0.54-0.68 vs. 0.66-0.76), smoother, often subangulate shoulders, and pronounced dots around the last whorl. Form ruppellii of C. boeticus is also narrower (RD 0.72 is maximum value in form ruppellii but mean value in C. montillai), has a white larval shell and a largely black-brown, heavily dotted last whorl with a straighter outline. C. boeticus has a somewhat narrower larval shell (max. diameter 0.8 mm) with 2.0 whorls. More detailed information may support the status of C. montillai as either a valid species or a geographic subspecies of C. boeticus.
Filmer review adds C. montillai does not have spots on body whorl, well seperated nodulose spiral cords.

 

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Conus  moolenbeeki   Filmer,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 39
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: West Negros Island, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32.8 x 14.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Conus Species:-moolenbeeki
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, Indonesia
Habitat:-found in sand and sea weed at depths around three meters
Description:-Source Original description
The holotype of C. moolenbeeki is a medium sized straight sided elongated shell radially aligned and curved pale brown bars on the latter whorls. The shoulder is angulate. The body whorl is very slightly convex below the shoulder and then almost straight before a slight concave outline at the base. The ground color is cream to very pale beige. There are some irregular brown blotches some of which are scimitar shaped. The interior is very pale bluish white with some faint markings on the outer edge repeating the exterior pattern, deeper within the color changes to violet
Discussion:-This species was formerly called Conus subulatus. Revision by Mike Filmer (Visaya) showed that subulatus is another species.

 

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Conus  mordeirae  Rolan  &  Trovao in Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2 p. 25, pl. 1,  f. 11,  pl. 2, f. 11,  pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Mordiera, Isla del Sal, Cape Verde Is.; 2-4 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.8 x 12.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-mordeirae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found on rocky zones with small weeds, at times in the cracks of the rocks that have sand, in a depth from 2 to 4 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Description: Morphology of the shell. The maximum dimension is typically between 20 and 25 mm. The specimen of greatest size had 30.3 mm. It has a similar profile to that of C. cuneolus Reeve, 1844, perhaps with greater tendency to have the shoulder angled and a prominent little apex. Spire is low, is not stepped and always has spiral grooves; their color is white and brown with irregular spots; those of brown color are darker than the medium tone that appears in the remainder of the seashell. The general color gives a first impression of sienna, yellowish or greenish. With magnification, it is appreciated that, on a background of one of these colors, at times with axial lines, three bands with white areas are formed in reticulate pattern that almost always has some dark brown color among them. There exists great variability: the reticulate bands which almost can disappear or be very little evident, or form a larger pattern. The aperture, usually has a dark color inside, with two clear lines; at times, the dark color only appears in the upper part; the lip is clear. Columela white. Periostracum yellow, somewhat rough and relatively transparent,
Discussion:-The species has been included inside the 'superespecie cuneolus'. But it lives together sympatrically with C. cuneolus Reeve, 1844 without forming intermediates. Thus already it represents, according to Mayr (1963), a specific difference between both. On the other hand their sympatric spread is not uniform and in successive samplings it has been shown that its densities of population are clearly different in the different zones of the bay and its areas of distribution are also different. Finally, in the studies in aquarium with other populations of the island of Sal to explore the existence of reproductive isolation, the existence of a barrier has been able to be shown.

 

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Conus  moreleti   Crosse,  1858

