Conus  saecularis   Melvill,  1898

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. an Phil. Soc. xlii, no. 4,  p. 10,  pl. I,  f. 23
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Persian Gulf
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Bathyconus Species:-saecularis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Thailand, and N. E. Malaysia; Ryukyu Is., Philippines, Solomon Is., and Papua New Guinea.
Habitat:-Found at depths of 80-400 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to medium sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl narrowly conical to conical, sometimes approaching pyriform; right side nearly straight in outline, occasionally slightly concave at base; left side usually concave in outline, sometimes straight to slightly convex below shoulder. Siphonal canal often deflected to the dorsal side. Shoulder sharply angulate to carinate, with a deep exhalent notch. Spire of moderate height to high, usually stepped; outline concave. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 5-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with radial threads crossing 0-1 increasing to 3-6 spiral grooves. Entire last whorl with weak axially striate spiral grooves separating distinct ribs at base, narrow ribbons below shoulder and wider ribbons inbetween.
Ground colour white, usually suffused with grey. Last whorl with spiral rows of yellowish brown to dark brown dots, spots and bars fusing into 2-4 spiral bands, below shoulder, at base and on both sides of centre; the central bands are most consistently present. Some shells have pronounced spiral rows of brown dots and dashes from base to shoulder; some rows with distinct white articulations. Shoulder usually with a row of widely spaced reddish brown dots. Largely white shells with sparse ornamentation on last whorl intergrade with heavily maculated shells. Larval whorls usually beige to light brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with yellowish brown to dark brown radial markings, sometimes producing regularly spaced dark dots at outer margin. Aperture translucent or white.
Shell Morphometry
L 23-40 mm
RW 0.03-0.08 g/mm
(L 23-36 mm)
RD 0.45-0.59
PMD 0.86-0.96
RSH 0.14-0.28
Discussion:-C. saecularis is most similar to the larger C. comatosa (to 50 mm), and small individuals of the two species from Philippines are difficult to distinguish. C. comatosa has a rather pyriform last whorl with a mostly more convex outline adapically; the position of the maximum diameter is generally located closer to the base (PMD 0.78-0.88), and the left side is concave only basally. Its last whorl pattern has usually 4 spiral colour bands, its ground colour is white rather than shaded with grey, and its larval shell is broader (1.1 mm) and white rather than beige to light brown.
C. saecularis may be similar to C. insculptus in shell morphometry but can be distinguished by the outline of its last whorl that is straight rather than convex at the right side and concave rather than sigmoid at the left side; the last whorl is rather uniformly coloured in C. insculptus, while it has spiral rows of dots, spots and bars fusing into 2-4 spiral bands in C. saecularis.

 

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Conus  sagarinoi   Fenzan,  2005

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ANSP Bill Fenzan

Published in: La Conchiglia xxxvi, no. 311,  p. 15
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, Phillipines
Type Data: Holotype in ANSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus terryni Tenorio  & Poppe, 2004
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name sagarinoi

 

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Conus  sagei   Korn, W.  &  G. Raybaudi  Massilia,  1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxv, no. 268,  p. 37, f. 5a-5c, pl. 1,  f. 7-8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Gulf of Aden off Northern Somalia.
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 8.7 x 4.6 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Lilliconus Species:-sagei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Somalia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Shell very small, turbinate and light. Last whorl usually broadly conical; outline slightly convex adapically, straight right side and slightly concave left side below. Shoulder angulate, smooth to unndulate. Subshoulder costae absent. Spire high slightly stepped; outline straight to slightly concave. Protoconch of 2 whorls. Specimens of about 9mm with 6 teleoconch whorls Spiral whorls smooth becoming concave with 1-2 waek grooves. Last whorl with spiral ribs on basal third; Early spire whorls brown becoming white with brown flecks on outer margin. Last whorl white with two broad orange brown bands. Midbody area somtimes with white band ornamented with reddish dashes. Some specimens with lines of white brown dashes around whorl.
Discussion:-C. sagei is separated from other small cones by its broad, flat to concave spire tops

 

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Conus  saharicus  Petuch & Berschauer 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM  David Berschauer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Festivus, Vol. 48, Issue 2, p. 93-99, fig. 2
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Dahkla (formerly Villa Cisneros), western side of Dahkla Bay, Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara), western coast of Sahara Desert, northwestern Africa
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-saharicus
Synonyms:

Geographic Range:- W. Sahara
Habitat:- Quiet, sheltered intertidal areas in Dahkla Bay, under large slabs of sandstone along the shoreline
Description:-Source  Original Description
Shell of average size for genus, stocky, inflated, bulbous, only slightly glossy, with matte finish; shoulder broad, rounded, only slightly angled; spire low, broadly pyramidal; body whorl smooth and silky, with 20-24 very fine, low, closely-packed spiral threads around anterior end; body whorl base color dark sky blue or deep bluish-green, overlaid with numerous large, dark brown amorphous flammules, generally evenly-spaced and arranged in zebra-like pattern; brown flammules often composed of 3 sections, being broader and wider along edge of the shoulder, around midbody, and around anterior end, creating effect of 3 broken spiral bands of flammules; spire whorls base color dark sky blue, heavily marked with thick, evenly-spaced dark brown crescent-shaped flammules, producing distinctive checkered appearance; aperture proportionally wide and flaring, colored deep purple-brown on interior; inner edge of lip colored pale yellow white; purple-brown interior marked with single narrow white band just anterior of mid-body line; periostracum thin, pale yellow, transparent.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  sahlbergi  da Motta  &  Harland,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 6,  p. 19,  f. 8-11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Bimini, Bahamas; 3-10 m
Type Data: Holotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 15. 5x 8.7 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-sahlbergi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Found at depths of 3 -12 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell small with depressed conic spire and roseate protoconch; whorls tops smooth except for last two being concave with arcuate striae. Sutures are shallow channels. Body whorl is smooth and glossy with an angulate sharply keeled shoulder; sides are flat then tapering with 6 basal sulci. Colour is polymorphic ranging form plain orange or yellow to white, purple and greenish tan and spire tinted in same colour. There is pale middle spiral band of interconnected blotches; the spire of white specimens is somewhat mottled brown. Aperture coloured internally same as body whorl.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  sakalava  Monnier & Tenorio, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Monnier & Tenorio

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 17, p. 33-34; Pl. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Baie Narendry, North-West Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.9 x 14.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-sakalava
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-North-West Madagascar, in the Mozambique Channel between West of Nosy Bé and Baie Mahajamba
Habitat:-at depths ranging from 46 to 680 m (46 to 54 for live collected specimens)
Description:-
Shell moderately  small, conical in profile. Protoconch is rather small and paucispiral of 2 whorls. the shell has about 13 whorls; five early postnuclear whorls tuberculate, late teleoconch whorls smooth. Spire of concave profile. Apex of the spire pinkish in color. Teleoconch whorls flat with numerous radial threads and very weak spiral striae. Suture deep and narrow. Shoulder sharply angulate with dark brown square dots. Last whorl sides straight or slightly concave. Basal area with 6 to 7 closely-spaced spiral ribs. Aperture narrow and of uniform width. The pattern of the last whorl consist in intermittent irregularly spaced brown spiral lines, axial brown blotches and streaks and on an ivory white background. A lighter faint spiral band is present in the middle of the last whorl

 

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Conus  salletae  Cossignani, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 82, p. 25 - 26
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Espingueira, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 15,5 x 9,3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-salletae
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- The specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 2 meters deep, on rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Shell pyriform small ( 14 to 24 mm ) spire low profile with barely concave shape; protoconch almost flat, sutures slightly cut; aperture wider than species of the same genus and that starts from the shoulder without step evident, with internal staining blue-violet with darker medial band. 8 grooves spirally run anteriorly around whorl. The coloring of the shell is plain mostly brown to dark brown (lighter in young specimens ) with a lighter median band.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  salreiensis  Rolán,  1980

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Boll. Malacol. xvi, no. 3-4,  p. 84, . pl. 2, f. 1,  pl. 3,  f. 3 & 6
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Sal-Rei, Boavista Is., Cape Verde Is.; 1-2 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20.1 x 11.9 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of crotchii  Reeve, 1849; see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-salreiensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-It is found on the rocks in depth of one or two meters being almost always covered with small rocks and on the algae, and rarely buried.
Description:-Source Original description from the Spanish
Seashell obconical, moderately solid, with silhouette of almost straight edges, shoulder rounded, spire low and somewhat concave, with sharp apex; suture slightly marked. The spire whorls present constantly three spiral striae to each suture. Some low spiral ribs near the anterior tip.
The color and pattern are quite characteristic and constant: a dark brown zone that is situated in the anterior third of the seashell; another of the same color in the posterior near the shoulder, and of the same color on the spire whorls; between both zones a lighter part, at times crossed by one (or two) brown bands more or less marked; this clear axial zone, is of constant form in all the specimens crossed by numerous fine wavy lines and clearly visible with magnification. The variations of color depend on the brown bands that vary from almost nonexistent, becoming very marked. In the small specimens, the absence of bands in the central zone of the seashell, is frequent.
The interior is generally light, revealing sometimes the underlying lilac or violet color; columela always black.
The larger specimens are found covered with calcareous concretions , on the other hand the juveniles show perfectly the pattern under the periostracum.
Discussion:

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus crotchii  Reeve, 1849

 

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Conus  salzmanni  Raybaudi G. (Massilia)  &  Rolán,  1997

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Picture Original Description

 

