Conus  macarae   Bernardi,  1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 6,  p. 56, pl. 2, f. 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-voluminalis macarae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E.  Indian Ocean; W.  Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m
Description:-
C.  macarae refers to specimens with weak orange colour plain pattern which have very weak spiral lines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mackintoshi  Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH  D. Sargent

Picture Link: Paul kersten

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 223; p. 95, fg. D & E
Ocean geography: Western Pacific
Type Locality: off Little St. James Island, U.S. Virgin Islands
Type Data: Holotype in FMNHdeposited and catalogued
Type Size: 13.7 x 7.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mackintoshi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- W.  Pacific
Habitat:-In clean carbonate sand and coral rubble, 10 m depth
Description:-
Shell elongated, with straight sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by sharp carina; spire pyramidal, stepped, body whorl smooth and shiny, with numerous very fine, faintly

Incised spiral sulci which become larger and more prominent at anterior end; aperture narrow, becoming slightly wider at anterior end; shell color pale salmon-pink with variable amounts of amorphous orange flammules; orange and pink base color overlaid with 20-30 very fine, closely packed reddish-brown spiral hairlines and scattered small white patches; shoulder carina white, marked with lines of widely spaced large orange spots; spire whorls whitish-salmon with evenly spaced large pale orange flammules that correspond to carina spots; early whorls and protoconch white; interior of aperture pale salmon-pink; protoconch proportionally very large, mamillate, projecting, composed of 2 whorls.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  maculospira   Pilsbry  &  Johnson,  1921

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad. 73,  p. 330
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known (C. planiliratus Sowerby, 1870)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued  (C. planiliratus)
Type Size: 41 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. planiliratus Sowerby, 1870.
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus inscriptus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-inscriptus maculospira forma
Synonyms:-
planiliratus Sowerby iii, 1870
Geographic Range:-Burma, W. Thailand.
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-80 m.
Description:-
C. planiliratus and C. maculospira refer to shells from Burma and W. Thailand with a rather ventricose and prominently sculptured last whorl, a paucispiral larval shell, and a white aperture.
Discussion:-C. planiliratus was renamed C. maculospira.

 

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Conus  madagascariensis  Sowerby ii,  1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 43, pl. 210 (24), f. 582
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar (Dubious)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-madagascariensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. India
Habitat:-From the infralittoral fringe to about 50 m, more common below 20 m; on shallow-subtidal reef flats, in coarse sand and rubble, often among sea-weed and beneath rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conoid-cylindrical; outline moderately convex at adapical third, less so to straight below; left side often slightly concave near base. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave to slightly sigmoid, with a straight-sided apex. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 3-4 weak to obsolete spiral grooves and many spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs on basal third.
Ground colour white, often variably tinged with violet, sometimes more prominently so at base. Last whorl with a rather fine and regular network of dark brown lines edging numerous tiny to medium-sized ground colour tents. Overlying light brown to reddish brown spiral streaks, spots, flecks or blotches generally arranged in an interrupted spiral band on each side of centre and interspersed with spiral lines of alternating darker brown and white markings. Larval shell white. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white to pink. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-69 mm
RW 0.20-0.36 g/mm
(L 45-57 mm)
RD 0.55-0.60
PMD 0.77-0.83
RSH 0.07-0.12
Discussion:-C. madagascariensis resembles C. omaria and C. pennaceus. C. omaria has a reddish violet and narrower larval shell (0.7-0.8 mm), its aperture is not pure white, and Indian Ocean shells differ additionally in their narrower and consistently conoid-cylindrical last whorls (RD 0.45-0.56).

 

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Conus  madecassina   Bozzetti,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Luigi Bozzettti

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 74, 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Asperella Species:-madecassina
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Species with a shell of small size for the genus, profile conical, spire low, moderately stepped, with slightly concave outline, shoulder subangulate, body whorl sides almost straight. Aperture uniformly narrow, body whorl walls smooth with the exception of thick axial growth striae, and 4 spiral basal grooves. Background colour white, last whorl evenly covered by spiral rows of orange/brownish dots, sometimes fused in axial flames and blotches and forming one irregular, interrupted spiral band on the anterior third.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  magdalenae   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 293,  pl. 69,  f. 4

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 54 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus floccatus Sowerby, 1841
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-floccatus magdalenae forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Japan to Solomons and New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-80 m; from lagoon pinnacles to the outer side of barrier reefs, living in sand pockets and caves, beneath rocks and on diverse reef substrate
Description:-
C. magdalenae refers to the yellow colour form of C. floccatus, and C. circumsignatus seems to be based on a subadult shell of the same shape and similar colour with prominent dark blotches and spiral rows on its last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  magellanicus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers.,  Vol. 1,  p. 633
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Strait of Magellan [erroneous]
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus
Synonyms:-
maculiferus Sowerby ii, 1833; ornatus Sowerby ii, 1833; cidaris Kiener, 1845; colombianus Petuch, 1987; hilli Petuch, 1990
Geographic Range:-Martinique, Guadeloupe
Habitat:-Found at depths of 1-6 m
Description:-Source Vink
The type specimen (26 x 15 mm) is light yellow with a white shoulder and a white midbody band, both with scalloped edges. In addition there are scattered brown dots and markings. The spire is very low (and deformed in this specimen), the shoulder roundly angled with obsolete coronation, the body whorl smooth.
The colour pattern is quite variable: shells can be yellow, red or red brown. In addition to a white mid-body band there often are longitudinal white 'flames'; other specimens are nearly entirely red. Various shells have spiral rows of very small dots. Most of the cones pictured are juvenile specimens of nearly 16 mm length with about 15 small but distinct nodules on the shoulder of the body whorl. Adult specimens of some 25 mm length have a very short spire, the coronation becomes obsolete. Walls (1979) erroneously identified C. flavescens Sowerby, 1834 from Florida with C. magellanicus
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magellanicus   f.  colombianus  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas. p. 114, pl. 17, f. 11 & 12
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Islas del Rosario, Colombia; 35 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magellanicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus colombianus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Colombia
Habitat:-Found around 35m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus, stocky, broad across shoulder; spire low, flattened; shoulder sharp-angled; body whorl smooth, with 10 small spiral cords around anterior end; spire with 4 spiral threads; shell pale yellow with 4 closely- spaced brown lines around body whorl just below {anterior of) mid- body; brown flammules and white blotches run through 4 lines and extend over anterior tip; body whorl above (posterior of)   mid- body line without markings or pattern; spire marked with large, evenly-spaced orange-tan flammules; spire flammules extend onto sharp edge of shoulder, giving shoulder checkered appearance; interior of aperture white.
Discussion:-Filmer has as synonym of C. magellicanus but Western Atlantic DB has as synonym of C. amphiurgus.
Although dead- collected and quite faded, enough characteristics remain to show that Conus colombianus is quite different from any other known Caribbean cone shell. In shape, and in having a smooth, sharp-angled shoulder, it somewhat resembles C. mayaguensis Usticke from Puerto Rico (endemic to that island), but differs in having a two-toned color pattern, with an unpatterned posterior half and a flammuled and lined anterior half. Conus colombianus appears to belong to the C. magellanicus Hwass species complex and is the only species of the group to have such a two-toned color pattern. A fresh specimen would probably be orange with darker orange- brown markings. This new species may be endemic to the coral reef areas around the archipelago of the Islas del Rosario.
Tucker suggests a grouping with C.  havanensis.

 

 

Conus  magellanicus  f.  hilli  Petuch,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2), p. 68, f. 36 &  37
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Portobelo, Panama.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: According to Filmer a synonym form of Conus magellanicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magellanicus hilli forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Panama
Habitat:-Found at depths around 25 m
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell stocky, broad across shoulder; spire low, flattened; shoulder sharply-angled, subcarinated; shoulder and spire whorls obsoletely coronated, with low, evenly-spaced undulations along periphery; body whorl very smooth, polished, shiny; anterior tip with 10 small, slightly raised spiral cords; shell color deep purple-blue with blotchy, light blue band around midbody; light blue midbody band marked with 4 rows of tiny, closely-spaced reddish-brown dots; spire whorls white with evenly-spaced, large dark brown crescent-shaped flammules; protoconch mammillate. protracted, light orange in color; aperture narrow, purple within.
Discussion:-Conus hilli is most similar to, and apparently is a close relative of, Conus kulkulcan Petuch, 1980 from the Bay Islands of Honduras. The new species differs from C. kulkulcan, however, in having a lower, flatter spire, and in having a squatter, less elongated shape. The spire whorls and shoulder of C. kulkulcan are marked with numerous fine, dark brown hairlines, but these are absent on C. hilli. Conus kulkulcan is also a textured shell, having spiral rows of tiny pustules around the body whorl. Conus hilli, on the other hand, is an untextured shell, having a highly polished, shiny body whorl. Conus hilli forms an interesting species trio with closely-related Honduran and Colombian species. This complex, then, includes C. kulkulcan from Honduras, C. hilli from Panama, and C. colombianus Petuch, 1987 from northern Colombia. Other related species in this close-knit Caribbean complex include C. jucundus Sowerby,1887 (= C. abbotti Clench, 1942) and C. inconstans E. A. Smith, 1877 from the Bahamas, C. arangoi Sarasua, 1977 from Cuba, Cay Sal, and Turks and Caicos, C. cardinalis Hwass, 1792, mayaguensis Nowell-Usticke, 1968 from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, C. harasewychi Petuch, 1987 from Palm Beach, Florida, and possibly C. abrolhosensis Petuch, 1987 from the Abrolhos Archipelago of Brazil.
John Tucker proposes that this is a species close to C. arangoi.

 

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Conus magister  Doiteau, 1981

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Rossiniana no. xiii, p. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia; 20 m on muddy bottom
Type Data: Lectotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 97 x 51 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus crocatus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-crocatus magister forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Noumea, New Caledonia
Habitat:-Reported from from about 20 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. crocatus
Shell Morphometry
L - (-form magister 70-110 mm)
RW –

RD -(-form magister 0.55-0.64)
Discussion:-RKK consider C. magister to represent a large local form of C. crocatus from the Noumea area, New Caledonia.