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Figure C. elongatus Conch Ill,  pl. 27,  f. 157
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Rev. Mag. Zool. 2,  p. 122
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known. (C. elongatus Reeve, 1843)
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: CI,  pl. 27,  f.157
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. elongatus Reeve, 1843 and C. oblitus Reeve 1849.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-moreleti
Synonyms:-
oblitus Reeve, 1849
Geographic Range:-E. Africa and Maldives to French Polynesia and Hawaii
Habitat:-In 1-50 m, mainly encountered in 8-20 m on reef substrata
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately lare, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical; outline slightly to moderately convex adapically and straight below, occasionally faintly concave at centre. Shoulder angulate, tuberculate to strongly tuberculate. Spire low, outline nearly straight; with convex apex. Postnuclear spire whorls with closely spaced tubercles. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to faintly concave, with 2-3 distinct or inconspicuous spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak, smooth or granulose spiral ribs near base.
Last whorl almost completely yellowish to dark brown or olive, sometimes with a lighter central spiral band. Background tinged with greyish blue or violet. Base and basal part of columella dark violet. Tip of apex usually purplish blue; Reeve reports a rose-tinted apex. Postnuclear sutural ramps either immaculate bluish grey to white or radially maculated with colour of last whorl; tubercles mostly immaculate. Aperture dark violet behind an orange-brown margin.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-61 mm
RW 0.15-0.40 g/mm (L 35-48 mm)
RD 0.52-0.60
PMD 0.85-0.98
RSH 0.03-0.13
Discussion:-C. moreleti can only be mistaken for C. lividus or C. sanguinolentus. These species both differ considerably in their broader last whorl (RD: C. lividus 0.59-0.73; C. sanguinolentus 0.60-0.71) and often have a relatively higher spire (RSH: C. lividus up to 0.20; C. sanguinolentus up to 0.16). The tubercles of the spire whorls are more widely spaced in the two latter species. The colour pattern of the body described above occurs neither in C. lividus nor in C. sanguinolentus. C. lividus has a weaker tuberculation of the postnuclear whorls, and C. sanguinolentus often differs in having a slightly pyriform last whorl.

 

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Conus  morrisoni   Raybaudi G.  (Massilia),  1991

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii,  no. 260,  p. 20, f,  p. 21, 22, f. 5,  p. 23, f. 3, p
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ashmore Reef, NW Australia (12deg 20' S 112deg E)
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.5 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus striolatus Kiener, 1845
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-striolatus morrisoni forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Timor Sea, W. Australia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
C.  morrisoni is considered form of C. catus in RKK.
Red specimens from the Ashmore reef were described as C. morrisoni.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  morroensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 83, p. 17 - 18
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Morro da Areia, Ninho do Guincho, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12.2 x 96.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-morroensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:- the specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 5 meters deep, over and under rock
Description:-
Shell very small (around 12mm ) with pear-shaped profile; spire moderately high; spire slightly steps and sutures visible, slightly concave , almost straight , crossed spirally by 3 furrows; the coloring of the spire is mainly white with yellowish brown streaks. The aperture is modestly large and internally reddish brown, characterized by 2 light bands, almost white , one under shoulder and other placed at the 3/5 down whorl. The aperture is almost aligned with the shoulder, forming a slight angle of 7 deg. The coloring of the last whorl is rather peculiar: fawn greenish with white flecks especially concentrated in a central band and more irregular streaks in a band adapically almost imperceptible. The whole whorl is covered by a score of almost reddish spiral lines,interrupted by white streaks mentioned above.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  moylani   Delsaerdt,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Mike Filmer

Published in: Gloria Maris xxxix,  no. 2-3,  p. 36,  pl. 15,  figs. 5-8 +3 figs
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Makina Passage, E. Guadalcanal, Marau Sound, Solomon Is. (9deg 48' S. 160deg 49' E); 20-25 m
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.3 x 9.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A synonym form of C. papuensis Coomans & Moolenbeek, 1982
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-papuensis moylani forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Solomons
Habitat:-In coarse sand and rubble at 20-25 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell moderately small, biconic,shiny; spire of moderate height; outline slightly concave; shoulder angulate; sides almost striaght; aperture narrow of moderate width, outer lip thin, outer edge sharp and translucent; last whorl smooth or finely ridged; ground colour whitish covered with numerous (25-30) light brown spiral lines; light brown axial flecks on spire; sutural ramps with several spiral striae.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mozambicus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1, p. 696
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Mozambique, (erroneous), corrected (Kilburn) Table Bay, South Africa
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-mozambicus
Synonyms:-
informis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; lautus Reeve, 1844; caffer Krauss, 1848; macei Crosse, 1865; altispiratus Sowerby iii, 1873; rudis Weinkauff, 1873
Geographic Range:-South Africa; Namibia to East London
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell thin and light-weight, moderately small to large (normal size between 30 and 80 mm, but specimens of 100 mm are known). Last whorl conoid-cylindrical, with convex sides and a rounded shoulder (subangulate in young specimens).
Ground color variable, from pure white to bright orange, pinkish or dark brown. The pattern is also very variable, usually in the form of dark brown spiral broad bands, interrupted spirallines of altemating brown and white bars, and irregular axial streaks. Very often the pattem becomes less dense around the mid-body region, forming an irregular band. Completely white pattemless shells or exhibiting a vivid orange color, are not uncommon. Aperture color variable, frompale violet to white, again depending very much on the pattem present on the last whorl.
Discussion:-C. mozambicus, especially the broader specimens with a lower spire, is most similar to C. tinianus. However they are readily separated by the striation and profile of the spire, by the morphology of the respective radular teeth and by the coloration of the animal. For these reasons, Tenorio et. al. consider lautus a mere form of Conus mozambicus and not a geographical subspecies.