Published in: Argonauta ix p. 11,  f. 1-14, 18, 30, 31, 36-38
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Gulf of Aden; 50-150 m
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33 x 15.5 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-salzmanni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Djibouti, Little Aden and Somalia
Habitat:-Found at depths to 150 m
Description:-Original description.
Shell: Moderately small to medium sized (up to 39 mm in length). Moderately solid. Last whorl conical, sides slightly convex adapically, then straight. Shoulder angulate. Spire moderately low (Relative spire height 0.11-0.15), outline straight or very slightly concave. Protoconch smooth, with 1.75 to 2 whorls, counted from the origin, maximum diameter 0. 6 -0.7 mm. Postnuclear whorls smooth, 9-10 in the holotype. Teleoconch sutural ramps straight, with about 3 to 5 shallow subsutural spiral grooves. Last whorl smooth at adapical half, with evenly spaced, weak spiral ribs in adults, and with more pronounced spiral ribs extending onto subshoulder in subadults, to shoulder area in juveniles. Aperture narrow, of uniform width.
Ground colour white, beige or bluish grey. Last whorl with spiral rows of light brown dots and bars evenly. distributed from shoulder to base. Bars in adjacent rows above the centre may coalesce into irregular blotches. Spire stained with scattered radial brown spots. Larval shell brownish grey. Aperture white to dark brown or purplish brown within a lighter collabral edge. Periostracum brownish, thin, translucent, and smooth. Operculum small.
Discussion:-C. salzmanni has since been misinterpreted as a local form of C. inscriptus from Aden (E. A. Smith. 1891. However, C. inscriptus and its Eastem African subspecies C. inscriptus adenensis, which occurs sympatrically with C. salzmanni, both have a multispiral, ('up to 3 whorls in shells from Mozambique.. Rockel et al. 1995), wider (maximum diameter about 0.9 mm) and generally a white larval shell. and weakly to distinctly tuberculate early 2-4 postnuclear whorls.
C. i. inscriptus from central Indian localities attains shell length almost double than C. salzmanni, tends to have broader, more ventricose last whorl (Relative diameter up to 0.68) and a concave to sigmoid spire outline. Sympatrical shells of C. inscriptus adenensis also have a higher (Relative spire height: 013 -0.23, vs. 0. 15- 0.16) and more concave spire. a heavier spiral sculpture of ribs and ribbons on their last whor1s and often a very deep pink inner aperture.

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Conus  samiae   da Motta,  1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1,  p. 12,  f. 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Balut Is., Mindanao, Philippines; ca. 200 m
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57.5 x 34 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus sulcatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-sulcatus samiae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines and Solomon Is.
Habitat:-Reported in depths of 20 to 240 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. sulcatus
Form samiae with rows of brown spots on spiral elevations of last whorl, fusing or concentrating into 2-3 spiral bands. Larval whorls and adjacent postnucelar sutural ramps immaculate, following sutural ramps maculated with brown radial markings, ranging from mainly brown to mainly white. Aperture white.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sanctaemarthae  Vink,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RNHL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Meded. (Leiden), ii, no. 5,  p. 91,  pl. 1,  f. 5, pl. 4, f. 4-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Ten km. north of Santa Marta, Colombia.
Type Data: Holotype in RNHL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53 x 29.2 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786 or Conus  granarius   Kiener,  1845

Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Seminoleconus Species:-mappa sanctaemarthae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms

 

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Conus  sanderi   Wils & Moolenbeek,  1979

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Bijdr. Dierkd. xlix,  no. 2,  p. 255,  f. 1-6, 10
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off St. James, West Barbados; 155-180 m
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.1 x 11.2 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-sanderi
Synonyms:-
hunti Wils & Moolenbeek, 1979; knudseni Sander, 1982; sorenseni Sander, 1982; and according to Filmer: carioca Petuch, 1986; perprotractus Petuch, 1987
Geographic Range:-Barbados
Habitat:-Dredged from sand and shell gravel- rubble bottoms at depths of 45 to 180 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A slender shell, 20 to 35 mm (50 mm in Brazilian specimens near the southern limit of the range), with low to moderate, sharply pointed, concave spire and rather straight sides of the body whorl. Shoulder angulate, body whorl smooth except for spiral ridges near the base, which in some specimens may cover the whole body whorl. Tops of the whorls with 4 to 5 spiral striae, sometimes obscured by fine concave growth lines. Nucleus: 2 1/2 whorls; axial sculpture on the sides of the first 2 to 4 postnuclear whorls; sculpture often not apparent because of erosion, but first 3 postnuclear whorls always with high sides, the shoulder distinctly overhanging the suture of the next whorl. Colour and pattern highly variable.
Discussion:-
C.  hunti was described in same paper as C. sanderi and Wils stated differences as:-C.  hunti is purplish and has spiral grooves over whole body of last whorl while sanderi is yellowish orange with grooves only on basal area.
C.  sorensi is a large white form from Barbados.
C.  knudseni is a white form with straight sides and very pale orange broad bands from Barbados.

 

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Conus   sandwichensis   Walls,  1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Pariah no. 2, p. 3,  pl. (on p. 7)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Pokai Bay, Oahu, Hawaii
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14.4 x 7 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus suturatus Reeve, 1844 or a valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tesselliconus Species:- sandwichensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Hawaii
Habitat:-Found under reefs to 150 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. suturatus
C. s. sandwichensis differs in its less solid shell with a strictly conical, narrower and more straight-sided last whorl and a moderately high, stepped spire. Subadults from Hawaii have more pronounced sculpture on the last whorl, with spiral grooves extending to shoulder; intervening ribs usually with minute granules
Source Walls
C. s. sandwichensis matches C. s. suturatus in pattern, except for mostly darker spiral bands on last whorl, a pale orange-brown base, and a usually maculated spire.
C.  suturatus suturatus body whorl usually ovate or ovately conical, the sides convex; spire low/flat pattern of two three spiral bands of pale tan to dark pink tan on white or pink lacking reddish or orange rectangles on top of bands; opaque white spots seldom developed; Indo west Pacific;
C. suturatus sandwichensis Body whorl low conical, narrow, the sides straight; spire tall with straight/concave sides; pattern of two broad spiral bands of pale tan to pinkish tan on white;juveniles and many adults with numerous rectangles of brown or orange over the bands or entire shell; spots of opaque white in juveniles;sometimes weakly granulose;
Hawaiian Islands;

Raised to the status of a valid species by Chaney, Tucker & Tenorio in Shells of the Hawaiian Islands – The Sea Shells.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sanguinolentus  Quoy  &  Gaimard,  1834

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Quoy & Gaimard (1834, pl. 53, fig. 18)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Voy. Astrolabe. Zool.. iii, vol. iii,  p. 99,  pl. 53,  f. 18
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Carteret, New Guinea
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Quoy & Gaimard (1834, Pl. 53 fig. 18)
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-sanguinolentus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific; absent from Hawaii and Central Indian Ocean.
Habitat:-Usually in 0.5 to 3 m on sand and reef rock under coral boulders.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to slightly pyriform, consistently conical in shells from Marquesas and Tahiti; outline variably convex at adapical third or half, straight to faintly concave below. Shoulder angulate, faintly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly concave. Postnuclear spire whorls strongly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably granulose spiral ribs on basal half, sometimes to subshoulder area.
Last whorl olive to orange brown, except for whitish granules on spiral ribs. Some specimens with a slightly lighter central spiral band. Often evenly spaced brown spiral lines from base to subshoulder area, abapically following granulated spiral ribs. Base and basal part of columella purplish brown. Apex yellowish white to bright orange. Late postnuclear sutural ramps matching colouration of last whorl except for nearly white tubercles. Aperture bright bluish violet behind a bright orange-brown marginal zone; whitish violet deeper within.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-65 mm
RW 0.18-0.70 g/mm
(L 30-60 mm)
RD 0.60-0.71
PMD 0.82-0.95
RSH 0.06-0.16
Discussion:-C. sanguinolentus is very similar to C. lividus, and the relationship of the two taxa are not fully resolved. Cernohorsky (1964) redescribed C. sanguinolentus; the name clearly applies to the species described here. C. lividus differs in its somewhat larger maximum size, strictly conical last whorl and in its immaculate later sutural ramps. The pale central band on the last whorl and within the aperture characteristic of C. lividus is faint or totally absent in C. sanguinolentus (see Marsh, 1971). In areas where both species occur sympatrically, they are either clearly separable by the colouration of the animal (N. Papua New Guinea; Fiji; Kenya, fide Cernohorsky, 1964) or identical in this character (Red Sea; Queensland). Across their entire ranges, the colour pattern of the animal is not a reliable character for distinguishing the two species. Conchological intergrades between C. lividus and C. sanguinolentus have not been found where both co-occur, and in such situations they occupy slightly different microhabitats (Kohn, unpubl. observ.). RKK thus regard these taxa as distinct species.
The conchological differences between C. sanguinolentus and the violet-coloured variant from the Marquesas and Tahiti are too slight to justify a separation on the species level. This form is sometimes erroneously referred to as C. unicolor Sowerby (a nomen dubium). RKK assign it as a form of C. sanguinolentus rather than of C. lividus, because of the rare presence of a pale central band on the last whorl and the consistent presence of dark markings between the shoulder tubercles. DNA studies showed that we deal with a valid species. Description is in preparation (Pers. Comm.)