 

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Conus  magnificus  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, pl. 6, sp. 32
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Matnog, Island of Luzon, Philippines
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 91.7 x 42.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-magnificus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Okinawa, Philippines, Solomon Is., Queensland (Low Is.), Tahiti, Marquesas, Samoa, and Marshall Is.
Habitat:-In 5-50 m; on lagoon pinnacles, reef flats and the outer slope of reefs, in sand or rubble often beneath rocks, or in caves.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid. Last whorl usually conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical or conical; outline slightly convex to straight, convex below shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, sometimes indistinct. Spire of moderate height; outline slightly concave to straight, with domed early postnuclear whorls. Larval shell multispiral and projecting, maximum diameter 0.6-0.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, often slightly concave in late whorls, with numerous obsolete spiral striae. Last whorl with closely spaced, rather weak spiral ribs basally and spiral threads above; surface with a high gloss.
Ground colour white, suffused with red. Last whorl overlaid with brown to red brown, leaving many tiny to medium-sized, separate or overlapping tentlike to rounded ground-colour markings; tents concentrated in 3-4 axial bands from base to shoulder, and in 3 spiral bands, below shoulder, below centre, and near base. Some shells with a rather regular network of brown lines and few small brown blotches. Brown zones interspersed with dark brown spiral lines articulated with small white dots or tents. Larval whorls and first postnuclear sutural ramps pinkish violet. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-92 mm
RW 0.30-0.71 g/mm
(L 55-76 mm)
RD 0.49-0.60
PMD 0.75-0.90
RSH 0.13-0.19
Discussion:-C. episcopatus is so similar to C. magnificus in shell characters and body colouration that they cannot always be unequivocally distinguished and are often considered conspecific. The latter species differs in having a finer reticulate pattern on the last whorl with a larger proportion of small ground-colour tents and in a usually higher spire (RSH 0.13-0.19). In the Pacific, where both species occur sympatrically, C. episcopatus lacks pink shades in the ground colour and the surface of its shell has a lower gloss. RKK therefore  provisionally favour the status of separate species.

 

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Conus  magnottei   Petuch,  1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 75,  pl. 12, figs. 7 &  8
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Roatan Island. Honduras; 2 m
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-magnottei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Caribbean
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell small for genus, squat in form; spire low, smooth, without coronations; body whorl smooth, shiny, without sculpturing; anterior tip with few small, low cords; color bright purplish-pink to lilac, with numerous white patches and flammules; white or pale pink band around mid-body; holotype with band of dark brown and white patches around mid- body; spire white, with some specimens having scattered dark brown flammules (such as holotype); protoconch and early whorls bright pink; interior of aperture purple.
Discussion:-Conus magnottei is closest to C. kirkandersi from Cozumel Is., but differs in lacking the corded sculpturing of C. kirkandersi and by having a bright pink or lilac color pattern instead of white and brown-banded one. Conus magnottei is endemic to Roatan Is. John Tucker suggests that it is synonym of C hennequini.

 

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Conus  magus  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Neotype in ZIUU Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 716
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Neotype in ZIUU deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus
Synonyms:-
raphanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; caesius Röding, 1798; carinatus Swainson, 1822; indicus Küster, 1838; metcalfii Reeve, 1843; ustulatus Reeve, 1844; epistomium Reeve, 1844; boivini Kiener, 1845; fucatus Reeve, 1849; assimilis A. Adams, 1854; circae Sowerby ii, 1858; rollandi Bernardi, 1860; consul Boivin, 1864; frauenfeldi Crosse, 1865; signifer Crosse, 1865; borneensis Sowerby ii, 1866; tasmaniae Sowerby ii, 1866; epistomioides Weinkauff, 1875; ambaroides Shikama, 1977;  fulvobullatus da Motta, 1982; cernohorskyi da Motta, 1983
Geographic Range:-Indonesia to Japan and to the Marshall Is., Wallis and Fiji
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal; juveniles sometimes in 100 m and more. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy; relative weight varies in specimens of similar size by 50% within the same population. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical, or narrowly conical to ventricosely conical, sometimes narrowly ovate to ovate; outline almost straight to evenly convex. Aperture variably wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to convex. Larval shell of 1.75-2.0 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. First 3-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to often concave in last whorl, with 1- 2 increasing to 4- 7 spiral grooves; latest ramps often with punctate grooves, sometimes only 2 of them distinct. Last whorl usually with weak spiral ribs at base and finer wrinkled elevations above. Closely set axial threads sometimes produce a minute granulation on basal ribs.
Ground colour sometimes blue or pink, usually white but often grading to yellow or tan. Last whorl with one adapical and one abapical spiral colour band, dashed and dotted spiral lines and irregular axial streaks, flames or blotches.
Colour bands and axial markings pink, orange, olive, greenish to bluish grey or shading from yellow to dark brown or black; spiral bands and axial markings either of the same or different colour. Bands vary considerably in width, ranging from completely absent to leaving remnants of ground colour only at centre, shoulder and base; axial markings varying considerably either set off from or merging with spiral bands. Spiral rows of brown to black dots and dashes vary from absent to numerous and pronounced, often with intermittent light dots and dashes. Pattern ranges from monochrome to multicoloured, heavily patterned shells intergrade with immaculate white shells. Larval whorls and a few of adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps white to beige, pink or brown; colour may vary considerably within population. Late sutural ramps sparsely to heavily marked with radial lines, streaks or blotches, usually matching pattern of last whorl in one or two of its major colours. Aperture white, occasionally pale pink or with brown blotches.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-94 mm
RW 0.10-0.83 g/mm
(L 30-89 mm)
RD 0.47-0.69
(0.47 form epistomium; 0.57-0.69 form cernohorskyi)
PMD 0.72-0.91
RSH 0.05-0.19
Discussion:- C. magus is often very similar to C. consors and sometimes similar to C. fischoederi. C. magus and C. consors often cannot be distinguished by shape, sculpture or colour pattern of the shell. C. consors is usually larger
(51-118 rnm), and it differs in its multispiral (about 3 whorls) larval shell, as would be expected in a species with a smaller egg and planktonic larva. Shells of C. consors with beige to brown larval shells can be separated for similar shells of C. magus by this character. In addition, the spiral ribs on the sutural ramps are usually weaker in C. consors. Very close to C. consors in colour pattern is C. magus form raphanus, but the latter can easily be distinguished by its pink apex and yellow and olive dots on the adjacent post-
nuclear sutural ramps. Specimens of C. fischoederi with a reduced reticulate pattern resemble similarly patterned forms of C. magus. The latter shells are less ventricose and have a more angulate shoulder; their pattern shows no remnants of a meshwork and tents. es.
In Indonesia and Philippines, C. magus is characterized by a remarkable conchological divergence between separate populations, while the species is rather uniform from New Caledonia to Queensland. Within the same population,
C. magus may be either largely uniform or fairly variable in shell morphology The taxonomic status of most nominal species assigned to C. magus therefore remains hypothetical and disputed.RKK consider the following as forms:
-C. ambaroides : Last whorl reddish brown, with white axial flecks at centre; based on a subadult specimen.
-C. assimilis : Last whorl ventricosely conical. Known from various localities.
-C. carinatus : Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical or yentricosely conical. Ground colour white to tan. Colour pattern comparatively uniform, consisting of spiral bands and lines and axial streaks in various shades of brown. Known from Philippines (Sulu Sea, S.Luzon).
-C. cernohorskyi : Moderately small to medium- sized, moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; surface comparatively rough. Larval whorls consistently pink. Although this variant attains broader last whorls than all other fonus of C. magus, the overlap in relative diameter allows no clear separation; neither do the differences in surface sculpture. Known from various Philippine localities. RKK consider it a infrasubspecific form but perhaps it is a sibling species. C. cernohorskyi may be a synonym of C. metcalfii.
C. circae: Similar to C. raphanus in shell shape, but last whorl often less inflated below shoulder and grading to ventricosely conical. Known from New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands.
C. consul : Essentially similar to C. assimilis and C. fulvobullatus.
-C. epistomium: Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical; pattern similar to that of C. raphanus.
-C. frauenfeldi : In small specimens, last whorl conical to ventricosely conical. Pattern consists of blackish-brown axial flames and dotted or dashed spiral lines; spiral lines sometimes sparse, often with intermittent white dots and dashes. In E. Sumatra shells almost matching the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi occur and also intergrade with typical C. magus. They differ from the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi in an orange to brown instead of white to pink apex; however this difference is in the range of variability of C. magus. We therefore consider C. frauenfeldi a form of C. magus; the type locality 'Madagascar' needs to be conirmed.
-C..fulvobullatus: Essentially similar to C. assimilis.
-C. metcalfii: Relatively small and stout. Last whorl with yellow and dark brown to black blotches. Probably the same variant as C. cernohorskyi.
-C. raphanus: Shell relatively solid. Last whorl conical, usually more inflated below shoulder in adult specimens than in other forms of C. magus. Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral
bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Known from various localities in Indonesia and Philippines.
-C. rollandi: Last whorl white with red-brown flames and axial streaks.
-C. signifier: Last whorl tinged with reddish brown, with white flecks at centre and below In Fiji, this colour form lives sympatrically with other colour variants.
-C. tasmaniae: Last whorl comparatively narrow, with brown axial streaks.
-C. ustulatus : Last whorl with closely set spiral ribs from base to shoulder and 2 broad pale yellow spiral bands. Known from the Louisiade Archipelago (Solomon Sea) and Palawan, Philippines. Specimens from Papua New Guinea, sometimes erroneously called 'C. melancholicus Lamarck' (see Marsh & Rippingale, 1964): Last whorl narrowly ovate to ovate, with light to dark brown axial streaks and flames. Aperture comparatively wide. These specimens represent a geographic variant or a closely related species. RKK  regard the following as synonyms of C. magus rather than forms: C. caesius, C .fucatus , C. borneensis, and C. epistomioides (based on a subadult specimen).

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  assimilis  A.  Adams,  1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, pt. 21, no.255, p. 118
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Australia
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 27.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus assimilis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific, Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. assimilis: Last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  carinatus  Swainson,  1822

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Ill. ii pl. 112.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Swainson (1822,  pl. 112)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus carinatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus
C. carinatus: Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical or ventricosely conical. Ground colour white to tan. Colour pattern comparatively uniform, consisting of spiral bands and lines and axial streaks in various shades of brown. Known from Philippines (Sulu Sea, S.Luzon).
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  cernohorskyi  da Motta,  1983

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 2,  p. 2, figs. 10 & 13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Borogon, Samar Oriental, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.4 x 26.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus cernohorskyi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. magus

C. cernohorskyi: moderately small to medium- sized, moderately solid. Last whorl usually ventricosely conical; surface comparatively rough. Larval whorls consistently pink. The type specimen is probably sub adult; white with axial flammules of dark brown.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  circae  Sowerby ii, 1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in Cuming collection Thes. Conch. pl. 21 (207), f. 513 & 514

Picture link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 39,  pl. 21 (207), f. 513 & 514. and pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype was in Cuming collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 52 x 26 fig.
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus circae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Solomons
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C.magus
C. circae: Type figures show conical shaped form white with tan or orange brown background with dark brown blotches and broken dark brown spiral lines.

Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  epistomioides  Weinkauff,  1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LMD Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2, Lief. 233, p. 315,  pl. 57,  f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Africa (dubious)
Type Data: Lectotype in LMD deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomioides forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
The type is a subadult specimen of C. magus; white with tan/yellow blotches and some white dots in blotches.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  epistomium  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 42,  sp. 227
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mauritius (erroneus)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.2 x 21.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus epistomium forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Mauritius
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
-C. epistomium : Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical; Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Pattern, similar to that of C. raphanus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  frauenfeldi   Crosse,  1865

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. xiii,  p. 307,  pl. x,  f. 1 & 1a
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar (erroneus), corrected to Padang, South West Sumatra, East Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.2 x 23.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus  magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus frauenfeldi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. magus
C .frauenfeldi: In small specimens, last whorl conical to ventricosely conical. Pattern consists of blackish-brown axial flames and dotted or dashed spiral lines; spiral lines sometimes sparse, often with intermittent white dots and dashes. In E. Sumatra shells almost matching the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi occur and also intergrade with typical C. magus. They differ from the type specimens of C. frauenfeldi in an orange to brown instead of white to pink apex; however this difference is in the range of variability of C. magus.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  fulvobullatus  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 1,  p. 13, f. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off east coast of Malaysia
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.5 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus fulvobullatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. fulvobullatus: Essentially similar to C. assimilis. i.e. last whorl ventricosely conical. Greyish blue and white clouds with spiral lines of alternating brown white dashes. Spire white with brown markings.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus magus   f.  metcalfii Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figured syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 36,  sp. 192
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 14.3 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus metcalfii forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal; juveniles sometimes in 100 m and more. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. metcalfii : Relatively small and stout. Last whorl with yellow tan blotches. Type is pustulose.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  raphanus   Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 722
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 61 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus raphanus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
C. raphanus: Shell relatively solid. Last whorl conical, usually more inflated below shoulder in adult specimens than in other forms of C. magus. Ground colour white. Pattern consists of yellow to light brown spiral bands, brown axial streaks of varying prominence, and dotted yellow to brown spiral lines either on entire last whorl or restricted to colour bands. Known from various localities in Indonesia and Philippines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  magus  f.  rollandi   Bernardi,  1860

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchyl. viii,  p. 332,  pl. xii, f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus rollandi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
No Data
Description:-
Form rollandi is white with reddish brown axial blotches
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus magus f. ustulatus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus,  pl. 44, sp. 239
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Holland (Australia)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus ustulatus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo Pacific: Known from the Louisiade Archipelago (Solomon Sea) and Palawan, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and upper subtidal. A sand-dweller on coral reef and in sheltered bays, often beneath rocks and dead coral.
Description:-
Last whorl with closely set spiral ribs from base to shoulder and two broad pale yellow spiral bands.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  mahogani  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 22, sp. 126
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Salango. Is., Ecuador
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 18.5 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Ximeniconus Species:-mahogani
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Gulf of california to Peru; Galapagos Islands
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
Normal length ranges between 20 and 40 mm. The body whorl has an elongated conical body. The spire is low to moderate, slightly concave in profileThe color pattern is variable and consists of two elements over a white ground color. This ground color is covered by dark brown markings in two bands. The interior of the aperture is blue white. The spire is also colored. The coloration consists of dark brown blotches. These may cross the shoulder angle. The color shade on the whorl tops is about the same shade as the blotches and bars in the bands. There is no spiral row of brown dots on the inner margin of the spire whorl tops.. The body whorl is sulcate. These sulci can be restricted to the anterior third of the shell or can nearly reach the shoulder. There are on some specimens rows of pustules between the sulci.
Discussion:-The whorl tops of X. ximenes have two rows of small dots on them. One borders the shoulder angle and the other is at the suture with the preceeding whorl. In contrast, X. mahogani does not have this second row of spots on the suture with the previous whorl.

 

----------

 

Conus  maioensis  Trovăo,  Rolán  &  Felix-Alves,  1990

 

Picture Link: Neotype in MNCN António Monteiro

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 15, p. 71, f. 11; Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 3 with pictures
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia do Navio Quebrado, North of Maio Id., Cabo Verde Archpelago
Type Data: Holotype was in MBL and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 36.3 x 22.6 mm; neotype: 24.5 mm deposed and catalogued
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-maioensis
Synonyms:-
marcocastellazzii  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014; zinhoi  Cossignani, 2014; see Discussion
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Conus maioensis Trovăo, Rolán & Feliz-Alves, 1990 (Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., 1990, p. 69) - Holotype 36.3mm in length; shell dark brown with a midbody band of large, irregular, bluish blotches. It was at first considered a form of C. irregularis Sowerby, but differs in having a more raised spire, with a preponderance of light colored blotches. C. irregularis has the same color spire as the ground color of the body whorl. The authors have also found interspecific differences in the egg capsules of the two species, which have been found living sympatrically at Maio Is., Cape Verde, the type locality of the new species.
Discussion:-Monteiro, Afonso & Rosa conclude that the holotype has been lost.It cannot be found I the Museu Bocage (currently Museu de História Natural e da Cięnca) in Lisbon. They designate a neotype for the species; Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 3.

 

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

 

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Conus  malacanus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 325, fig. 9)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. vol. 1,  p. 645
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Strait of  Malacca
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798,  pl. 325 fig. 9)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Stellaconus Species:-malacanus
Synonyms:-
canaliculatus Dillwyn, 1817; subcarinatus Sowerby ii, 1865; cuneatus Sowerby iii, 1873
Geographic Range:-SE Asia; Bay of Bengal
Habitat:-In 5-55 m, mainly on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Usually medium-sized to moderately large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical; outline variably convex at adapical third, straight below. Shoulder carinate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to straight or sigmoid. Maximum diameter of larval shell 0.9-1 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, later whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave or sigmoid, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; on latest ramps, grooves weaker and with additional spiral striae. Last whorl with distinct or weak spiral ribs and ribbons at base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl usually with 2 variably broad, continuous or interrupted brown spiral bands, leaving ground- colour zones below shoulder, at centre and at base. White bands usually interspersed with dark brown axial streaks and flames and occasionally with additional brown spiral lines. Dashed dark brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder but vary in number and arrangement. Pattern very variable; largely white shells intergrade with shells overlaid with various shades of brown and shells with primarily spirally arranged pattern intergrade with shells with axial arrangement. Larval whorls pale orange. Later sutural ramps with very sparse to numerous brown markings; intensity of maculation not correlated with last whorl pattern. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-83 mm
RW 0.35-1.13 g/mm
(L 45-85 mm)
RD 0.65-0.74
PMD 0.81-0.92
RSH 0.10-0.17
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  malcolmi  Monnier & Limpalaër, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Eric Monnier

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 7, p. 18-21, fig. 5; Pl. on p. 25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South Tower Reef, near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, East coast of the Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.90 x 20.60 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-malcomi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Red Sea
Habitat:-
Description:-Original Description
Medium sized shells. The shape is conical with adapically convex sides becoming straight anteriorly. The shoulder is ccarinate and undulate. The shells have about 10 whorls. The spire is slightly concave and moderately elevated. The teleoconch whorls are slightly detached and tuberculate with 9 to 10 whitish large knobs per whorl. The spiral suture is fairly undulate. Sutural ramp is flat with 4 to 6 weak spiral cords and grooves and weak radial threads. The body whorl has a smooth surface, decorated with more than 60 orange brown spiral lines rather regularly spaced on on a white to yellow cream background. Those numerous very narrow bands are undulate in the adapical first third of the last whorl and less tight in the center of the last whorl, near the base and below the shoulder showing variably broad paler spiral bands. Moreover some scarce faint axial orange brown dashes are more apparent in the paler bands and particularly on the shoulder of the holotype. The anterior end is uniformely stained with chestnut brown and appears to be darker than the other parts of the whorl. The spire is orange brown colored with large dull whitish nodules. The paterture is white and uniform in width, with a quite sinusoidal inner lip. The anal notch I V shaped and the origin of the lip has a  slightly winged profile.
Shell Morphometry
L 38.90mm
RD 0.640
PMD 09.25
RSH 0.172
Discussion:-Only two specimens are known. Both in the collection of the NHMUK.

 

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Conus  maldivus   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 644
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maldive Islands
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 63 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-maldivus
Synonyms:-
dux Röding, 1798; filosus Röding, 1798; jaspideus Swainson, 1822; spirogloxus Deshayes, 1863; planaxis Deshayes, 1863; monteiroi Barros e Cunha, 1933
Geographic Range:-Mozambique to Red Sea and to S. India
Habitat:-Slightly subtidal to about 6 m on reefs and coastal flats, in sand, sandy gravel or rubble, sometimes beneath coral blocks among weed
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to narrowly conical, outline variably convex adapically and straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline deeply concave to almost straight, with a conoid apex of about 7-8 postnuclear whorls projecting from an otherwise nearly flat spire. Maximum diameter of larval shell about 0.75 mm. First 7 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with obsolete spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with fine spiral ribs at base, obsolete in larger specimens.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2 broad light to dark brown spiral bands, either solid or split into axial streaks, flames, blotches or bands, leaving ground-colour zones at shoulder, at or below centre and near base. White subshoulder band narrow, usually crossed by axial extensions of adapical colour band. White central band variable in width, almost immaculate to heavily maculated with extensions of colour bands, occasionally completely absent. White abapical zone broad or narrow, sparsely to heavily maculated with brown. Minutely dotted to largely solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder but vary widely in number and arrangement; occasionally, spiral lines partly interrupted by white dots and sparse, small white tents. Base dark brown to violet-brown. Larval whorls pink. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate; late ramps with curved brown radial markings. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-83 mm
RW 0.30-1.06 g/mm
(L 50-80 mm)
RD 0.48-0.62
PMD 0.85-0.92
RSH 0.03-0.18
Discussion:-C. maldivus is very similar to C. generalis and cannot always be unequivocally separated from this species by conchological characters. The only reliable difference is in the colour pattern: In C. generalis, the basic pattern consists of 2 spiral colour bands that are usually solid and rarely split into axial fragments, and that cross underlying darker axial streaks or flames extending over the entire last whorl; the adapical ground-colour band is usually broader and the dark spiral lines rarely consist of minute dots or become solid. C. maldivus occurs with C. generalis form krabiensis at Mandapam, S. India, without producing conchological intermediates (Röckel, 1989). RKK therefore consider them as separate species.
The shells of C. capreolus are lighter than those of C. maldivus, the bases are white, late postnuclear whorls are carinate and lack radial markings, and darker spiral lines are absent from their last whorl.
C. planaxis and C. spirogloxus refer to juvenile specimens assigned to C. maldivus mainly on account of their type localities.