 

 

Conus  mozambicus  f.   lautus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 46,  f. 255
Ocean geography: Undefined
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mozambicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-mozambicus lautus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Africa; Indian Ocean Cape Agulhas to E. London
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell thin and light-weighted, moderately small to medium-sized, in general smaller than the nominal form. In form lautus the last whorl is broader, rather ovate in shape, with convex sides and a rounded shoulder. The spire is usually lower, with a straight to convex profile. Sutural ramps as in the nominal form, with spiral grooves. Ground color also variable, from pure white to dark brown. The pattem is very variable, with a strong tendency to show interrupted spirallines of altemating brown and white bars, sometimes contrasting against a reddish brown ground color, providing an attractive appearance to the shell. Aperture most often of a pale violet color.
Discussion:-C. mozambicus f. lautus applies to specimens of C. mozambicus having broad, low-spired shells. Specimens belonging to this form occur more frequently in the Indian Ocean, suggesting possibly an extreme clinal variation. However they co-occur with standard C. mozambicus all along its distribution range, ruling out subspecific status.

 

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Conus  mozoii   Melvin,  1980  A nomen nudum; listed for reference

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: 1000 World Shells 27
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arricife Is, Palawan, Philippines
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as form after 1960
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

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Conus mpenjatiensis  Veldsman, 2016

 

Pictures:                                                                                    
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologis, Mostra Mundiale, Vol. 91, p. 14-17
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Off Trafalgar (31°01.2´S & 30°22.9’E), Southern KwaZulu-Natal Sub-Province, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.15 x 12.99 mm
Nomenclature: an available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-mpenjatiensis
Synonyms:

Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:- Dredged 120 m on sand
Description:- Original Description

Shell small (between 18-22mm), moderately light.  Profile broadly conical.  Shoulder convex, round and smooth.  Spire low, slightly stepped, with sharp, nipple-like protoconch, with a shallow suture.  Thin ridges close to suture on inner part of the spire whorl, evenly spaced orange markings on spire.  The basel last third has very fine ribs around body-whorl.  Moderately broad aperture, with very rounded convex lip.  No markings on shoulder.  The background colour is off-white to light cream.  Orange markings evenly spaced across the body-whorl slightly banded.  In some specimens the orange spots fade.  The basal last third has darker spots then rest of the spots on body-whorl, with a thin orange-brown band at the anterior end
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mucronatus  Reeve,  1843                                                  

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype (figured ?) in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, pl. 37, sp. 204
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Burias, Siquijor & Penay, [Panay ?] Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.9 x 12.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-mucronatus
Synonyms:-
segondensis Fenzan, 2008
Geographic Range:-Philippines to New Guinea, Solomon Is., Queensland, and Vanuatu
Habitat:-Usually in 3-50 m, more common below 20 m. In Philippines, in 120-400 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, almost straight below; left side slightly concave at base. Basal part of columella sometimes deflected to left. Shoulder sharply angulate. Spire of moderate height, slightly stepped, outline concave. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.7 mm. First 2-4 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 0-1 increasing to 5-9 spiral grooves. In specimens from Philippines, New Guinea and Solomon Is., last whorl with variably spaced, axially striate to punctate spiral grooves below centre, occasionally to shoulder, separated by ribs at anterior end and by ribbons above; grooves may contain spiral threads and ribbons may be partially subdivided in 2-3 narrower elevations. Specimens from Vanuatu with a more prominent spiral sculpture from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with evenly spaced yellowish to reddish brown dotted, dashed or solid spiral lines. Axial streaks or blotches occasionally form a spiral band above centre and traces of bands at shoulder and near base. Larval whorls white. Early postnuclear sutural ramps white to brownish beige, often immaculate; following sutural ramps with brown radial streaks. Shells heavily patterned on last whorl and spire intergrade with completely white shells. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 33-50 mm
RW 0.08-0.18 g/mm
(L 34-42 mm)
RD 0.52-0.62
PMD 0.82-0.90
RSH 0.13-0.22
Discussion:-C. scalptus is a smaller species (to 28 mm), its shoulder is subangulate to rounded, the spiral lines on its last whorl are finer and often dashed, and its early postnuclear whorls are not tuberculate. C. alabaster differs in having a lower spire (RSH 0.10-0.14) that is rather flat in the latest whorls, and in more prominent spiral sculpture on the last whorl, consisting of narrow ribs rather than broad ribbons: its surface is usually immaculate white. Sometimes with small radial marking.