 

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Conus  santaluziensis  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima

Picture Link: Paratype Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 88, p. 4 - 5
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia do Agua Doce, Santa Luzia I., Cape Verde Is.; 2-6 m
Type Data: Holotype in MMM
Type Size: 21.6 x 12.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid name
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-santaluziensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Santa Luzia, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:- 2 – 6 m, algae on rocks
Description:-Source Original description
Shell of small dimensions (15 to 36 mm), pyriform with medium high spire and convex profile. The tops of whorls have weak spiral striae and are usually stepped near to apex. The whorl is moderately convex in the adapical area and has a homogenous fawn colour with sparse white pattern of arrows pointing right. Fine spiral striae cover whorl and are deeper in basal area where colour is darker. Aperture wide with marbled white colour inside.

Discussion:

 

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Conus  santanaensis   Afonso & Tenorio, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCN  Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 49 & 50, Fig. 2, pl. 1
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Praia Gonçalo located on the Northeast coast of Maio Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, West Africa.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCN, deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17,1 x 8,8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-santanaensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- It is usually found beneath rocks in small groups of 2 to 6 individuals partially buried in clean, white sand. Although specimens have been found between 1.5 and 4 metres, the possibility that the new species might occur at greater depths cannot be ruled out.
Description:-Source: Original description Xenophora Taxonomy
Shell small, with a ventricosely conical, bullet-shaped form. Spire moderate to high,

slightly stepped, with a straight profile. Protoconch not observed due to erosion.

Sutural ramps slightly convex, with 3 to 5 spiral cords becoming obsolete in later whorls.

Shoulder rounded, indistinct. Body whorl smooth except for 6-7 spiral grooves on the

anterior portion. The ground colour of the shell ranges from dark green or olive-green

to greenish grey. The middle of the body whorl has a creamy-white spiral band. A

narrower, less evident reddish-brown spiral band is present around the shoulder. Small

white dashes and flecks are variably distributed on the body whorl and spire, mainly concentrated on mid portion and often overlaid on the central band. Tiny reddish-brown markings may be also present in-between the white blotch pattern. In some specimens thin reddish-brown axial lines may cover most of the last whorl. The spire has the same colour as the body whorl and is patterned by well-spaced white blotches. The aperture widens from the mid portion to the base. Aperture colour is dark reddish-brown to purple brown with two light cream bands; a wide one located just below the midsection, and a narrower one close to the upper part of aperture near the shoulder area. Outer lip is yellow-brown. Periostracum is thin, translucent, light yellow in colour. Shells of this new species are usually well preserved, showing few scars and eventually fine calcareous Bryozoan incrustations around the early whorls.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  santinii  Monnier & Limpalaër, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten  Paratype 22

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 15 – 23, fig. on p. 16, Pl. on p. 20 - 22
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Dollar Bay, Naviti Island, Yasawa Group. Fiji Archipelago
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.61 x 13,94 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-santinii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Fiji
Habitat:-Collected in 15 to 20 m depth
Description:- Original description

The shell is conical in overall shape. The protoconch and the first teleoconch whorls are pointed. The spire is concave in the first whorls and become progressively straighter. Protoconch is small, rounded, white and smooth. The whorls are stepped and have an undulate periphery with 9 to 13 irregular rounded knobs. On the last whorl. They are sculptured with three to four spiral grooves on the undulate sutural ramps. The adult shell has 11 to 12 whorls. The anal notch is moderately deep and V shaped.

The last whorl is conical with straight to slightly convex sides. The surface shows a porcellaneous gloss. The aperture is long, straight and does not widen anteriorly. The last whorl is sculptured with 8 to 10 spiral grooves that are deeper near the base and progressively become obsolete towards one third of the height of the last whorl.

The ground color of the shell is ivory white. The pattern is made of brown to chocolate-brown irregular blotches with intricate pattern all around the last whorl that may connect to form axial flames. The blotches are less conspicuous at the middle of the last whorl. Moreover, the last whorl can have between 18 to 30 hairlines composed of irregularly scattered very thin orang brown dashes. The dashes never contain paler spots but are separated by interspaces whiter than the ground color. The spire is white to pale grey color with irregular dark brown spots situated between some knobs. The interior of the aperture is pure white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  saragasae  Rolán,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 6,  Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 6, p.
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Saragasa, Punta Saragasa, Costa Este de la Isla de San Vicente; 2 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.8 x 12.4 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-saragasae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-Found about 2 meters under stones
Description:-Source Original paper 1986 from the Spanish, Extract
The seashell is conical, with slightly raised spire and somewhat stepped, shoulder well marked and color between yellow and light brown. The pattern is formed by three bands each with reticular pattern with small white areas that alternate with the other two colors, and with color bands that are almost smooth and that generally are smaller in the larger specimens and are situated a near the base and another in the upper half of the last return. Above the shoulder, the spire has alternating brown and white areas. Grooves little marked in the base. In the interior two zones of brown color are suggested, separated by a white zone. There is no sexual dimorphism. The nucleus and the first whorls of the protoconch are white. The periostracum is yellow, fine and transparent. The operculum is small, oval and somewhat extended. The animal is of pink color somewhat dark; with magnification are appreciated irregularities in form of grayish spots to both sides of the body and on the sole.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  sargenti  Petuch, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH   D. Sargent

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 224-225; p. 104, fig. 7.6, G
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic

Type Locality: 20 km southeast of Roatan Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.7 x 10.75 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily: -CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-sargenti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Honduras
Habitat:-Trawled from 30 m depth
Description:-Source Original Description

Shiny and polished shell, subfusiform, with rounded convex sides; shoulder sharply angled, edged with large, prominent rounded carina; spire elevated, subpyramidal, distinctly stepped; subsutural area and spire whorls depressed, shallowly canaliculated; posterior half of body whorl smooth and shiny, with few faint inscribed spiral threads; anterior half of body whorl heavily sculptured with 10 prominent, deeply-incised spiral sulci, becoming deeper and more prominent toward anterior tip; shell uniformly pale cream-white with few widely-scattered very pale yellow amorphous flammules on body whorl; carina of spire whorls sometimes marked with widely-separated tiny pale tan dots; protoconch proportionally large, composed of two and one-half whorls, pale yellow-tan in color; early whorls pale yellow-tan; aperturte uniformly narrow, widening slightly at anterior end; interior of aperture cream-white in color.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  sartii   Korn,  Niederhöfer  &  Blöcher,  2002

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxxiii, no. 301,  p. 32,  f. 1-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Tulear, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x 11 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus? Species:-sartii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms   Petuch, 2013
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100 m
Description:-Source original description La conchiglia
Shell morphometry: sculpture and color of teleoconch
L (Shell Length) 25 - 26.6 mm (moderately small)
I,W (Relative Weight ) 0.06 - 0.07 g/mm (moderately light)
RD (Relative Diameter) 059 - 0.62
PMD (Position of Maximum Diameter) 079 - 083
RSH (Relative Spire Height) 0.23 - 0.27 (high)
Shape of last whorl ventricosely conical; Outline of last whorl convex adapically, straight (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shape of shoulder carinate to angulate.Sculpture of shoulder smooth. Spire outline slightly concave, stepped. Exhalent notch moderately deep.Outline of teleoconch sutural ramps flat.Suture deep and wide, with distinct granulose subsutural ridge.Sculpture of teleoconch sutural ramps early postnuclear whorls smooth; late sutural ramps with weak arcuate axial striae and 3-4 spiral grooves separated by finely granulose ribs. Outer quarter of the ramps (area between last spiral groove and outer margin) without spiral sculpturing.Sculpture of last whorl strong spiral ribbons separated by narrow to occasionally broad grooves from base to shoulder; grooves axially striate.
Color pattern of last whorl ground color white. Brown maculae fusing into rectangular spots and axial streaks or flames; with a brown spiral band on each side of center and a narrower brown subsboulder barrel. Brown axial markings interrupting white shoulder zone. Aperture translucent.Color of teleoconch spire early postnuclear whorls light brown, later whorls variably maculated with white and light brown
Morphometry and color of protoconch
Number of larval whorls: 3.0 (multispiral)
Maximum diameter: 0.65 mm
Color: white grading into light brown
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  saundersi   Cotton,  1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Rec. S. Austral. Mus. 8, p. 264,  pl. 4,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Edithburgh, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia
Type Data: Holotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57 x 32 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone saundersi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Australia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell pyriform, rather wide,spire short,sharp with concave sides; body whorl and spire covered with regular spiral striae; body whorl sharply angled at shoulder, the top of the spire whorls forming flat surface;outer lip convex, aperture quite wide widening anteriorly. Anterior base of body whorl strongly spirally lirate. Colour pattern of reddish brown axial flammules forming arrowhead shapes at their margins. Ground colour cream; aperture violet within.
Discussion:-RKK assign as form of C. anemone.

 

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Conus  sauros  Garcia,  2006

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in HMNS Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Novapex 7 (2-3), 71-76
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Port Aransa, Texas, USA
Type Data: Holotype in HMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.5 x 10.6 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species, possibly a fossil
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:Dalliconus? Species:-sauros
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Texas, Gulf of Mexico
Habitat:-Found at depths of 28-150 m
Description:-Source Original description
Holotype 29.5 mm length, light in weight, conically elongated (width/ length ratio 0.36) . Protoconch missing. Teleoconch of 8 whorls; whorls shouldered, carinated; carina on early whorls almost central, progressing anteriorly on later whorls. Suture deep . Axial sculpture of numerous arched thread on shoulder, evanescing at carina, weakly appearing again anterior to carina; last whorl with numerous, relatively wide, low, flat axial threads ; threads becoming weaker and narrower when crossing spiral cords. Spiral sculpture of two to four strong threads posterior to carina, creating reticulations at shoulder when crossing over axial elements; threads followed by a heavy, nodulose, otherwise smooth cord and one or two undulating threads anterior to carina; last whorl with strong, flat, evenly distributed spiral cords; cords as wide as interspaces, minutely wrinkled by axial threads. Color light cream.
Discussion:- Pers. Comment Ed Petuch: A late Pleistocene fossil; a composite species because Paratype 7 is a specimen of Conus armiger Crosse, 1858.