 

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Conus  mappa  [Lightfoot],  1786

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Knorr (1757,  pl. 8, fig. 4)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Cat. Portland Mus., p. 116,  no. 2554
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: China, (no. 142), [erroneous], corrected (Vink & von Cosel) Trinidad, Lower Caribbean
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Knorr (1757,  pl. 8, fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa
Synonyms:-
solidus Gmelin, 1791; mappa Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; surinamensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; trinitarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; granarius Kiener, 1845; sanctaemarthae Vink, 1977; jesusramirezi Cossignani, 2010
Geographic Range:-North coast of South America, probably from Panama to Trinidad, and also off the islands Los Testigos and Tobago.
Habitat:-Found on silty sand or silt and grit at depths of 15 to 40 m
Description:-Source Vink
A heavy shell, 30 to 65 mm., with moderately elevated to high, rather straight-sided and often somewhat stepped spire. Body whorl straight-sided, shoulder of body whorl smooth, spire whorls canaliculate. Surface varying from smooth with faint spiral threads to more or less strongly granulated. Protoconch highly elevated, following teleoconch whorls more or less with same steep slope, first postnuclear whorls coronated, later whorls smooth. Animal bright red, operculum small and elliptical, about 1/7 of aperture height. Radula tooth described and pictured by Vink & Cosel. Periostracum tends to be thicker than in C. cedonulli; some specimens have a thick red-brown periostracum.
Source Vink Cosel
Shell milky white, with irregular light greenish yellow to dark brown patches and maculations, outlined with dark brown. White dots in spiral lines in dark areas outlined dark and interconnected by dark brown threads. Spire low to moderately high. Typical form
Shell whitish, with light yellowish green to black maculations and patches often not uniformly colored and not consistently darker outlined. White dots in spiral lines very close-set or replaced by white streaks. Lighter brown or orange patches sometimes axially connected by darker brown markings. Aperture bluish white to pale violet. Internal restrictions variable from very strong to very weak. Spire low to moderately high, in deep water specimens very high...C. mappa trinitarius.
Shell whitish or purplish grey to bluish violet, with often only a few orange to dark brown patches or maculations, sometimes reduced to narrow spiral bands only. Surface more or less strongly granulated. Internal restriction always strong to very strong. Aperture white to pale violet or brownish. Spire moderately high to very high......C. mappa granarius.
A typical feature of C. mappa is an internal restriction within the aperture which can be seen when the shell is viewed from the base, and which is only found in this species, and to a weaker extent in C. curassaviensis. The restriction is caused by a hump on the anterior third of the columella, which is a part of the outer shell layer that during growth is not dissolved in the same amount as the surrounding parts of the outer shell layer on the columella. Colour and pattern extremely variable, populations with differentiated pattern in adjacent geographic areas can be distinguished which must be recognized as subspecies: C. mappa trinitarius and C. mappa granarius besides typical C. mappa. Typical C. mappa has a milky white to pinkish white background with two spiral bands broken into irregular maculations and patches which can be greenish yellow to yellowish orange (Tobago) or brown to dark brown (Trinidad). In addition about 40 close- set spiral lines of dark dots in the light areas and white dots with dark outlines in the brown areas, interconnected by dark brown threads. The pattern resembles that of some forms of C. cedonulli but apart from morphological differences, the spiral lines of white and brown dots are more close-set in C. mappa, a distinctive feature already observed by Hwass (1792).
Discussion:-C. mappa could be confused with C. cedonulli (which usually has a lower and more concave-sided spire, and which lacks an internal restriction within the aperture) and C. curassaviensis (which is smaller with distinctly convex body whorl, less canaliculate whorls and only weakly developed internal restriction.

 

 

Conus  mappa  granarius   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation Kiener (1845 pl. 98,  fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p.215,  pl. 98, f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: There is a cited figure : Kiener (1845,  pl. 98,  fig. 1; coll. Bernardi)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa granarius subsp.
Synonyms:-
interstinctus Guppy, 1866; desmotus Tomlin, 1937; panamicus Petuch, 1990
Geographic Range:-Panama to Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on muddy sand or silt, often with calcareous algae and sponges at depths of 3 to 50 m
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa granarius from the mineral substrate in the Santa Marta area differs from other populations of C. mappa in having the background colour purplish grey to bluish violet. In some specimens the background even looks darker than the light orange patches and maculations. On the other hand specimens from calcareous algae bottoms usually have a white, cream or pinkish white background. The patches or maculations may be orange, yellowish brown, reddish brown or dark chocolate brown and may sometimes even be missing. The shape of C. mappa granarius is variable with deeper water specimens being very high-spired. The surface is often strongly granulated. The internal restriction is very strong.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish or purplish grey to bluish violet, with often only a few orange to dark brown patches or maculations, sometimes reduced to narrow spiral bands only. Surface more or less strongly granulated. Internal restriction always strong to very strong. Aperture white to pale violet or brownish. Spire moderately high to very high
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus mappa  panamicus  Petuch,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Nautilus. 104 (2), p. 67, f. 26 & 27
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Portobelo, Panama.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus granarius Kiener, 1845.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name panamicus

 

 

Conus  mappa  f.  sanctaemarthae  Vink,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RNHL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Meded. (Leiden). li. no. 5,  p. 91,  pl. 1,  f. 5, pl. 4, f. 4-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Ten km. north of Santa Marta, Colombia
Type Data: Holotype in RNHL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 29.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786 or Conus  granarius   Kiener,  1845

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa sanctaemarthae forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Columbia
Habitat:-Offshore.
Description:-Source Original description
The background is purplish grey with various, somewhat darker bands and numerous spiral lines of alternating cream and dark brown streaks. The spiral lines , weakly sculptured near base are close together. On several specimens there are addtional yellow brown to reddish brown maculations. Spire moderately concave, whorls caniculate except for early whorls which are tuberculated. Shoulder on body whorl smooth. There is strong internal restriction in aperture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus mappa  trinitarius   Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 603

Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Trinidad, altered (Vink & von Cosel) to Los Testigos Iles, Venezuela
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus  mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa trinitarius subsp
Synonyms:-
caracanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Geographic Range:-Eastern part of the coast of Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on silty sand or silt at depths of 10 to 20 m. Occasionally in more shallow water.
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa trinitarius differs from typical C. mappa in having the maculations and patches not darker outlined and not uniformly coloured, but e.g. light brown with dark brown or yellowish with brown. In the same population the colour of the patches is quite variable from specimen to specimen, from black or orange to light greenish yellow. Also an albino specimen was found (M. Mailly, personal communication 1984). Some specimens have dark brown markings axially connecting some of the ochreous to orange brown patches and partially outlining a few patches. The dark outlined white dots in the spiral lines are very close-set (e.g. in the holotype) or re- placed by short dark brown and white streaks.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish, with light yellowish green to black maculations and patches often not uniformly colored and not consistently darker outlined. White dots in spiral lines very close-set or replaced by white streaks. Lighter brown or orange patches sometimes axially connected by darker brown markings. Aperture bluish white to pale violet. Internal restrictions variable from very strong to very weak. Spire low to moderately high, in deep water specimens very high.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  marchionatus   Hinds,  1843

 

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11,  p. 256,  Apr.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Marquesas Is.
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Belcher and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 34mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-marchionatus
Synonyms:-
caelatus A. Adams, 1854; eudoxus Tryon, 1883
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-In 12 - 40 m on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, outline variably convex at adapical third and straight below. Shoulder carinate. Spire low, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2.0-2.25 whorls; maximum diameter 0.7-0.9 mm. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls distinctly tuberculate, later whorls sharply angulate to carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, variably concave in late whorls, with strong axial threads; 3 increasing to 5 wide spiral grooves and raised interstitial ribs on lateramps, containing spiral threads in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably spaced weak spiral grooves on basal third, separating ribs anteriorly and a few ribbons above.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with a rather regular network of reddish brown or sometimes yellow lines and triangular to rhomboid spots, edging larger sometimes confluent white tents and rhomboid flecks. Pattern may concentrate in 2 spiral band within adapical and abapical third. Apex white to violet., with white larval whorls. Later sutural ramps with reddish brown or yellow radial lines and streaks. Aperture white, sometimes suffused with pale violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-68 mm
RW 0.10-0.65 g/mm
RD 0.60-0.67
PMD 0.88-0.90
RSH 0.02-0.12
Discussion:-C. marchionatus is very close to C. cordigera; both have been synonymized with C. nobilis. Typical shells of C. cordigera have narrower last whorls (RD 0.50-0.58), while shells of form bitleri have similarly broad but more ventricose last whorls (PMD 0.83-0.90). The shoulder is not carinate but angulate in C. cordigera, and its colour pattern yellowish brown to brown instead of primarly redish brown. These differences as well as the widely disjunct ranges suggest a separation on the species level. A 2 million years old fossil from Fiji, highly similar to C. cordigera, supports the close relationship. C. nobilis differs from C. marchionatus in its narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.57), its non-tuberculate early postnuclear whorls, and its dark coloured base. It can be additionally distinguished by the very fine darker axial lines and the coarse alternating brown and white spiral lines within the colour zones of its last whorl.

 

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Conus  marckeppensi  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2017

               

Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 96, p. 32 – 34, with picture
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Ervatăo, Baia Fátima, Boa Vista, Cabo Verde Archpelago
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 22.1 x 13,3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Status unsure, possibly a morph of Africonus borgesi
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-borgesi f. marckeppensi
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:- Cape Verde
Habitat:-No Data
Description:- Shell of medium size from 15 to 25mm, with pyriform profile and low spire. The colour pattern of the spire consists white and chestnut brown alternating maculations; the top of the spire is white. The aperture is wide with a bluish white colour. Large irregular white spots are found  in a middle band on last whorl. The shoulder is rounded and the profile of the whorl is convex becoming straighter in lower part. The base colour of the last whorl is the same as the spire, chestnut brown. Several spiral cords are visible in the basal area. The siphonal canal is wide and in the axis of the development of the shell.