 

 

Conus  mucronatus  segondensis   Fenzan,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 11-14
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Segond Channel, Luganville, Espiritu Santo, Vanuata
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mucronatus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-mucronatus segondensis subsp.
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Vanuata
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
The protoconch is smooth. Early teleconch whorls are slightly undulate and angular. Shape of the spire, in profile, is concave. The body whorl is conical with axially-striate spiral grooves between 17-19 angulated spiral ribs reaching to mid-body, and then ribs become flatter and wider to the shoulder. Color pattern of the shell is white to beige with wide, brown articulated bands towards the base. Pattern is interrupted by axial flames and weak tenting, especially near the shoulder. Aperture of the shell is white.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mulderi   Fulton,  1936

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. xxii,  part 1,  p. 9,  pl. ii,  f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mindoro Is.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.8 x 13.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:- mulderi

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; Papua New Guinea; Solomons
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:- C. mulderi is a small to medium sized (25-40 mm), medium weight (RW 1.03) shell.. The shoulder is angulate. The body whorl is convex below the shoulder then relatively straight until the base where it becomes very slightly concave. It has well cut spiral grooves close together at the base these become more spaced towards the center reaching the shoulder in some specimens and becoming obsolete on the upper half in others. The body whorl has a shiny to waxy surface. It is beige to blue-grey with purple-brown spots, bars and flecks which are quite irregular sometimes forming three broken spiral bands, sometimes forming axial squiggles and sometimes absent or very pale.

Discussion:-Filmer 2011 raises C. mulderi to a species, commenting that the true C.  mulderi is quite different from that in many collections. The holotype of C. mulderi in the NHMUK has been considered to be a subspecies of C. stramineus which occurs in the Philippines. It has been confused with C. amplus Röckel & Kom from which it is distinguished by its blue-grey coloring. The true C. mulderi has recently been found off the coast of Panay Island in the Philippines (G. Raybaudi in Poppe (2008)). Its range appears to be restricted to the central Philippines. C. mulderi is in this author's opinion a valid species. It is not the same species as formerly called 'C. mulderi' from the Philippines and found under that name in many collections. The former 'C. mulderi' are in this author's opinion C. amplus Röckel & Kom.


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Conus  multibandatus  Bozzetti, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  L. Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 96, p. 5 – 6, with pictures
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Toliara, Sout West Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN
Type Size: 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species, only known from the holotype
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virroconus Species:-multibandatus
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:- Madagascar
Habitat:- Found inside coral at 5 – 10 m deep
Description:- Shell moderately small for its genus. Profile ventricosely conical, solid look, spire of moderate height with a straight outline, shoulder mildly carinate, body whorl convex on both sides. Protoconch dome shaped, made up by three embryonic coils, maximum diameter about 1.5 mm, teleoconch of six whorls, on the last four a wide groove separates the subsutural area from the shoulder giving a moderate carinate look at the whorl outline. Suture incised, subsutural ramp flat, aperture narrow, wide at base. Outer lip uniformly convex with sharp edge, inner lip mildly sigmoid, visible on the basal area six spiral grooves that run all around the shell reaching the outer lip. Surface of the body whorl smooth with the exception of the basal spiral grooves. Color white, pale grey and deeper grey arranged in  nine equivalent spiral bands, the white ones under the shoulder and on a central area. Fasciole, protoconch and first teleoconch whorls, following coils beige-grey with deeper irregular, alternate blotches. Inside of the mouth whitish on the edge of the outer lip, deep grey within, a spiral white band on the central area.