 

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Conus  sazanka   Shikama,  1970

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokohama Nat'l. Univ. sect. II,  no. 16,  p. 25, pl. , f. 24 &  25
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: S. W. Kochi Pref., Japan
Type Data:  Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.7 x 21.4 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-sazanka
Synonyms:-
yoshioi Azuma, 1973; kurzi Petuch, 1974
Geographic Range:-Japan, Philippines, E. Indonesia, New Caledonia, Hawaii, South Africa, Reunion, Madagascar, and Somalia
Habitat:-Reported from depths between 50 and 200 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical; outline almost straight to moderately convex with a constriction above base. Shoulder subangulate to angulate, undulate to weakly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 4.0 whorls, maximum diameter 0.90-0.95 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls undulate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few faint spiral ribs at base.
Colour reddish to brownish orange, occasionally yellow or light violet. Last whorl usually with a lighter band around centre, frequently interspersed with white flecks and adapically edged with brownish spots. In Philippine shells, uniform colouration often replaced by dark and light clouds above centre; white axial streaks below shoulder and across central band. Larval whorls orangish pink to faint yellow. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably maculated with darker yellow, pink or orange axial blotches. Aperture translucent.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-42 mm
RW 0.06-0.18 g/mm
(L 25-38 mm)
RD 0.56-0.64
PMD 0.86-0.93
RSH 0.04-0.18
Discussion:-
Shells of C. sazanka from Japan and South Africa are very similar to each other and are strikingly uniform in colour pattern. Philippine specimens are more variable in colouration and pattern, even at the same locality; differences in shape or sculpture cannot be observed. Hawaiian shells vary both in colour (yellow to deep orange) and in sculpture of the last whorl (partly or entirely encircled by granular spiral lirae). However, colour and sculptural variants appear to co-occur. The colour pattern variability observed in Hawaii closely matches that known from Philippines.
C. yoshioi described from Japan is very similar to the type specimen brick red in colour with a few midbody white blotches.

 

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Conus  scabriusculus  Dillwyn,  1817

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1795, pl. 182, figs. 1768, 1769)

 

Published in: Descr. Cat. Rec. Shells I,  p. 406
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None; Sierre Leone, (West Africa), (Chemnitz). (erroneous).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1795,  pl. 182 figs. 1768, 1769)
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus coffeae Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name scabriusculus

 

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Conus  scalaris  Valenciennes,  1832

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN MNHN

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Humboldt & Bonpland's Voy. Inter. Amerique-Recueil ii, p. 338
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Acapulco, Mexico
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23.3 x 9.6 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-scalaris
Synonyms:-
helenae Schwengel, 1955
Geographic Range:-Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur to mid-Golfo de California, Mexico; South to Colombia
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
Normal length is between 30 and 50 mm. Shell shape seems to not vary much. The body whorl is narrowly elongated in shape. The spire is elevated and slightly scalariform, conical to slightly concave in profile. Sutural ramps are flat in cross section. The shoulders are angular and carinate. Sides are flat. Cords are absent. Nodules are present only in the earliest whorls and these are actually flutes along the shoulder angle rather than well-marked hemispherical nodules. They become absent in early middle whorls. The protoconch is paucispiral of 2 whorls. Color pattern is variable. It consists of brown or tan over a white ground color. These brown markings are variable in pattern. Most commonly, they are in two bands. The bands are separated from each other at the midbody area. However, this midbody area may have brown longitudinal markings that interconnect the bands. Where the bands are lighter, spiral lines of darker colored markings may be present. The lines are interrupted. The color markings on the body whorl are all the same color shade. The anterior end is white. The interior of the aperture is white. The spire is often marked by crescent - shaped brown blotches. Most of the area of the spire is colored. The area along the shoulder angle on the whorl tops are a darker shade of brown or tan than the shade on the remainder of the spire and body whorl. The anal notch is deep. There is no anterior notch. The body whorl is usually smooth except for a few sulci near the anterior end.
Discussion:-This is the eastern Pacific species usually circulated among dealers and collectors as Conus castaneus.

 

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Conus scalarispira Bozzetti,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Paris   Luigi Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 76, p. 3, figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Lavanono, Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype  deposited MNHN Paris

Type Size: 9,30 x 4.95  mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy:
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONOLITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONOLITHINAE
Genus:-Pseudoliliconus Species:-lscalarispira
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
Habitat:-
Tidal grit
Description:-Original description
Profile ventricosely conical, shoulder subangulate, body whorl convex on right side, slightly sigmoid on left side; protoconch broken; body whorl sides smooth with the exeption of 7-8 spiral basal grooves. Body whorl background color pink, deeper on the protoconch and early teleoconch whorls, one greyish spiral band on the wall posterior half, shoulder stained with a lighter shade of pink. Inside aperture brown, inner edge of outer lip pink.
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

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Conus  scalarissimus  da Motta,  1988

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype  C. gradatus Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 11,  p. 47
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Salango. Is., Ecuador (C. gradatus Reeve, 1843)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued (C. gradatus)
Type Size: 81 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: an Available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. gradatus Reeve, 1843.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-scalarissimus
Synonyms:-
gradatus Reeve, 1843
Geographic Range:-Gulf of California to Ecuador
Habitat:-Dredged at 20-200 m.
Description:-Source Extract Iconography.
This is a medium-sized to moderately large species
Normal size ranges between 30 and 60 nm. Shell shape is variable. The species is narrowly elongated conical in shape. The spire is elevated and scalariform, concave in profile. Sutural ramps are at least slightly concave in cross section. The shoulders are angular. Sides are flat except for the shoulder region where they are slightly convex; Cords are absent. Nodules are present only in the earliest whorls and these are actually flutes along the shoulder angle rather than well-marked hemispherical nodules. They become absent in early middle whorls. The protoconch is paucispiral. Color pattern is variable but rather simple. It consists of various shades of brown over a white ground color. The brown coloration primarily occurs in two zones. One extends from just anterior to the shoulder angle to midbody and the other starts anterior to the midbody region and extends just posterior to the anterior end. These brown markings are exceedingly variable in pattern and color shade. When extensively developed, the bands are solidly brown to tan. Over these brown areas spiral lines of darker colored markings are present. The lines may be interrupted but they are always fairly thick along the longitudinal axis. At the minimum the brown coloration is reduced to these lines alone with no brown bands or other longitudinal markings. Between these extremes, many specimens have the brown bands reduced to longitudinally elongated blotches. These blotches are usually interrupted at midbody. The anterior end is white. The interior of the aperture is white. The spire is often marked by crescent-shaped brown blotches. These are the same color shade as the markings on the body whorl. The anal notch is deep. There is no anterior notch. The body whorl is. usually smooth except for a few sulci near the anterior end.
Discussion:-G. scalarissimus is a species with a long thin body but with an elevated scalariform spire that is concave in profile. In contrast, G. regularis has a short conical body and a low non-scalariform spire and has a brown colored interior of the aperture. G. monilifer is a short bodied, carinate and long spired species

 

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Conus  scalptus   Reeve,  1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus, pl. 37, sp. 203
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-scalptus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Philippines - Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-Shallow water to 20 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, light to moderately light. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline convex, less so abapically. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of moderate height, outline concave to sigmoid. Larval shell probably of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 1- 2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves. Last whorl with spiral grooves on basal third to half; ribbons grading to ribs anteriorly and weak in large specimens.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with rather closely spaced, yellow or reddish brown, interrupted and continuous spiral lines from base almost to shoulder and with sparse scattered small markings of the same colour. Spiral pattern underlain by pale tan or orangish brown spiral bands on adapical half and within basal third. Larval whorls grey. Later sutural ramps with yellow to reddish brown radial streaks or blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 22-28 mm
RW 0.05-0.09 g/mm
RD 0.54-0.64
PMD 0.76-0.85
RSH 0.12-0.18
Discussion:-In the past, C. scalptus has been confused with similarly patterned C. mucronatus. C. scalptus is a smaller species (to 28 mm), its shoulder is subangulate to rounded, the spiral lines on its last whorl are finer and often dashed, and its early postnuclear whorls are not tuberculate. C. scalptus is also similar and may be closely related to C. subulatus, C. broderipii, and C. sertacinctus. C. broderipii has a larger shell, its aperture is not white, its spire is lower; its colour pattern includes 3 pronounced spiral bands of rather large markings absent in C. scalptus. C. subulatus has a narrower last whorl (RD 0.51-0.54) and an interrupted band of larger brown markings but lacks continuous brown spiral lines.