The siphonal canal is wide and in the axis of the development of the shell. The new species lives in the same area as Africonus teodorae and Africonus borgesi, but is more comparable to  Africonus josephinae (Rolán, 1980). A. marckeppensi has a lower spire and the presence of a spiral band of white spots that are absent in comparable species. Compared to Africonus salreiensis (Rolán, 1980), it has a similar shape but completely different patte
Discussion:- Tenorio et al. studied these shells and comment on it in their work with the description of A. swinneni and A. fiadeiroi. See there.

 

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Conus  marcocastellazzii  Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 83, p. 14 -15
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Praia Real, Maio, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.1 x 9.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990; see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-marcocastellazzii
Synonyms:-
Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:- the specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 5 meters deep, over and under rock
Description:-
Pyriform shell of small dimensions, about average for the genus, with a range from 15 to 18 mm in height;a spire with moderately elevated profile which is slightly concave; sutures slightly stepped, he shoulder in line with the spire;lip exterior which creates an angle of 110deg and continues with a slight convexity. The aperture is wide and the columellar margin follows almost perfectly the shape the outer lip with slight enlargement adapically .

The protoconch is dome-shaped , pinkish in color, detected with respect to the spire. 4 small spiral grooves , not

properly spaced , are highlighted on the whorl tops that have a brown background colour tending to ebony alternating with white patches. Last whorl round , smooth, with 7 wide-spaced grooves  which adapically occupy the 2/5 of whorl.,It has an ebony colour with a homogeneous white speckled band at center and weaker bands at the top and bottom . The color inside is waxy -brown . The siphonal canal is wide .
Discussion:-

The valid status of this species has recently disputed by several workers. They believe we deal with specimens of Africonus maioensis Trovăo, Rolŕn & Felix-Alves, 1990.

 

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus maioensis  Trovăo, Rolán & Felix-Alves, 1990

 

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Conus marcusi   Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2016

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 48; p. 176 ; fig. 1: G & H

Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 

Type Locality:  off Tarpum Bay, Eleuthera Island, eastern Exuma Sound, Bahamas

Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 9 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE

Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-marcusi

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Known only from the Exuma Sound area of southern Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, near Tarpum Bay

Habitat:- On carbonate sand in 3 m depth

Description:-Source Original description

Shell very small for genus, averaging only 9 mm, stocky, truncated, broad across shoulder; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by thin sharp carina; spire proportionally low, subpyramidal, only slightly stepped; body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 10-12 deeply-incised spiral sulci around anterior one-half; base shell color pale Canary yellow, overlaid with wide, evenlyspaced deep orange-yellow amorphous longitudinal flammules arranged in zebra pattern; shoulder carina white, marked with widely-spaced dark reddish-brown elongated spots; spire whorls bright yellow, marked with large, widely-spaced dark reddish-brown flammules; aperture proportionally wide, bright yellow within interior; protoconch proportionally very large, rounded, bulbous, composed of 2 whorls, bright cherry red in color; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mariaodeteae  Petuch & Myers, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 33 & 34, with pic., fig. 2 A - F
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Camocim, Ceará State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 25 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-mariaodetteae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Till now only known from the type locality: Camocim, Ceará State, Brazil
Habitat:-Found dead in fishing traps, from rocky sea floor area in 40 m depth
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell large for genus, stocky, broad across shoulder, tapering toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled,

edged with small raised carina; spire low, broadly subpyramidal, with slightly concave outline; spire whorls smooth; body

whorl shiny and highly polished, ornamented with 6-8 large, widely-separated spiral cords around anterior end; body whorl

colored uniformly bright orange, orange-tan, or occasionally deep red-orange with single wide white spiral band around

mid-body; white spiral band with 4-5 rows of small brown dots and large longitudinal brown flammules; some specimens with

rows of faint brown dots overlying base color of body whorl; spire whorls white, overlaid with dense, closely-packed dark

tan-brown crescent-shaped flammules; white spire color and brown flammules extend onto edge of shoulder carina, producing

checkered band around shoulder; early whorls bright reddish-pink; aperture uniformly narrow; interior of aperture

orange; protoconch proportionally large, projecting, mammillate, composed of 2 large rounded whorls.
Discussion:-The species is compared with Conus mauricioi and Conus brasiliensis

 

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Conus  maribelae   Tenorio & Castelin,  2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paratype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Published in: European Journal of Taxonomy; p. 18 – 20; fig. 7 A-F
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Gualdalcanal, New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.5 x 12.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONOLITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-maribelae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Solomon Islands, including New Georgia Group (Vella Lavella Isl.), Santa Isabel and Guadalcanal
Habitat:-Found at depths of 336 – 690 m
Description:-Original Description
Shell moderately small to medium sized. Maximum length: 42.5 mm. Shell profile ventricosely conical, with a spire moderate to high. Spire profile sigmoid. Multispiral protoconch with 3–3.5 whorls, white, glossy and translucent. Early 4–5 teleoconch whorls stepped, ridged with small nodules, which tend to disappear after the fifth whorl. Sutural ramp flat to slightly concave, with 3 to 6 fine spiral cords becoming obsolete in late spire whorls. Shoulder subangulate, forming a characteristic ridge, covered with axial costae on the last whorl. Early teleoconch whorls are creamy white with a brown spiral band on the periphery, extending over the row of nodules. On later whorls, this brown band is interrupted by white areas. Spire creamy white with sparse small brown blotches present in the areas near the suture. Last whorl smooth or with very fine striae, and with spiral ribs on basal third. Ground colour creamy white overlaid with orange-brown to purplish brown irregular blotches or axially arranged flammules, interrupted by a ground-colour band at the midbody. Columella white. Aperture creamy white. Anal notch shallow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  marielae   Rehder  & Wilson,  1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Smithson. Contrib. Zool. no. 203,  pl. 4,  f. 10, frontispiece f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Half mile off Baie Motu-Hee, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40.3 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-marielae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas; Tuamotus; Marshall Islands
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble
Description:- In C. m. marielae, teleoconch spire similar to that of typical C. m. moluccensis or suffused with rose or light red brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-60 mm
RW 0.17-0.32 g/mm (L 40-52 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH - (--C. m. marielae 0.10-0.18)
Discussion:-Seen by some as a valid species

 

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Conus  marileeae  Harasewych, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM M. G. Harasewych

Published in: The Nautilus, 128(2): 55–58, figs. 12 - 18

Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off the Sea Aquarium, Bapor Kibra,Willemstad, Curaçao
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23,7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Attenuiconus Species:-marileeae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Curaçao
Habitat:- This new species is presently known only from off the southeastern coast of Curaçao, at depths

of 130–168 m. Nearly all specimens have broken lips as well as one or more major repaired breaks, the latter

indicative of prior, severe but unsuccessful attacks by crustaceans.
Description:- Shell of moderate size for genus (to 23 mm), with solid, narrow (L/W _ 2.1), straight-sided,

conical, low-conical spire, projecting protoconch, and narrow aperture. Protoconch tall, conical, increasing in

diameter from 291 mm to 850 mm in 3Ľ evenly rounded, pitted glassy whorls.

Protoconch forms a broad, smooth varix prior to transition to teleoconch marked by development

of strongly tuberculate shoulder (17 tubercles on first teleoconch whorl, tubercles becoming weaker in subsequent

whorls, absent by 5th whorl). Teleoconch with up to 8 sharply shouldered, straight-sided whorls. Suture

adpressed in early whorls, may become shallowly impressed in later whorls. Sutural ramp narrow, weakly

concave to flat, with 4–6 rounded cords between suture and shoulder. Last whorl smooth except for 5–6 broad,

rounded spiral cords near anterior margin of shell. Aperture long, narrow (L/W_11) with parallel sides, deflected

from shell axis by 11–14_. Shell base color golden orange to orange red, with three bands of irregular white markings:

one at and below the shoulder, one at mid-whorl, and one near the anterior margin of the shell. Band below

shoulder broadest, consisting of very irregular, vaguely sigmoidal white flammules, which may be divided. White

flammules extend over shoulder onto sutural ramp, but rarely reach suture. White blotches in relatively narrow

band at mid-whorl range from small and compact (Figure 8) to large and amorphous while flammules near anterior

margin tend to form diffuse, oblique lines. Aperture color white.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  marinae  Petuch & Myers , 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

Picture link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 4, 35, 37 & 38 with pic., pl. 4 E - F
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 
Type Locality: off Porto de Itaparica, northern coast of Itaparica Island, at the mouth of Todos os Santos, Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x  9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-marinae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Northern coast of Itaparica Island, at the mouth of Todos os Santos, Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, endemic

Habitat:- In muddy sand, 1 m depth
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, elongated,

proportionally slender, with straight sides; shoulder sharply angled, bordered by large smooth carina; spire elevated,

pagoda-shaped, distinctly stepped; body whorl shiny, completely sculptured with 18-20 incised spiral sulci, which become

larger and more deeply-incised toward anterior end; shell base color variable, ranging from purple and violet (as in holotype),

to purplish-red, to brick red, and dark purple-brown; base colors overlaid with variable amounts of large amorphous

dark brown or reddish-brown patches and flammules; areas between incised sulci often with rows of large white and dark

tan elongated spots; shoulder carina and edges of spire whorls pale violet or pale salmon, marked with large, prominent,

evenly-spaced dark brown spots; aperture proportionally wide, violet within interior on purple specimens (like holotype) and

brick-red within interior of red specimens; early whorls dark tan; protoconch proportionally large, mammillate, composed

of 2 rounded whorls, pale tan in color.