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Conus  muriculatus   Sowerby ii,  1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 24, f. 1 & 1*
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Masbate, Phillipines
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:- muriculatus
Synonyms:-
laevigata Sowerby ii, 1833; sugillatus Reeve, 1844
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean: Madagascar and Reunion to W. Australia; Pacific: Japan to New Caledonia, Fiji, and French Polynesia
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 70 m; living on coarse sand with algae, and on diverse reef substrates. In some areas, found only subtidally
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; shells of form sugillatus larger than those of typical form. Last whorl conical; outline variably convex above centre, straight below. Shoulder angulate, smooth to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. Early postnuclear spire whorls smooth, later whorls smooth, undulate or tuberculate; tuberculation weaker in form sugillatus. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to weakly concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Sculpture of last whorl varies from smooth spiral ribs at base to strongly granulose spiral ribs on entire whorl; in form sugillatus sculpture weaker and restricted to base.
Ground colour white to greyish white, often suffused with bluish shades. In typical form, last whorl with a variably broad, yellowish brown spiral band on each side of centre; bands sometimes additionally tinged with olive. Distinctly and obsolety banded shells intergrade. Dashed and dotted or solid brown spiral lines extend from base to subshoulder area, varying in number and arrangement. Base, siphonal fasciole and basal part of columella dark bluish to brownish violet. Larval whorls orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with sparse to numerous brown radial markings, sometimes immaculate. Aperture violet at base; remaining area immaculate or external pattern visible within.
Shell Morphometry
L 23-31 mm
RW 0.10-0.20 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.65
PMD 0.86-0.95
RSH 0.10-0.20
Discussion:-The typical form of C. muriculatus closely resembles C. floridulus in shell characters and colour pattern of the animal. The latter can be distinguished by its larger size, lighter spiral colour bands, and light violet size, in contrast to the dark bluish or brownish violet base of C. muriculatus.

 

 

Conus muriculatus  f.  sugillatus   Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Conch. Icon., pl. 45, sp. 247

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. i. Conus pl. 45, sp. 247
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Conch. Icon., pl. 45, sp.247
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus muriculatus Sowerby ii, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-muriculatus sugillatus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 70 m; living on coarse sand with algae, and on diverse reef substrates.
Description:-
In form sugillatus, colour bands of last whorl usually darker, often tinged with dark bluish green or greenish brown. Central and subshoulder band may be overlaid with yellowish brown. Brown spiral lines usually solid. Teleoconch sutural ramps often greenish brown toward apex. Aperture dark violet, with a pale band at centre and subshoulder area.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mus  Hwass  in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 630
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Guadeloupe
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gladioconus Species:-mus
Synonyms:- barbadensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Geographic Range:-N Carolina, USA - Venezuela; West Indies; Bermuda
Habitat:-Rocky shore
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy, dull; low conical, the upper sides convex rather inflated, then pinched in and rapidly tapering to base; body whorl covered with closely spaced spiral ridges heaviiest at base; shoulder roundly angled with low coronations; spire low,sharply pointed, sides concave/convex; spire concave, the margins with coronations; body whorl bluish grey/brownish grey, dirty white at base, midbody, shoulder; usually many brown and white spiral dashes sometimes forming heavy axial brown/white flammules broken at midbody; shoulder white with heavy brown blotches on top and brown spots between coronations; spire whitish with brown spots and lines; early whorls white/pinkish; aperture moderately narrow, uniform; outer lip thin, concave at middle; mouth white with brown/violet bands; columella internal;
Discussion:-Note: the type species of C. barbadensis comprises of one specimen of C.  miliaris and one specimen of C. mus.

 