 

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Conus  scariphus   Dall,  1910

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxxviii, p. 225, 66 f.
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Off Cocos Is., Panama
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 20.5 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Kohniconus Species:-scariphus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cocos Islands
Habitat:-Reported at depths of 60 fathoms
Description:-Source Extract Iconography
This is a medium sized species. Normal size is between 35 and 50 mm. The body whorl is elongated conical in shape. The spire is elevated and slightly scalariform, conical to slightly convex in profile. Sutural ramps are concave in cross section. The shoulders are angular. Sides are concave. Cords are absent. Nodules are present on the first five whorls but then disappear. Color pattern is variable but rather simple. Excluding the white ground color, it consists of a single element. There are light orange-brown markings that are extremely variable in expression. These markings cover nearly the entire body whorl. There remain white areas inside the orange-brown reticulations. The anterior end is white. The interior of the aperture is white. The spire is marked by light brown markings. These may cover a significant portion of the spire whorl tops. They are the same color shade as the markings on the body whorl. The anal notch is deep. There is no anterior notch. The body whorl is smooth except for some sulci near the anterior end. The protoconch is multispiral
Discussion:-This species is most similar to K. emarginatus. It is recognizable due to the generally heavier development of coloration in K. scariphus. There are no differences between K. emarginatus and K. scariphus in the morphology of the protoconch, early spire nodules, whorl tops, carina, anterior sulci. However, shell coloration is actually quite distinctive as K. scariphus does standout in a large series of K. emarginatus, by its more subtle brown tone, the finer detail of the markings, which produces a soft tented pattern. The characteristic K. emarginatus flammules when seen on K. scariphus are at the anterior end only, whereas those markings on K. emarginatus are boldy contrasted against the white background coloration throughout the body whorl and up the spire

 

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Conus  schech  Weinkauff,  1873

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in ZMB Bill Fenzan ZMB

 

Published in: Syst. Conch. Cab. 2, Lief. 222,  p. 229, pl. 37,  10
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Massawa, Dahlak, Red Sea
Type Data: Syntype in ZMB deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35.5 x 20.5 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus locumtenens Blumenbach, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name schech

 

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Conus  schirrmeisteri  Coltro,  2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZUSP Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Strombus 11, p. 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Sulfur Bank, 125 km NE Abrolhos Arch., off Alcobaca, Bahia State, Brazil (15deg 50' S, 37deg 57' W)
Type Data: Holotype in MZUSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 10 x 6 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-schirrmeisteri
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brasil
Habitat:-Lives on rubble and coral sand bottom at 20-35 meters on offshore reefs on central Bahia State, Brazil
Description:-Source original description
Length: 8 to 11 mm, solid body with a strong deflection in 1/6 near the siphonal canal, medium nodulose spire (about 1/6 of total length) with 5-6 whorls, irregular, with a sub-sutural cord. About 10 irregular white or brown nodules on the shoulder, suture with white and brown cord. Body with 10-13 incised lines covering almost 3/4 of entire body, due the lines the body looks slighty nodulose. Wide dark red-orange aperture with a fine white margin. Apex large pink with 3 1/4 whorls. Color body from dark brown to dark red-brown, irregular white blotches and dots.
Discussion:-This new species resembles C. iansa Petuch, 1979 . The body shape is very similar and the most important differences are the deflection, more abrupt in C. schirrmeisteri; the incised lines deeper and very pronuncied on C. schirrmeisteri; and a wide aperture on C..iansa. The body of  C. iansa is very nodulose, while in C. schirrmeisteri is almost smooth. Conus schirrmeisteri lives in a seamountain top, isolated of main land by a distance of about 130 km and by depths up to 4,000 meters. Conus schirrmeisteri and C. bodarti seem to be closely related to C. iansa, but while C .iansa is an Abrolhos Archipelago species, C.schirrmeisteri and C. bodarti ranges far north, in a remote offshore reef.
Tucker suggests that iansa, bodarti,delucai, schirrmeisteri are a group of synonyms separate from mindanus. According to Petuch C. schirrmeisteri is a synonym of C. iansa.

 

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Conus  scitulus  Reeve,  1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl.,  pl. ix,  sp. 283
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 9 mm figure
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis scitulus forma
Synonyms:-
danieli Crosse, 1858
Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:-Intertidal to over 50 m depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Small to medium-sized shell (15-40mm). Looks a lot like C. a. algoensis but usually with a lower spire and a more rounded shoulder. The ground colour of the shell is white with a bluish shade. The pattern consists of a broad brown band (occasionally red-brown or even blood-red) below the shoulder, and many spiral lines of alternating white bars and brown dots on the last whorl. Axial brown streaks often present in variable numbers, especially around the basal region. Spire colour and pattern as in C. a. algoensis.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  scopulicola  Okutani,  1972

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Published in: Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., no. 72,  p. 98,  pl. II,  f. 12
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Hyotanse Bank, Izu-Shichito Is., off Honshu, Japan; 200 m
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.2 x 9.1 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-scopulicola
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-SE Honshu, Japan
Habitat:-Found at depths of 200 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Last whorl ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder rounded to indistinct. Spire high, outline slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of 2 whorls. First postnuclear whorl weakly tuberculate. Telcoconch sutural ramps slightly convex, with 3 increasing to 5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with fine closely spaced spiral ribs.
Ground colour cream. Last whorl with brown axial flames forming 3 variably continuous spiral bands, below shoulder and on both sides of centre. Adapical and central ground-colour band with 1-2 spiral rows of brown spots. Larval whorls and adjacent teleoconch sutural ramp white. Following sutural ramps with brown radial streaks and blotches, covering nearly the entire ramp in late whorls. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 17-22 mm
RW - g/mm
RD 0.55-0.58
PMD 0.77-0.80
RSH 0.25-0.28
Discussion:-C. scopulicola is only provisionally considered a valid species, as it may represent the subadult stage of a larger member of the species-group represented by C. smirna. C. lani differs in its narrower, more conical last whorl (RD 0.50-0.55; PMD 0.84-0.89) with straight outline, and in its more uniform colouration. C. smirna has a less ventricose last whorl and its spire has more tuberculate whorls (5-6). C. profundorum has more tuberculate spire whorls (4-7), 3 or more larval whorls, a generally more distinct shoulder and a spirally orientated last whorl pattern with only one adapical colour band. C. ikedai can be distinguished by its generally narrower and less ventricose last whorl (RD 0.53-0.56; PMD 0.81- 0.84), lower spire (RSH 0.16-0.21), greater number of tuberculate spire whorls (3), more distinct shoulder, and by the absence of a brown pattern.

 

----------

 

Conus  scopulorum  Van Mol, Tursch  &  Kempf,  1971

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RNHL Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Specimen from the WJ Fenzan collection  24.6 mm
Picture Link: Specimen from the WJ Fenzan collection  20.6 mm

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Zool. Meded. (Leiden),  xlv, no. 15,  p. 162, f.  3-6
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Fernando de Noronha, Brazil (3deg 53' S. 32deg 37.2' W), 90 m
Type Data: Holotype in RNHL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 9.5 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-scopulorum
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-N.  Brasil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 50-120 m
Description:-Source Vink
A small shell, up to 25 mm., with high to very high rather straight sided spire. Body whorl very slightly convex-sided, spire whorls including body whorl with strongly tuberculated shoulder. Surface with weak spiral threads near the base. Nucleus: at least 3 whorls; axial sculpture on sides of postnuclear whorls, the axial riblets are incised by two fine spiral grooves. No 'internal restriction' within the aperture. Operculum small, radula tooth with rather short blade and with only one strong tooth at the blade, besides the small barb at the apex. Periostracum yellowish, translucent. Shell white with yellowish brown patches and maculations arranged in two broad bands. In addition fine irregular axial and spiral lines, occasionally forming a 'brick- wall' pattern.
Discussion:-C. scopulorum cannot be easily confused with other species, because of its distinct colour and pattern, strongly tuberculated whorls and small size.

 

----------

 

Conus  scottjordani   Poppe,  Monnier  &  Tagaro, 2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Eric Monnier

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya 3 (5), 47
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cuyo Islands 10-25 m
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 68.7 x 31.3 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-scottjordani
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Found at depths of 10-25 m
Description:-Source Original description
The shell is medium sized, between solid and moderately heavy. The relative diameter (RD) is about 0.60; the position of the maximum diameter (PMD) is about 0.89. The shape is conical. The outline of the last whorl is straight.

The base color of the body whorl is white and. covered with a pattern of small triangles, usually called tents. The inside of the aperture is either white or toned with a pinkish tinge.

Discussion:-C. telatus differs from C. scottjordani by the much more globose body whorl, the usually higher spire and their more rough pattern with thicker textile lines.