Discussion:

 

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Conus  marmoreus   Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten  Varieties

Picture Link: Paul Kersten  Red variety from New Caledonia

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 712
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Asia
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus
Synonyms:-
proarchithalassus Röding, 1798; maculatus Perry, 1811; granulatus Sowerby ii, 1839; crosseanus Bernardi, 1861; suffusus Sowerby iii, 1870; pseudomarmoreus Crosse, 1875
Geographic Range:-India to Marshall Is. and Fiji
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy. Shells from New Caledonia consistently smaller than shells from other areas; form suffusus also lighter than other forms. Last whorl conical, broadest in form crosseanus; outline almost straight, somewhat convex adapically. Shoulder angulate, strongly tuberculate to. almost smooth. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Postnuclear spire whorls strongly to weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave in late whorls, with 2-4 weak spiral grooves and additional spiral striae; spiral sculpture often obsolete. Last whorl with usually weak, regularly spaced spiral ribs on basal fourth to half.
Ground colour usually white; may be bluish white, pale pink or pale yellow in shells from New Caledonia. Last whorl generally with a regular network of dark brown to black lines and triangular to rhomboid areas, outlining white tents that are often quite uniform in shape and arrangement and usually separate from each other. In New Caledonia, colour of network may grade to orangish red or orangish brown, axial lines may replace network, and pattern may be reduced or absent. Apex purplish red. Postnuclear sutural ramps with a dark brown to black network of lines, streaks and blotches. Aperture white to pinkish orange behind a white marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-150 mm (New Caledonia 40 - 65 mm)
RW 0.45-1.95 g/mm (L 50-113 mm) (form suffusus 0.21 - 0.60 g/mm)
RD 0.56-0.65 (form crosseanus 0.60 - 0.67)
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.05-0.15
Discussion:-C. bandanus is a close relative of C. marmoreus, and some authors have included it in the latter species. The conchological differences are comparatively slight, consisting of more pronounced spire tubercles and a less regular pattern with 2 distinct dark colour bands in C. bandanus, while the pattern of C. marmoreus is generally uniform and lacks bands. Ecological differences also favour separation on the species level: C. bandanus usually lives in deeper water and often occupies a different microhabitat where both occur in sympatry. In Kwajalein, Marshall Is., C. marmoreus is found on inter-island coral reef and at the east side of the lagoon on sand bottom, while C. bandanus is restricted to rock and rubble bottoms of the ocean-side and the lagoon-side of the west reef; co-occurrence has not been observed
The New Caledonian populations of C. marmoreus are often considered to represent a separate subspecies (C. m. crosseanus) or species (C. crosseanus). However, except for their smaller size, New Caledonian shells intergrade with C. marmoreus from other localities in all morphological characters and we consider them as form crosseanus, characterized by weakly tuberculate post-nuclear whorls and a rather axially line ate dark brown pattern on an often bluish white ground. Specimens with additional spiral ground-colour lines were named var. lineata.
Form suffusus has distinct spire tubercles, lacks any pattern elements on its white, pale pink or pale yellow background, and its aperture is pink to orange. Immaculate white shells with a white aperture were described as C. suffusus var .noumeensis .
Form pseudomarmoreus is characterized by an almost smooth shoulder. Shells with a typically arranged reddish to brownish orange pattern are known from the Isle of Pines (New Caledonia).

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f. batarde  Prigent, 1983  A nomen nudum; only listed for reference

 

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Rossiniana 21, 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bourail, New Caledonia
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: A nomen nudum:- an unavailable name (nomen nudum), described as form after 1960
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f. crosseanus  Bernardi,  1861

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten   "lineata"

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 9,  p. 168, pl. 6,  f. 5 & 6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 66.8 x 39.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus crosseanus forma
Synonyms:-
lineata Crosse, 1878
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. marmoreus
Shell Morphometry
(form crosseanus 0.60 - 0.67)
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.05-0.15
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  pseudomarmoreus  Crosse, 1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Published in: J. Conchyl. xxiii,  p. 223,  pl. ix,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50.5 x 20.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of C.marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus pseudomarmoreus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. marmoreus.
Form pseudomarmoreus is characterized by an almost smooth shoulder. Shells with a typically arranged reddish to brownish orange pattern are known from the Isle of Pines (New Caledonia).
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  marmoreus  f.  suffusus   Sowerby iii,  1870

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870,  38 (pt.2),  p. 255,  pl. 22,  f. 9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-marmoreus suffusus forma
Synonyms:-
noumeensis Crosse, 1872
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-In 1-15 m. On coral reef platforms and lagoon pinnacles, on coral debris and in sand often under rocks or among weed.
Description:-
Form suffusus has distinct spire tubercles, lacks any pattern elements on its white, pale pink or pale yellow background, and its aperture is pink to orange. Immaculate white shells with a white aperture were described as C. suffusus var. noumeensis.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  marmoricolor  Melvill,  1900

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Syntype in NMWC (51.5 x 26 mm)  Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conch. London 9 (10), p. 310, not figured

Type Locality: Not mentioned;  designated (Lauer) Mauritius

Type Data: Two syntypes in NMWC                                                                                                

Type Size: 51.5 x 26 mm and 51 x 25.5 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A form of Conus pennaceus

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus f. marmoricolor

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Mauritius

Habitat:

Description: A form with a ventricosely conical to conical last whorl; low spire; regular dark reddish brown tents.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  martensi  Smith, 1884

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Rept. Zool. Collns. Alert (1881-2),  p. 488,  pl. 44,  f. A
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Providence Reef, Mascarenes.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Still regarded as a valid species but possibly it is Conus sazanka  Shikama, 1970
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-martensi
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Seychelles
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, outline convex at adapical fourth and straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to sigmoid or concave. Larval shell of about 3 whorls (Moolenbeek & Coomans, 1987), maximum diameter of about 1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 3 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves; latest ramps may only have 3-4 grooves. Last whorl with weak or obsolete spiral ribs at base.
Colour range. Last whorl with 2 paler spiral bands, at centre and at shoulder. Larval whorls brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps white, suffused with colour tones of last whorl. Aperture white.
Discussion:-Comment
Known only from subadult specimen. RKK considered it a juvenile of later described species C. alconnelli. In fact we deal with a worn specimen of Conus sazanka Shikama, 1970 (Personal comm. Eric Monnier)
Filmer and SA Iconography accept that C. alconnelli is separate species based on orange tones of martensi, shell pyriform shape, spire structure and no of spiral grooves on whorl tops.(3 v 5-6).

 

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Conus  martinianus Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Specimen from INHS

Published in: Conch. Icon. 1 (Conus): pl. 40, sp. 217, (published Jan.), (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. pt. 11, no. 130: p. 173, not figured, published Jun.)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Putao, Albay Province, Luzon Island, Philppines
Type Data: Three syntypes in BMNH
Type Size: 54.7x 25.6 mm; 52.7 x 26.3 mm; 50.5 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Re-established as a valid species by Tucker & Tenorio 2013; seen as a synonym of Conus radiatus  Gmelin, 1791 by most authors
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-radiatus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Solomon Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-
Discussion:-Comment
Seen as a synonym of Conus radiatus Gmelin, 1791 by most authors

 

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Conus masinoi   Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2016

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM

 

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 48; p. 176 - 177 ; fig. 1: I & J

Ocean geography: Western Atlantic 

Type Locality:  off Sanday Cay, Utila Cays, Honduras, Western Caribbean Sea

Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued

Type Size: 12.1 mm

Nomenclature: An available name

Taxonomy: A valid species

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE

Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-masinoi

Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms

Geographic Range:- Known only from the Utila Cays of the Caribbean coast of Honduras

Habitat:- 5-7 m depth on fine, clean carbonate sand near Turtle Grass beds

Description:-Source Original description

Shell of average size for genus, fusiform, slightly inflated, with rounded sides; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by low, rounded carina; spire distinctly subpyramidal, only slightly stepped; body whorl smooth and shiny, sculptured with 12-15 incised spiral sulci, which become deeper and closer together toward anterior end; body whorl base color pink or pale lavender (as on holotype), overlaid with 12-15 rows of alternating brown and white spots and also numerous widely-spaced amorphous

dark tan or brown longitudinal flammules; shoulder carina white, marked with widelyspaced small brown dots; suture of spire whorls edged with tiny, evenly-spaced brown dots; some specimens (such as the specimen in the Poremski collection) are uniformly pale pink, with only traces of longitudinal flammules and bands of dots; aperture proportionally wide and flaring, becoming wider at the anterior end, deep purplish-pink within interior; protoconch and early whorls pale orange-white; protoconch proportionally large, rounded, composed of 2 whorls; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent yellow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  massemini  Monnier & Limpalaër, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Eric Monnier

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy No. 13, p. 9-11, fig. 3, Pl. 3
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Iracoubo, French Guyana

Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 35.75 x 16.92 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-massemini
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-French Guyana, Surinam
Habitat:-Found at depths between 102-104 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell conical and medium-sized to moderately large with an average length of 41.8 mm. the adult shell has about 12 whorls. The protoconch is smooth and ivory coloured and has at least 2.5 whorls. The spire is of moderate height. Its outline is concave with a raised apex. The profile of the spire whorls is slightly stepped with the 4 or 5 first early postnuclear whorls more stepped. The suture is linear and rather deeply incised. The sutural ramp is sculptured with about five fading to three spiral grooves and radial threads. The last whorl is smooth with a carinate shoulder. The basal area has about 12 to 15 spiral ribs. The outline is slightly convex in the daapcal third of the last whorl with nearly straight sides basally. The position of the maximum diameter is of 97% of the aperture length of the shell. The aperture is long, straight and does not widen anteriorly.

The ground colour of the shell is light purple, the last whorl is yellow ochre to orange brown coloured. There is a white spiral band at the middle of the last whorl which is generally overlaid by chestnut brown blotches. Blotches of the same colour are also present below the spiral band although they are less conspicuous. One or two irregular interrupted white bands are situated under the shoulder. These are very variable in width and sometimes obsolete. The last whorl is covered by a variable number of spiral rows of rather regularly spaced chestnut brown dots or streaks. The distribution of these spiral rows over the last whorl is very irregular in some specimens and may include broad undotted zones. The color of the basal part of the columella varies between whitish to orange yellow and orange brown radial streaks and blotches running from the shoulder to the last 6 last whorls. The interior of the aperture is tinged with lavender to violet.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mauricioi  Coltro,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11,  p. 6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Rio do Fogo, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size :19 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus archetypus Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-archetypus mauricioi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on coral sand bottom at 10-25 meters on offshore reefs
Description:-Source: Original description
Length: 17 to 22 mm, concave-sided, almost straight moderately elevated spire (1/5 of length). Shoulder of the body whorl smooth. Body whorl slightly convex with 6-8 light incised lines on the base. Apex pink, nucleus with 2 to 2.5 whorls. Spire with 6 up 8 whorls. A medium deep suture between the whorls. Color body extremely variable, from bright yellow or pink-red to brown, green, purple and even bluish-grey. Always with white blotches or marks. Spiral cord bands are present on 90% of the examined specimens. Top with white and brown marks on shell color background. Pink white aperture, colored inner margin.
Discussion:-During many years this species was confused with the Caribbean species Conus beddomei Sowerby, 1901. Conus mauricioi is very variable in color and patterns, the body whorl is comparatively shorter and wider than in C. beddomei and even in the others species of the C. archetypus complex which occur in Brazil.