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Conus  musicus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798,  pl. 322,  fig. 4)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 629
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798, pl. 322 fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-musicus
Synonyms:-
ceylanensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; mighelsi Kiener, 1845; acutus Sowerby ii, 1857
Geographic Range:-Central Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka, Maldives) to Marshall Is. and Fiji, Ryukyu Is. to W. and E. Australia
Habitat:-In 1-18 m, living on rock benches, subtidal reef flats, the reef rim and on lagoon pinnacles. Mostly found on sand-binding algal mats, limestone pavement, dead coral rocks or heads and in crevices of rocks or coral reefs. Somewhat more common in subtidal habitats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small, light to moderately light. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical; outline faintly to distinctly convex at adapical half and usually straight below. Aperture may have a transverse ridge at centre. Shoulder angulate to occasionally rounded, weakly to distinctly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, in later whorls with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak to distinct, granulose spiral ribs at base; sometimes extending to centre or even to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale grey. Last whorl with a grey, orange or reddish brown spiral band on each side of centre; bands occasionally obsolete or fusing into a single basal colour zone. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, varying in number and arrangement. Dark dots may alternate with white dashes or dots. Base and basal part of columella dark bluish violet. Later sutural ramps crossed by brown markings between shoulder tubercles. Aperture pale violet to dark bluish violet, usually with a ground-colour band at centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 14-30 mm
RW 0.03-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.77
PMD 0.78-0.93
RSH 0.02-0.15
Form mighelsi characterized by a broad pinkish red to orangish red spiral band above centre.
Form ceylanensis characterized by variously coalescing brown to reddish brown axial blotches or wavy flames on central area of last whorl, occasionally interrupted by a narrow ground-colour band in the middle; spiral rows of brown dots or dashes restricted to adapical and abapical parts of last whorl.
C. musicus (Pacific) Large black spots between coronations on spire and shoulder; body spots in many spiral rows, rather small, regular; often reddish band or row of flammules at midbody and base, often fused into axial bands; spire sides straight; often granulose to midbody/shoulder;
C. musicus (Indian) small pale brown spots btween coronations, sometimes absent; body spots large, in few rows vaguely axial alignment; reddish midbody band not developed; spire often with convex sides and flat on top; granules limited to base; Indian Ocean Natal to Sri Lanka;
C. m.  ceylanensis has variable brown to reddish brown axail blotches or wavy flames on midbody occasionally interrupted by narrow ground color band; spiral rows of dots dashes restricted to shoulder and base; (Srl Lanka to Thailand)
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  musicus  f.  ceylanensis  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in Naturalis, Leiden Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 636

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: locality coasts of Ceylon Island, (Sri Lanka), neotype locality, Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka
Type Data: Neotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10 x 6.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-musicus ceylanensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sri Lanka, Thailand
Habitat:-In 1-18 m, living on rock benches, subtidal reef flats, the reef rim and on lagoon pinnacles. Mostly found on sand-binding algal mats, limestone pavement, dead coral rocks or heads and in crevices of rocks or coral reefs. Somewhat more common in subtidal habitats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C musicus
Small, light to moderately light. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly ventricosely conical; outline faintly to distinctly convex at adapical half and usually straight below. Aperture may have a transverse ridge at centre. Shoulder angulate to occasionally rounded, weakly to distinctly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, in later whorls with 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak to distinct, granulose spiral ribs at base; sometimes extending to centre or even to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale grey. Last whorl with a grey, orange or reddish brown spiral band on each side of centre; bands occasionally obsolete or fusing into a single basal colour zone. Spiral rows of brown dots and dashes extend from base to shoulder, varying in number and arrangement. Dark dots may alternate with white dashes or dots. Base and basal part of columella dark bluish violet. Later sutural ramps crossed by brown markings between shoulder tubercles. Aperture pale violet to dark bluish violet, usually with a ground-colour band at centre and below shoulder.
Shell Morphometry
L 14-30 mm
RW 0.03-0.11 g/mm
RD 0.59-0.77
PMD 0.78-0.93
RSH 0.02-0.15
Form ceylanensis characterized by variously coalescing brown to reddish brown axial blotches or wavy flames on central area of last whorl, occasionally interrupted by a narrow ground-colour band in the middle; spiral rows of brown dots or dashes restricted to adapical and abapical parts of last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  musicus  f. mighelsi   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figure Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl..103,  f. 1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 352, pl. 103, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Largilliert and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of  Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-musicus mighelsi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Indian Ocean; W. Pacific
Habitat:-In 1-18 m, living on rock benches, subtidal reef flats, the reef rim and on lagoon pinnacles. Mostly found on sand-binding algal mats, limestone pavement, dead coral rocks or heads and in crevices of rocks or coral reefs. Somewhat more common in subtidal habitats.
Description:-
Form mighelsi characterized by a broad pinkish red to orangish red spiral band above centre.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  musivus   Trovăo,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CPAS A. Monteiro