 

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Conus  scriptus  Sowerby ii,  1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii,  p. 41,  pl. 23 (209), f. 563
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Holotype (da Motta) in BMNH
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 59 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: A homonym:- an Available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. scriptus Deshayes, 1831
Taxonomy: An invalid synonym:- a synonym (form) of Conus  textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile scriptus forma
Geographic Range:-
Mauritius
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. textile
C. scriptus Lighter than other forms of C. textile. Last whorl ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical, sometimes approaching ovate or cylindrical (RD 0.55-0.63; PMD 0.74-0.77). Larval shell of about 2 white whorls; spire comparatively high (RSH 0.13-0.18). Spiral colour bands reduced to rows of spots and flecks. Known from St. Brandon, Indian Ocean

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sculletti   Marsh,  1962

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Malacol. Soc. Aust., no. 6,  p. 42,  pl. 4,  f. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Cape Moreton, south of Queensland, Australia; 80-120 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Endemoconus Species:-sculletti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Queensland, Australia; N New South Wales
Habitat:-Found at depths of 20-150 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical, outline slightly concave. Shoulder sharply angulate to carinate. Spire low, outline concave to straight. Larval shell of 1.75-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1.4- 1.5 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with pronounced radial threads and sometimes weak spiral striae adaxially. Last whorl sometimes with a few very weak spiral grooves near base.
Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with very pale violet or pink. Last whorl with brown spots and flecks and axial streaks and blotches, fusing into a variable number of spiral bands, usually on basal third, just above centre and on adapical third. Larval whorls grade from beige to brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with irregularly arranged brown radial markings. Aperture cream, pink or brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 38-49 mm
RW 0.08-0.16 g/mm
(L 38-45 mm)
RD 0.50-0.58
PMD 0.95-1.00
RSH 0.06-0.12
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sculpturatus   Röckel  &  da Motta,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Heldia. 1,  p. 133, f. 1, 3 & 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Dredged from Tayabas Bay, Samar Is., Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.6 x 17.9 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-sculpturatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Samar and Marinduque, Philippines
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to narrowly conical, sometimes narrowly conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical; outline variably convex, straight (right side) and concave (left side) basally. Shoulder carinate. Spire usually of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of 2.5-3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 2-3 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 6-8 spiral grooves. Last whorl with strong spiral ribs and pairs of ribs, often weakly granulose; intervening grooves with axial threads crossed by weak spiral striae or threads.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with irregularly arranged brown dashes and dots on spiral ribs and in grooves between, often fusing in axial streaks or blotches, and in 2 interrupted spiral bands. Larval whorls white, sometimes grading to light beige. Early postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate beige; following ramps white, with brown radial streaks and blotches. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 32-44 mm
RW 0.08-0.12 g/mm
RD 0.48-0.52
PMD 0.78-0.90
RSH 0.12-0.17
Discussion:-C. sculpturatus resembles C. alabaster, which differs in its broader last whorl (RD 0.52-0.58), larger number (3-6) of tuberculate early whorls, rather flat late sutural ramps, and in its white to sparsely maculated last whorl and spire. C. asiaticus also has a broader last whorl (RD 0.53-0.59), more (3-6) tuberculate early whorls and a less prominent colour pattern. C. mucronatus also differs in having a broader last whorl (RD 0.52-0.62); it has a sharply angulate rather than carinate shoulder, generally weaker spiral selpture on the adapical part of the last whorl and prominent brown spiral lines on the last whorl. C. laterculatus can be distinguished by its angulate to sharply angulate rather than carinate shoulder, straighter spire outline and smaller number of spiral grooves (4-5) on the late sutural ramps; its last whorl is sculptured with ribbons rather than ribs and has straight rather than concave left side basally; its aperture is bluish-violet.

 

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Conus  segondensis  Fenzan, 2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 11-14
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Segond Channel, Luganville, Espiritu Santo, Vanuata
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.6 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mucronatus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-mucronatus segondensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Vanuata
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
The protoconch is smooth. Early teleconch whorls are slightly undulate and angular. Shape of the spire, in profile, is concave. The body whorl is conical with axially-striate spiral grooves between 17-19 angulated spiral ribs reaching to mid-body, and then ribs become flatter and wider to the shoulder. Color pattern of the shell is white to beige with wide, brown articulated bands towards the base. Pattern is interrupted by axial flames and weak tenting, especially near the shoulder. Aperture of the shell is white.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  segravei  Gatliff, J. H.,  1891

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMVM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Vict. Nat. vii, p. 179,  pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Shoreham, Victoria, Australia.
Type Data: Holotype in NMVM deposited and catalogued
Type Size :33 x 16.8 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus clarus Smith, 1881
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Austroconus Species:-clarus segravei forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Victoria, Australia
Habitat:-In 7-80 m; on sand substrate
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. clarus
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, outline moderately convex adapically and less so toward base. Shoulder usually carinate, rarely angulate. Spire of moderate height to high, often stepped; outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.2 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate except for first 2-3 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2-3 increasing to 4-8 variably arranged spiral grooves, often weaker and with spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl smooth, except distinct spiral ribs on basal third, paired and grading to ribbons toward centre.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with fusing pale violet-brown or orange-brown clouds concentrated on both sides of a subcentral spiral ground-colour band. Larval whorls white. Postnuclear sutural ramps with radial streaks matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture pink, violet, or orange-brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-54 mm
RW 0.06-0.26 g/mm
RD 0.57-0.67
PMD 0.80-0.85
RSH 0.15-0.32
Specimens with strong pink flammules were named segravei.
Gatliff states that shell is orange brown with irregular tent shaped white reticulations and encircled with many dotted lines of darker colour; narrow white band at shoulder and midbody.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  selenae  Van  Mol, Tursch  &  Kempf,  1967

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ann. Inst. Oceanogr. 45,  p. 250,  f. 13.,  pl. 8,  f. 2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil; from the stomach of a fish 40 m
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14 x 8 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Genus:-Artemidiconus Species:-selenae
Synonyms:-
yemanjae Van Mol.Tursch & Kempf, 1967
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Offshore dredged from muddy sand bottom at depths of 40 to 135 m.
Description:-Source Vink
A small shell, 10 to 20 mm, with convex sides of the body whorl and a straight sided spire. Spire whorls with 2 to 3 spiral ridges (or at least 1 or 2 faint spiral cords) often crossed by axial grooves, due to which distinct low granules are produced on the later spire whorls. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls. Shoulder rounded in typical specimens, but more angulate with large granules in the more triangular form C. yemanjae, which also has granules on the margin of some earlier whorls. Sculpture of the body whorl is highly variable: besides smooth specimens (found predominantly in the north-west part of the range) granulated specimens exist in which the granulation can be heavy or indistinct with granules close set or widely spaced, and forming axial plicae or a cobble-stone texture. Periostracum transparent yellowish. Colour: white, pinkish or yellow with orange brown, reddish or dark pinkish blotches on the spire and the body whorl, usually arranged in two irregular bands above and below the midbody area. The blotches may form uniform bands or be completely absent. Furthermore numerous spiral rows of orange brown spots or dashes may be present, often interconnecting the granules which are white.
Discussion:-C. selenae could be confused with C. anaglypticus ( which has a more angulate smooth shoulder, and no spiral ridges on the spire whorls), and C. mindanus, C. pusio and various species traditionally associated with C. jaspideus (neither of which has distinct spiral ridges on the spire whorls).
Tucker comments: Artemidiconus selenae can be distinguished from all Jaspidiconus by the structure of the spire whorls. In the former there are two to three well-developed spiral cords throughout the length of the whorl tops. In contrast, cords are not present in any species of Jaspidiconus.

 

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Conus  semivelatus  Sowerby iii, 1882

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,  p. 118,  pl. 5,  f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus  rattus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name semivelatus

 

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Conus  senegalensis  Gulden, Moolenbeek, Goud, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in RMHN Leiden, The Netherlands

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Miscellanea Malacologica 7(3): 49‒53 (18.IV.2017)
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Senegal: Fatick, Ndayan, north of Popenguine, low tide, under stones, 0.5‒1 m depth
Type Data: Holotype in RMHN Leiden, The Netherlands
Type Size: 21.2 mm x 11.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy:  Disputed; see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-senegalensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Endemic for Senegal, from the Cape Vert Peninsula (Yoff) till about 100 km south, Pointe‒Sarčne
Habitat:- Under stones, 0.5‒1 m depth
Description:-
Length 21.2 mm, width 11.1 mm, spire 5.5 mm. Protoconch and post nuclear whorls eroded, spire of about 8 whorls, rather high. Spire whorls of penultimate and body whorl with 5 spiral grooves. Shoulder rounded, body whorl rather straight and smooth. On the dorsal side of the anterior end about 5 grooves, on the ventral side about 12. Colour: Basic colour greyish white. On spire whorls some irregular brown dots, just below the shoulder a whitish spiral. Pattern of irregular greyish white flammules and dots (sometimes zigzagging) with numerous fine brown spots and lines. Just below the middle a whitish spiral, sometimes interrupted by very fine brown spots. Just before the aperture an axial white growth mark. On the ventral side the lower part nearly greyish white. Aperture dark brown with a white inner lip, a white spiral just below the shoulder and a white spiral just below the middle. Periostracum a very thin, transparant brown layer.
Discussion:- Shells were previously on the market as cf ventricosus

Samuel Abalde, Manuel J. Tenorio, Carlos M.L. Afonso, Rafael Zardoya state that L. senegalensis is a form of L. cacao, which in turn becomes a junior synonym of L. mercator in their paper on Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal, Elsevier, 2017

 

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Conus  sennottorum   Rehder  &  Abbott,  1951

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Rev. Soc. Malacol. 8,  p. 63, pl. 9, f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: 50 mi. SW of Campeche, Yucatan, Mexico; 15-16 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-sennottorum
Synonyms:-
According to Filmer Conus gibsonsmithorum Petuch, 1986
Geographic Range:-W. Florida, USA - Yucatan, Mexico
Habitat:-Deep water
Description:-Source Vink
A moderately heavy shell 25 to 40 mm, with high, sharply pointed, strongly concave sided spire. Body whorl turnip-shaped and smooth, except for flat spiral ridges near the base. Shoulder carinate, spire whorls smooth, flat above, with carinate margins, the shoulder distinctly overhanging the suture of the next whorl. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls; first 2 to 4 postnuclear whorls irregularly nodulous. Operculum brown or yellowish brown, about 1/3 of aperture height. Body whorl white with spiral rows of small dots and dashes, which are often restricted to the area above mid body only.
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus  serranegrae   Rolán,  1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 49,  pl. 1, f. 15,  pl. 2,  f. 15,  pl. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Serra Negra, Isla de Sal, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.1 x 9.1 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of cuneolus  Reeve, 1843; see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-serranegrae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Serra Negra area, Sal, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found on shallow bottom on stones among the small weeds that retain fine sand and in the cracks of the same rocks.
Description:-Source:Iberus,  Sup 2 1990 Rolán New species of cones
Morphology of the seashell. The majority of the specimens have a maximum dimension between 10 and 18mm. No exceptional specimens have been seen. The silhouette is characteristic: seashell small, straight, with spire a little high and straight. Spire is of white color with areas of very light brown color or cream, not stepped, with a quite constant structure and, always striated. The coloring is of an initial appearance of cream or gray. With magnification, can be seen that it has fine reticulation formed by white ground and marks of siena, light green, olive and, rarely, light brown. At times, the the reticulation is in the form of zig-zag and usually tends to form evident little darker bands. The variability of the body pattern is very limited, the being almost exactly the same. The interior of the aperture is violet with the interruption from two bands of bluish white color, one almost in the center and another by below of the anal channel. The columella has constantly a violet color. Periostracum yellow, matt, transparent and fine.
Larval seashell. In juvenile specimens it has been found that the protoconch had blue white color in its first whorls. The juvenile seashell presents a similar pattern to the adult seashell. The study has not been able to measure larval seashells, but some specimens examined obtained and supposed of this species, was yellow with some tones of brown in the whorl.
Discussion:-