 

----------

 

Conus  maya  Petuch & Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM  Bill Fenzan  LACMw

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 42
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Yucatan
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.9 x 13.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-maya
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Yucatan, E. Mexico
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of average size for genus, moderately elongated, with slightly convex sides in profile; spire elevated, stepped and scalariform, subpyramidal. Body whorl polished and shiny, sculptured with 20 thin, narrow, shallow, incised spiral grooves,; color deep yellow-orange with widely-scattered amorphous white flammules;.paler yellow-white band present around mid-body; base color overlaid with 14 spiral rows of large, closely-packed,elongated reddish-brown dots and dashes; anterior tip paler yellow-orange. Spire distinctly stepped, scalariform; color pale yellow-orange or white with regularly-spaced, large crescent-shaped reddish-brown flammules; early whorls yellow. Shoulder smooth, sharply-angled. Aperture narrow, interior pink, grading to orange near edge of lip.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  mayaguensis   Nowell-Usticke,  1968

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in AMNH Mike Filmer

Published in: Caribbean Cones from St. Croix and Lesser Antilles p. 15,  pl. II,  f. 1003
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Pta. Guanajibos and Pta. Arenas, west coast of Puerto Rico.
Type Data: Lectotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-mayaguensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Puerto Rico
Habitat:-Found at depths of some 10m under coral heads
Description:-Source Vink
A smallish shell, 20 to 25 mm, with spire of medium height and rather straight-sides. Body whorl slightly convex from top to bottom and rather slender. Shoulder fairly sharp with the appearance of being beaded, due to the presence of regular white patches. Body whorl with fine raised spiral lines. Tops of whorls with faint spiral sculpture in fresh specimens. Nucleus 1.5 whorls; post- nuclear whorls smooth. Most shells known are beach specimens, which can be orange, reddish brown or bright pink (holotype yellowish orange). A live collected specimen olive-green. There is a white mid-body band bordered at the upper side by a row of brown markings, which can be so large that the white band is broken up into irregular patches. In addition faint spiral lines of brown dots. Spire with alternating white and brown markings, tip of base white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus mazei  Deshayes,  1874

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: J. Conchyl. xxii,  p. 64,  pl. I,  f. 1
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Martinique; 90 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 58 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-mazei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Florida, USA - Martinique; Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Vink
Very thin and light in weight, fragile, with a good gloss; elongate biconical, the sides nearly straight then tapering to very narrow base; body whorl with numerous flat spiral ribs basally and extending to third or all; ribs separated by narrower grooves containing fine axial threads; posterior third smooth or covered with heavy ribs; shoulder broad, carinate, smooth; spire tall, sharply pointed, the sides slightly concave; spire whorls slightly concave to flat above, weakly/strongly carinate, early 3-5 whorls wwith fine nodules and hheavy axial ridges posterior to margin; Body whorl creamy white to pale straw/orange covered with 10-15 spiral rows of squarish reddish brown spots evenly spaced; tendency for spots to fuse into axial flammules or broad bands below shoulder and midbody; base often stained pale brown; spire whitish, covered with bright reddish brown spots axially elongated; aperture very narrow, uniform; outer lip thin and fragile, slightly convex; mouth white; columella internal;
Discussion:-
C. m. mazei poorly known large >50 mm early whorls weakly undulate, whorl margins not with projecting carinae and flat not concave above; pattern of 9 rows very distinct spots; deep water off Lesser Antilles;

I prefer to list the following species as valid; see there.
C. m. rainsae spiral ribs extending to midbody;early whorls distinctly nodulose; whorls projecting carinae and flat not concave; spotting distinct, greater than 9 rows showing some tendency to fuse or be covered with larger clouds of pale reddish brown; size small under 30mm; shallow water S. Florida to Yucatan;
C. m. mcgintyi larger and more elongate (60mm) covered with low distinct spiral ribs; grooves between ribs with heavy axial ridges or threads; reddish brown spotting tending to be fused into short axial flammules, below shoulder and midbody; deeper water S. Florida to Brazil

 

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Conus  mazzolii  Petuch & Sargent, 2011

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan LACM

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Visaya 3 (4), 99
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Little Torch Key, Florida.
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.7 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum mazzolii subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida Keys
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for genus, elongated, slender, biconic, with very high, elevated spire; profile with straight sides, becoming slightly constricted at anterior end; spire stepped, distinctly scalariform.
Smooth, glossy; anterior tip encircled with 6-8 thin spiral cords; base color white, pink, or pale salmon-orange (as on holotype), overlaid with dark orange-tan to dark brown irregular longitudinal flammules and patches; larger flammules marked with 6-8 thin brown spiral lines, often composed of tiny dots and dashes; anterior tip yellow orange or pale orange.
Shoulder sharply-angled.bordered by thin, sharp carina: subsutural area flattened or slightly sloping.
Spire extremely high and elevated. stepped. composed of 8-9 whorls; spire whorls smooth and shiny, ornamented with numerous extremely fine crescent-shaped threads; spire white or pink marked with large, regularly-spaced dark brown amorphous flammules or checker-shaped spots; early whorls pale brown or orange-brown; protoconch pale orange. proportionally large, rounded. mamillate. Aperture proportionally very narrow, straight, uniformly wide; interior of aperture white or pale pinkish-white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  mcbridei  Lorenz,  2006

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in HNC Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Schriften zur Malakozoologie 22, 671
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Sulawesi, Indonesia
Type Data: Holotype in HNC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10.9 x 5.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-mcbridei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia
Habitat:-15 to 50 m
Description:-Source original description
The shell is small, solid, slender and ventricosely conical. The spire is slightly dome-shaped, with a distinctly projecting knob-like protoconch. The shoulder is rounded and very indistinctly coronate. The sides are very slightly convex posteriorly, straight towards the tapering anterior. The body whorl seems smooth and glossy posteriorly, but on magnificaton shows distinct, narrow spiral grooves all over. In the basal area, there are distinct spiral ribs becoming denser towards the anterior end. Two thirds of the posterior area, including the spire and the protoconch, are white, with a very faint bluish tint towards the middle of the shell. The anterior third (or even more) is distinctly separated optically by a rich black tint. The interior reflects the coloration of the outer shell.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  mcgintyi   Pilsbry,  1955

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ANSP Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Nautilus. lxix,  no. 2,  p. 47,  pl. 3, f. 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Pensacola, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in ANSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41.6 x 11.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Dalliconus Species:-mcgintyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida to Brazil
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:- Source Walls/original description
Very thin and light in weight, fragile, with a good gloss; nucleus of 3 glassy whorls; elongate biconical, the sides nearly straight then tapering to very narrow base; body whorl with numerous flattened spiral ribs; ribs separated grooves containing delicate axial ridges or threads giving a pustulate appearance to whorls; shoulder broad, carinate, smooth; spire tall, sharply pointed, the sides slightly concave; spire whorls slightly concave to flat above, weakly/strongly carinate, early 3-5 whorls with fine nodules becoming obsolete on later whorls;4-6 spiral threads. Body whorl creamy white to pale straw/orange covered with reddish brown spots which fuse into axial flammules or broad bands below shoulder and midbody; spire whitish, covered with bright reddish brown spots axially elongated; aperture very narrow, uniform; outer lip thin and fragile,slightly convex; mouth white; columella internal;
Discussion:-C. mcgintyi larger and more elongate (60mm) than C. mazei and is covered with low distinct spiral ribs; grooves between ribs with heavy axial ridges or threads;reddish brown spotting tending to be fused into short axial flammules, below shoulder and midbody; deeper water S Florida;

Recently, the well known Brazilean shells have been described as a valid species Dalliconus edpetuchi  Monnier, Limpalaër, Roux & Berschauer, 2015; see there.
Tucker comments: Recently, a Brazilian member of this complex was described, Dalliconus roberti. These shells are like D. mcgintyi in that the pattern is blotchy. At present, I see no
means to distinguish these from D. mcgintyi.

 

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Conus  mediterraneus   Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 330, fig. 4)

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 701
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Mediterranean Sea
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798,  pl. 330, fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus ventricosus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name mediterraneus

 

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Conus  medoci   Lorenz, F.,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (2),  p. 19
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavonono, Madagascar.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dendroconus Species:-medoci
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southern Madagascar
Habitat:-Probably sublitoral zone
Description:-Source original description Visaya 2004
Medium sized to large, heavy and solid. The sides are straight, the shoulder area convex. The spire is low, shows seven whorls, the last whorl slightly overlaps the previous one. The body whorl is smooth except for the anterior third where it has fine and dense spiral grooves. The aperture is rather narrow and straight, very slightly widening anteriorly. The shell is brown, with two paler narrow transverse bands, decorated with numerous conspicuous transverse lines of darker brown and white intermitted stripes. The shoulder is mottled with white and brown.