Picture Link: Paul kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Bol. Cent. Port. Activ. Subaq. iv, ser. 2,  p. 11,  pl. 1,  f. 2-2 b,  pl. 2, f. 3. 6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Angola (12deg 32' E. 13deg 26' S)
Type Data: Holotype in CPAS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.3 x 18.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-musivus
Synonyms:-
alexandrinus Kaicher, 1977
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Found on rocky bottom, almost bare of sand
Description:-Source Röckel & Rolán 2000
Shell description: Small to moderately small, solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline convex at adapical third, almost straight below. Left side slightly concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with about 8-10 spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to bluish white. Last whorl with brown axial streaks, branching and coalescing to an irregularly tented pattern. Base may be dark brown. Aperture white or purplish-brown, leaving two light bands at shoulder and centre.
Shell morphometry:
L 20-33 mm
RD 0.60-0.78
RSH 0.06-0.15
PMD 0.74-0.80
RW 0.09-0.11 g/mm
Discussion:-The name C. musivus was replaced by Trovăo (1978), because he assumed pre-occupation by C. musivum Broderip, 1833. Since the spelling is different, the original name maintains validity (Art. 57, 58 ICZN). Some specimens may have an intergrading pattern to C. bulbus, hence some authors supposed synonymity. The radular differences are not significant.
Nevertheless we provisionally accept the validity of C.musivus, as near the type locality of C. musivus, typical patterned specimens of C. bulbus have been collected. If  C. bulbus and C. musivus are the same species, the distribution of the morphs would be irregular: In the Santa Maria-Limagens area C. musivus predominates, while it does not appear on the coast from Benguela to Limagens.

 

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Conus  mustelinus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc (1798, pl. 327,  fig. 6)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers., Vol. 1,  p. 654
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798, pl. 327 fig. 6)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-mustelinus
Synonyms:-
australis Schröter, 1803; melinus Shikama, 1964; zukiae Shikama, 1979
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean: Maldive and Chagos Archipelagoes to W. Australia; Pacific: Japan to Philippines, E. Australia and Fiji
Habitat:-Intertidal and shallow subtidal; on reefs, on sand often beneath dead coral rocks, on rock or in holes and crevices.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl usually conical; outline convex near shoulder, almost straight below. Shoulder angulate, sometimes subangulate. Spire low, outline straight to concave. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. About first 2.25 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, weakly concave in late whorls of some specimens, with 2 increasing to 4-5 weak or strong, often punctate spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base; in subadults, ribs strong and followed by rather widely spaced spiral rows of punctations to centre.
Ground colour white. Last whorl spirally banded with greenish yellow or orange, leaving a ground-colour band at shoulder and centre. Central band edged but rarely crossed by dark brown to black spots and often shaded with tan; subshoulder band crossed by dark brown axial markings. A few spiral rows of coarse dark brown dots may occur on subshoulder area and centrally. Base and basal part of columella violet in juveniles; violet colour sometimes persists to adult stage. Larval whorls and about 3 adjacent sutural ramps white or pale yellow. Later sutural ramps white, with greyish olive to black radial blotches that may extend to subshoulder area. Aperture translucent, becoming opaque and white in large adults.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-107 mm
RW 0.35-0.80 g/mm
((L 55-80))
RD 0.56-0.70
PMD 0.84-0.91
RSH 0.06-0.13
Discussion:-C. mustelinus resembles C. vexillum, C. capitaneus and C. namocanus. C. vexillum attains larger size, has more spiral grooves (ca. 10) on the late sutural ramps, and lacks spiral rows of dark brown markings in adult last whorl pattern. Axial rows of minute brown dots are consistently present in C. vexillum but rarely seen in C. mustelinus.
C. mustelinus often has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.56-0.70) than C. capitaneus, weakly concave late sutural ramps and a less spirally maculated last whorl pattern. Dark brown markings across the central white band and axial rows of minute brown dots are usually absent in C. mustelinus, spiral rows of coarse brown dots occur only at subshoulder area and centrally, and the spiral colour bands consistently lack dark brown axial streaks.
C. melinus refers to a pattern variant of C. mustelinus with spiral rows of dots on the adapical half of the last whorl.
C. zukiae represents C. mustelinus with an unusually dark base.

 

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Conus  mutabilis   Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, pl. 45, sp. 249
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus hyaena Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-hyaena mutabilis forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-India
Habitat:-Common in intertidal and slightly subtidal habitats, with deeper populations (to 50 m) known only from S. India
Description:- Form mutabilis represents larger specimens from India. The type specimen has pyriform shape and brown pattern of many spiral bands.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remain with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update August 2017