 

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus cuneolus  Reeve, 1843

 

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Conus  sertacinctus   Röckel,  1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Arch. Moll., cxvi,  p. 226, f. 1-2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Solomons:Marau, Guadalcanal; 3-10 m in sand
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.1 x 15.3 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-sertacinctus
Synonyms:-
a valid species

Geographic Range:-Philippines – S. India
Habitat:-Usually in 2-30 m, on sand; sometimes dredged as deep as 100 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical, sometimes slightly ovate; outline convex adapically, less so to straight below; left side occasionally slightly concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, rarely angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to sigmoid. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, often slightly convex in late whorls, with 0-1 increasing to 2-5 spiral grooves; grooves may be weaker on latest ramps. Last whorl with spiral ribbons on basal third to half; ribbons often distinctly narrower or sometimes replaced by ribs at anterior end.
In shells from Flores, last whorl occasionally approaching conoid-cylindrical, with an almost straight right side centrally. Last whorl with spiral ribbons on basal half to sometimes two-thirds, split into narrow ribbons and/or ribs on anterior third. Shell morphology otherwise corresponding with that of typical form.
In shells from Batangas Bay, last whorl ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; left side usually concave basally and right side often almost straight centrally. Shoulder subangulate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 0-1 increasing to 3-5 spiral grooves or 3 major and 3 minor grooves; grooves weak to obsolete in latest whorls. Last whorl with spiral ribbons below centre, narrower or split into narrow ribbons and ribs anteriorly. Shell morphology otherwise matching that of typical form.
In typical form, ground colour white. Last whorl with 4 spiral bands of axially aligned brown spots and lines, below shoulder, on both sides of centre and at base; central bands broader and usually emphasized by pale beige underlying bands. Distinctly banded shells intergrade with immaculate shells. Larval whorls white to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps with pale brown dots at outer margins and sparse light brown to brown radial lines and streaks. Aperture white or light yellowish to orangish brown deep within

Discussion:-C. sertacinctus resembles C. collisus, C. andamanensis, C. subulatus, C. broderipii, C. scalptus, and C. stramineus. C. collisus has a generally more conical last whorl (PMD 0.80-0.90), a more angulate shoulder, and a more prominent spiral sculpture on its late sutural ramps. C. andamanensis tends to have a conical or conoid-cylindrical rather than ventricosely conical last whorl, its spire outline is concave rather than sigmoid, and its last whorl pattern comprises small scattered markings. C. subulatus differs in its narrower last whorl (RD 0.51-0.54), more angulate shoulder, and its slightly concave late sutural ramps with a more prominent spiral sculpture. C. scalptus is smaller (to 28 mm), has more prominent spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps, and the spiral lines on its last whorl are finer than those of dark-coloured C. sertacinctus from Solomon Is. Typical C. broderipii can be distinguished by a generally lower spire with a concave rather than sigmoid outline, a generally more angulate shoulder, the absence of beige background shades, and by a last whorl pattern of typically 3 instead of 4 spiral bands.

 

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Conus  seychellensis  Nevill & Nevill,  1874

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZSIC Mike Filmer ZSIC

 

Published in: J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 43,  pt. 2,. no. 1,  p. 22
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Seychelles
Type Data: Holotype in ZSIC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  litoglyphus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-litoglyphus seychellensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Seychelles

Habitat:-Usually subtidal to about 60 m: on reefs, lagoon pinnacles, rocky platforms exposed to wave action and more frequently below 10 m on sand or reef rock under dead corals. or on reef slopes.
Description:-
C. seychellensis is a colour form of C. litoglyphus completely lacking white bands.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sharmiensis  Wils, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Alan Kohn

Radula Link: Manuel Tenorio & Rolán


Published in: Gloria Maris 25 (5 – 6): p. 189, figs 71 - 72

Ocean geography: Red Sea
Type Locality: Marsa el'At, 7 kms North of Sharm el Sheikh, Gulf of Akaba, Red Sea

Type Data: Holotype in ZMUA- Naturalis deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 19.5 x 11.9 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A form of Conus parvatus
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Harmoniconus Species:-parvatus f. sharmiensis
Geographic Range:-
Red

Description: Form sharmiensis is very similar to typical form. Wils stated differences are a blood red colour to spots, axial marks on shoulder edge and no marks on spire.

 

----------

 

Conus  shaskyi   Tenorio,  Tucker & Chaney,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Manolo Tenorio

 

Published in: The Cones of the Eastern Pacific p. 45, pls. 252 & 303
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: NE of Isla Manuelita, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, (West coast),(fine coral rubble bottom, 120 mtrs)
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.7 x 16.7 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-shaskyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Known only from Isla del Coco
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100-200 m

Description:-Source Original description
sized with a maximum length of 49.2 mm. Type series averaged 34.2 mm in length and 17.0 mm in width. The shoulder is angular to slightly convex. The sides are slightly convex just anterior to the shoulder but become flat or even slightly concave near midbody region. The general appearance thus becomes one of a moderately elongated conical shell. The coloration consists essentially of all shades of orange-brown, orange, or yellow-orange with faded specimens more yellow than brown. The pattern on the spire is made up of brown markings leaving irregular patches of white on the whorl tops. Except at the shoulder angle these markings are the same color shade as the color bands located on the body whorl. Markings at and just anterior to the shoulder angle are darker in shade than the color bands but match the color shade of the body's longitudinal markings. The color pattern of the body whorl is essentially one of three orange to orange brown bands. The interior of the aperture is white to blue-white.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus  shikamai   Coomans,  Moolenbeek  &  Wils,  1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype C. purpuratus Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Basteria 48,  p. 233, f. 472
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: South China Sea off Taiwan (C. purpuratus, Shikama, 1979)
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued (C. purpuratus)
Type Size: 45.7 x 21.6 mm
Nomenclature: an Available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. purpuratus Shikama, 1979.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-shikamai
Synonyms:-
Conus
purpuratus Shikama, 1979
Geographic Range:-Taiwan - Philippines - Indonesia
Habitat:-Fouund at depths of 100-250 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually conical, outline slightly convex below shoulder, then straight. Shoulder angulate, irregularly undulate to weakly tuberculate. Spire low, outline concave. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 3 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate to irregularly undulate; adjacent whorls nearly smooth, late whorls undulate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves, obsolete in latest whorls. Last whorl with variably spaced spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour pale bluish violet. Last whorl with a broad, usually continuous, brown spiral band on each side of centre and with brown axial flames, usually crossing spiral bands and adjacent ground-colour areas. Rather evenly spaced, fine dark brown spiral lines cover entire last whorl of subadult specimens but are mainly restricted to the brown spiral bands in adult shells. Larval whorls brown. Teleoconch sutural ramps heavily maculated with dark brown radial markings. Aperture violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-70 mm
RW 0.17-0.45 g/mm
(L 45-60 mm)
RD 0.49-0.53
PMD 0.85-0.94
RSH 0.04-0.08
Discussion:-The earlier name purpuratus proved unavailable according to the rules of the ICZN, and Coomans et al. (1985a) renamed this species C. shikamai. C. shikamai is similar to C. recluzianus, C. sukhadwalai, and C. voluminalis. C. recluzianus in all its forms can generally be separated by the presence of distinct spiral grooves on late sutural ramps, the regularly spaced undulation or tuberculation of the shoulder, the coarser spiral lines on the last whorl, and the thicker, less translucent periostracum with heavier tufts. C. recluzianus from Japan and Taiwan (including form urashimanus and form gloriakiiensis) also has a broader last whorl (RD 0.53-0.60) and different colouration. C. recluzianus from the Indian Ocean may look similar because of its pronounced spiral lines, but has a white ground colour. Form roseorapum of C. recluzianus can also be distinguished by the more prominent tuberculation of its late postnuclear whorls, its different colouration, and by the absence of pronounced spiral lines from its last whorl. C. sukhadwalai differs from C. shikamai in having a distinctly broader and less straight-sided last whorl (RD 0.59-0.66), smooth postnuclear whorls, and absence of spiral lines from its last whorl.
C. shikamai differs from C.voluminalis in its undulate to tuberculate shoulder, multispiral brown larval shell (3-3.5 vs. 2-2.25 whorls) and fewer tuberculate spire whorls; its last whorl is generally narrower (RD 0.49-0.53) and its spire somewhat lower (RSH 0.04-0.08).