 

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Conus medvedevi   Monteiro, Afonso, Tenorio, Rosado & Pirinhas, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten


Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 5, P. 64-68; Pl. 2, fig. 1-6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baía do Bom Fim (Lucira area) in the Namibe Province, Angola, Southern Angola, West Africa
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 26.0 x 14.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-medvedevi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-It occurs between 0.5 and 7 meters depth, partially buried in sand under rocks or in rock holes and fissures, normally close to the wave action zone.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorlventricosely conical, slightly elongated. Profile more or less straight and with a rounded shoulder. Spire moderately high, convex, teleoconch whorls smooth. Last whorl smooth,except for about four spiral raised lines near the anterior tip. tip. The ground color of the shell is dark brown, occasionally olive-brown, with many light bluish specks (prone to fading over time) that normally form a wide central spiral band, but can also be present almost over the entire last whorl of the teleoconch, usually more numerous between the central band and the shoulder. In some specimens the bluish specks can give way to reticulated arrow shaped patterns. The spiral ramps present light bluish axial streaks. The aperture is bluish gray inside, with a dark violet zone parallel to the lip, interrupted about half the length of the lip and again near the shoulder; the interior of the lip is white, with the outer color showing by transparency. Aperture banded at the central portion and just below the shoulder.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  meleus Sowerby iii,1913

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xi,  p. 558,  pl. ix, f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Kii, Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus boeticus Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-boeticus meleus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan - Australia
Habitat:-Sand shallow water
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C boeticus
C. meleus has a white shell with yellow axial blotches of both sides of centre
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  melinus   Shikama,  1964

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Venus vol. xxiii, no. 1,  p. 36, pl. 3, f. 3-6
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arafura Sea
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 70.8 x 42.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus mustelinus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-mustelinus melinus forma
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indonesia, Australia, Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal and shallow subtidal; on reefs, on sand often beneath dead coral rocks, on rock or in holes and crevices

 

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Conus  melissae  Tenorio,  Afonso,  Rolán,  2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 8-10
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia de Parda, Sal, CVI
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.5 x 10.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-melissae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in algae at 1-2 m
Description:- Last whorl with a tendency to be slightly convex; shoulder well marked; a greenish or yellowish ground color, which varies from dark green to light yellow; a reticulated pattern of white flecks or blotches forming bands which are variable in number and width, usually three; a thin one at the shoulder, another larger one at the height of the maximum diameter of the shell and another broader one slightly below the midbody; aperture is purplish brown with two white bands, one in the middle portion and another one in the upper part; inner lip white with some traces of yellow or brown near the edge; spire with white blotches, sometimes brown ones; columella purple
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  melvilli  Sowerby iii,  1879

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.46 (pt.4),  p. 795, pl. 48, f. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Key West, Florida [erroneous]
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 18.8 x 11.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Quasiconus Species:-melvilli
Synonyms:-
pusio Sowerby ii, 1834; boschi Clover, 1972
Geographic Range:-Oman - Persian Gulf; Maldives
Habitat:-Shallow water; on sand at protected sites
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to broadly or ventricosely conical, outline convex. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex or sigmoid. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1.3 mm (shells from Oman) to 2.1 mm (shell from Persian Gulf). Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with closely spaced axial threads and obsolete spiral striae only on latest ramps; sutures usually depressed and moderately wide. Last whorl sculpture grades from a few spiral ribbons at base to variably spaced spiral ribs on basal half.
Ground colour white to bluish grey. Last whorl with a red-brown 'brick wall' pattern of about 16-26 fine spiral lines and irregular, numerous to very sparse axial dashes. Shells with a spiral row of variously sized dark greyish blue or brown flecks just above centre and often within basal third (described as C. boschi) intergrade with shells with large axial blotches across entire last whorl except for subshoulder area (represented by the holotype of C. melvilli). Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with dark brown radial streaks or lines; lines often overlying broad reddish brown spots. Aperture dark violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-32 mm
RW 0.09-0.17 g/mm
(L 20-30 mm)
RD 0.66-0.75
PMD 0.75-0.88
RSH 0.10-0.19
Discussion:-C. tuticorinensis is closely related to C. melvilli. The latter species differs in its wider sutures and the absence of spiral grooves from its sutural ramps. In addition, C. melvilli has a dark violet aperture, a less angulate shoulder, and tends to have a narrower last whorl.
In Oman, shells similar in shape to the holotype of C. melvilli and intergrading in colour pattern with specimens described as C. boschi strongly suggest the two to be conspecific. Shells from the Persian Gulf corresponding with the specimens from Oman in all conchological characters except for a wider larval shell (ca. 2.1 vs. 1.3-1.7 mm) are assigned to C. melvilli.

 

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Conus  memiae  Habe  &  Kosuge,  1970

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Pac. Shell News 1,  no. 1, p. , text f., March. 1970, Venus
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South China Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32.8 x 16.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:-memiae
Synonyms:- adonis Shikama, 1971
Geographic Range:-Japan to Philippines and Indonesia (Makassar); Solomon Is. and Fiji
Habitat:-Found at depths of 50-240 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl usually conical to ventricosely conical or pyriform, some specimens broader; outline convex adapically, straight to concave below. Shoulder angulate to carinate. Spire of moderate height to high, slightly stepped; outline concave. Larval shell of 3-3.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 2.5-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with arcuate radial threads and 0- 1 increasing to 4-9 spiral grooves; grooves usually obsolete on first ramps and weak but definite on latest ramps. Last whorl with spiral grooves, wider toward base and separated by ribbons; spiral sculpture weaker but definite on upper half.
Ground colour white, often suffused with pink, occasionally tinged with grey, beige, or yellow. Last whorl usually with 2 narrow white spiral bands, on each side of centre, showing 1 or 2 spiral rows of brown dots on ribbons, and other spiral rows of brown dots and dashes often fusing into axial streaks and flecks. Larval whorls grey. Postnuclear sutural ramps with fine, regularly spaced brown dots along the outer margin and with very sparse to densely set brown radial blotches. Aperture translucent.
Shell Morphometry
L 20-32 mm
RW 0.04-0.10 g/mm
RD 0.62-0.73
PMD 0.80-0.93
RSH 0.18-0.28
Discussion:-C. memiae closely resembles C. otohimeae, C. spirofilis, C. aphrodite, C. baileyi, C. eugrammatus, and C. wakayamaensis. C. otohimeae has a similar colour pattern but differs in its somewhat larger size (to 40 mm) and somewhat heavier shell (L 27-37 mm; RW 0.1 1-0.20). Its shoulder is tuberculate to undulate, its spire lower (RSH 0.12-0.20), and its last whorl narrower (RD 0.59-0.64) and has spiral ribs rather than ribbons. C. aphrodite has a smaller shell (to 24 mm), without spiral ribbons adapically on its last whorl and without spiral grooves on its late sutural ramps. C. spirofilis is similar in shape, but lacks spiral grooves on the sutural ramps and has a usually lower spire (RSH 0.14-0.22); its last whorl bears many brown spiral lines and may be sculptured with ribs rather than ribbons.
C. memiae can be distinguished from C. baileyi by its broader (RD 0.62- 0.73) and often ventricose or pyriform last whorl, finer dots along the shoulder edge, and often pink ground colour.
C. memiae is also very similar to C. eugrammatus, but it is smaller (to 32 mm) and its last whorl is often slightly pyriform. C. memiae usually has strong spiral grooves on the late sutural ramps, and its colour pattern is more complex, with narrower white spiral bands and spiral rows of brown dots and dashes often fusing into axial streaks and flecks.
C. memiae also differs from C. wakayamaensis in having distinct spiral grooves on the late sutural ramps; the outer margins of its teleoconch sutural ramps have regularly spaced brown dots and its last whorl pattern is more complex with usually narrower white spiral bands centrally
There are minor conchological differences among shells of C. memiae from different geographic areas: In Japan, specimens attain larger size (32 mm); shells from Solomon Is. have a beige ground colour and relatively low spires. The highest variability in shell characters is found in Philippines.

 

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Conus mercator  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 715
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24 x 13.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-mercator
Synonyms:-
reticulatus Born, 1778; aurelius Röding, 1798; reticularis Bory, 1827; lamarckii Kiener, 1845; orri Ninomiya & da Motta in da Motta, 1982; cacao Ferrario, 1983
Geographic Range:-W. Africa Endemic to Senegal
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately heavy, with a low gloss; low conical, the posterior sides convex and then tapered to narrow base; basal ridges; shoulder rounded convex above, not very distinct from spire; spire low to moderate, bluntly pointed, the sides straight/concave; body whorl usually waxy yellowish, with two broad bands of black reticulations leaving oval white spots, the widest band at shoulder, narrower at midbody; base paler; pattern variable , sometimes much finer reticulations covering most of whorl, or with broken reticulations to produce axial flammules; spire yellowish whitish later whorls with body pattern; early whorls whitish/bluish; aperture narrow widening; outer lip thin slightly convex; mouth light bluish white pattern showing through; columella narrow, internal, indented;
Patterns include:
1) Typical with distinct black and white reticulation on yellow or whitish background;the reticulation in two bands
2) Shells with brown ground colour with small white spots forming reticulate pattern over whole shell. Described as reticulatus Born, 1780, reticularis Bory, 1827 and orri Ninomiya, 1982.
3) pattern with off white ground colour and thin reticulate net of brown over whole shell. Named as aurelius Röding 1798.
4) pattern with white ground and wavy brown axial flammules from Zoff area of Senegal is not named.
Discussion:-The colour and pattern of C. belairensis resemble those of C. mercator but C. belairensis is more turbinated, with an almost straight profile; the spire of C. mercator often has a concave profile whereas that of C. belairensis is normally higher with slightly convex profile.

 

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Conus  merleti  Mayissian,  1974

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntypes Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Cat. Nom. Tax. Conidae,  p. 182
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntype in unknown collection and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name merleti

 

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Conus  messiasi   Rolán  &  Fernandez  in Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2, p. 17,  pl. 1, f. 6, pl. 2, f. 6,  pl. 4, f
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Derrubado, Boavista I., Cape Verde Is.; 1-3 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of fuscoflavus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980: see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-messiasi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in depths of 1-3 meters, among stones on beaches with scarce quantity of sand.
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension of the majority of the specimens falls between 20 and 28 mm. The silhouette is not very extended, with a width of the upper part of the last whorl proportionally greater than that other species of the islands, showing a quite definite shoulder. It spire is a little high, not stepped, with two to four spiral grooves well marked and has the same coloring as the seashell. This coloring seems, on first impression, to be between green yellowish and greenish light olive. The color has even tones and with two clearer bands, one under the shoulder and another on the lower half of the last whorl. Toward the base the color becomes slightly brownish. The variability is very limited, the pattern of color being repeated in all the specimens. The aperture has on its lip yellow color or clear in an extension of more than 1 mm. Toward the interior, a spot of color appears dark purple interrupted by two clear lines, one near the top end and another in the middle; towards the interior, the color returns again clear. The columela has variable color varying between light rose and violet. The periostracum is yellow, what gives a darker greenish tone to the specimens that possess it.
Discussion:-

 

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus fuscoflavus Reöckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980

 

 

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Conus  metcalfii  Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon., i,  Conus,  pl. 36,  sp. 192
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.7 x 14.3 mm figure
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-magus metcalfii forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms

 

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Conus  meyeri  Walls, 1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Pariah no. 5, p. 3
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Genezano, Natl. South Africa
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44 x 24.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus biliosus Röding, 1798
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lividoconus Species:-biliosus meyeri forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Africa; Madagascar; Mozambique
Habitat:-Intertidal and slightly subtidal
Description:-
Discussion:- form meyeri Walls; South Africa; smaller, convex dome spire and flared aperture; weaker tubercules.

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remain with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update March 2018