 

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Conus siamensis  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:

Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio & Emilio Rolán

 

Published in: Enc. Méth. 1, p. 662, no. 58, (1798, Tab. Enc., pl. 329, fig. 8)

Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa

Type Locality: Indian Ocean [erroneous]

Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG

Type Size: 102.5 x 62 mm

Nomenclature: An Available name

Taxonomy: A subspecies of Conus pulcher

Current Group Names:-

Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE

Genus:-Kalloconus Species:-pulcher byssinus

Geographic Range:- Canary Islands and Madeira

Habitat:-Shallow Water

Description:-Source Iconography: The shell is similar to that of C. p. pulcher, but more brightly colored, with shades of violet-brown. Shell is solid and heavy, always broader than that of the nominate form, with a very low or low spire. The lip is very thin even in adult specimens. They may grow up to 180 mm, but the average size depends much on the particular population.  The largest specimens can be found at Lanzarote, the smallest at La Palma.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sieboldii   Reeve,  1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, Suppl., pl. I,  sp. 269

Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Japan
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Yeddoconus Species:  sieboldii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Japan - Taiwan
Habitat:-In 50-400 m; reported from mud bottom
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually conical or ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical third to half, straight below; left side often slightly concave toward base. Shoulder broadly carinate. Spire of moderate height and stepped, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 3 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate, first 4-7 also tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with densely spaced radial threads, sometimes with numerous spiral striae in late whorls. Last whorl with punctate or axially striate spiral grooves from base to centre, separating narrow ribbons or ribs anteriorly and broad ribbons posteriorly.
Ground colour white, sometimes bluish grey. Last whorl with sparse brown axial markings, mainly above centre, sometimes forming an interrupted spiral band. Spiral rows of widely spaced brown dots occur in some specimens. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with very sparse brown radial markings, primarily in early whorls. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-129 mm
RW 0.14-0.60 g/mm
(L 60-111 mm)
RD 0.49-0.56
PMD 0.82-0.89
RSH 0.13-0.20
Discussion:-C. sieboldii resembles C. tribblei, C. lenavati, C. sugimotonis, C. ione, C. teramachii, and C. boholensis. C. tribblei has a similar colour pattem but differs in its more solid shell in specimens of same size (RW 0.30-1.01), the strong spiral grooves on its sutural ramps, and in its lower spire (RSH 0.04-0.13) that is not stepped. C. lenavati also has a similar colour pattern but its last whorl is distinctly broader (RD 0.56-0.71), its spire lower (RSH 0.02-0.13) and not carinate, and its sutural ramps have distinct spiral grooves. C. sugimotonis has a more solid shell, broader last whorl (RD 0.54-0.62), lower spire (RSH 0.02-0.1 1), and pronounced spiral grooves on its sutural ramps. C. ione does not become as large (to 76 mm), has a broader and slightly pyriform last whorl (RD 0.55-0.64), and bears regularly set brown dots at the outer margins of its sutural ramps. C. teramachii differs in the absence of any brown pattem elements, the distinct spiral grooves on the sutural ramps, and in the distinctive serrated operculum.

 

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Conus  silviae  Cossignani, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Malacologia 82, p. 18 – 19
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Morro de Arreia, BoaVista, Cape Verde

Type Data: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 21,2 x 12,1 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of fuscoflavus  Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980; see Discussion
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-silviae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:- The specimens studied were found to be 0.5 to 4 meters deep, on rock
Description:-Original description in Italian
Pyriform shell of small dimensions, compared with average for the genus, with a range from 18 to 28 mm in height, with harmonic size distribution; spire moderately concave profile and moderately accentuated sutures; rounded shoulder and aperture that forms a modest step adapically. The aperture is wide and the margin slightly rounded adapically and is straight in the central area. The protoconch is domed and aligned with the spire. 7-8 small spiral grooves are highlighted in the tops of the whorls. The last whorl smooth, with sparse weak grooves, has two color bands of brown color: one adapical and one anteriorly; a middle band clearly distinguished from the brown bands is characterized by white triangular marks placed in a counterclockwise direction to achieve a decorative and distinctive pattern; the same decoration is found on the shoulder between the aperture and the last spiral suture. The aperture is white with a lip which reveals the coloring of the shell.
Discussion:- The new species has some affinity with Conus josephinae Rolán, 1980, but there are some elements that differentiate unequivocally starting from the higher spire, the profile is less triangular, with the prominent color  bands and ornamentation evident; and an aperture slightly wider.

Also Africonus swinneni Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014 has certain similarities but has a lower height-to-width ratio and more angled shoulder.

 

Abalde et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2017) 17:231

Phylogenetic relationships of cone shells endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes

New species proposed:  Africonus fuscoflavus  Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980

 

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Conus  simanoki   Tenorio,  Poppe,  Tagaro,  2007

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Visaya 2 (2), 78
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: N. W. Thailand
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 81.3 x 44.3 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus recluzianus Bernardi, 1853
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-recluzianus simanoki subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Thailand
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source: Original description

Shell conical in shape, porcellaneous in texture. Last whorl straight; aperture narrow, becoming wider below midwhorl. Shoulder angulate and heavily undulate. Spire low to very low, suturual ramps straight to slightly concave with 4 strong spiral striae and very fine growth threads. Base color white with purple hue. Pattern of large axial blotches or streaks. The irregular yellow to dark brown blotches are set in two spiral rows. Spire with axial blotches same colour as those on whorl. Basal part of columella white or cream. The main differences from C. recluzianus are larger size, more prominent undulation on shoulder and a larger and broader siphonal canal.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  simonei  Petuch & Myers, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: MZSP Săo Paulo  Petuch & Myers
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 3, p. 36, Figure 3 F, G
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 20 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHIDAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-simonei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-from Guarapari, Espirito Santo State to central Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Habitat:-Found on sand in shallow water
Description:-Source: Original description

A proportionally broad, inflated, and stocky shell. Wide across the shoulder; shoulder sharply angled, bordered with large, rounded carina; spire proportionally low, broadly pyramidal, with slightly canaliculated whorls; body whorl smooth and polished, with 10 deeply incised spiral sulci around anterior one-third; spire whorls smooth; body whorl base color deep blue-purple, overlaid with large amorphous dark brown patches arranged in 2 broad bands, one around posterior two-thirds and one around anterior end; blue-purple base color and brown patches, in turn, overlaid with 16 – 18 evenly-spaced rows of alternating dark brown and white dots and dashes; shoulder carina marked with 10 – 16 large dark brown spots; spire whorls with large, regurlarly-spaced slender dark brown flammules, some of which connect with spots on shoulder carina; early whorls pale tan; aperture proportionally wide, becoming wider toward anterior end, interior of aperture dark purple brown; protoconch proportionally large, rounded, mamillate, composed of 2 whorls.
Discussion:-This has always been incorrectly indentified as Conus duvali or Conus mindanus f. duvali.

 

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Conus  simonis   Bozzetti,  2010

 

Pictures:
Picture Link:  Holotype in MNHN Bozzetti

 

Published in: Malacologia 66
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: SE Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A synonym of Pioconus nigropunctatus Röckel & Moolenbeek, 1992 or a synonym of Pioconus achatinus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:- achatinus f. simonis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Southern Madagascar
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Species with a shell of small size for the genus, maximum length 26.50mm, profile conical, spire of moderate height with concave outline,shoulder subangulate, body whorl sides straight to moderately convex. Protoconch consisting of about 2 whorls, smooth and globose, teleoconch of 7 slightly turretted whorls, suture well impressed, marginated by a spiral cord, another prominent cord at the shoulder, subsutural ramp concave, sculptured by 5-7 spiral grooves, shoulder more or less tuberculated on the teleoconch, but not on the body whorl. Aperture uniformly narrow, moderately expanded at the anterior sinus, fasciole and base covered by rounded spiral plicae evenly spaced, minor spirals in the interspaces; thick axial cordlets on the whole body whorl surface. Ground colour orange brown with a darker band on the shoulder, irregular white blotches axially elongated distributed on the shoulder, in the central area of lateral walls and at the base; spiralline of articulate brownish/black and white blotches on the shoulder. First teleoconch whorls uniform yellowish, following ones white with evenly distributed orange/brownish blotches. Laterals covered by thick and evenly spaced black spiral lines, continuous or dashed, corresponding on the base to the spiral plicae, fasciole whitish to yellowish. Inside of the mouth white with a blackish axial band at the outer lip, lighter in the central area, at the shoulder and at the anterior sinus. Operculum and soft parts unknown.
Discussion:- Monnier, Limpalaër & Robin in Xenophora Taxonomy 1: A synonym (juvenile) of Pioconus achatinus Gmelin, 1791.

 

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Conus  simplex  Sowerby ii,  1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii, p. 31, pl. 9 (195), f. 199
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: East Indies; Corrected to Simonstown, False Bay, SA.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 49 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus  algoensis Sowerby ii, 1834
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-algoensis simplex forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. False Bay, RSA
Habitat:-Intertidal to over 50 m depth
Description:-Source Iconography
Moderately small (25-35 mm), but specimens from the population of Simons Harbour and Windmill Beach are unusually large, attaining more than 70 mm in length. Last whorl conical, with a subangulate to rounded shoulder and straight sides. Spire of moderate height, with a straight profile, occasionally stepped. Sutural ramps slightly concave. Spiral ribs present around the basal region. Ground colour of the shell white. Aperture wider than in C. a. algoensis, often with adapically flaring lip. The aperture is white, with a diffuse orange-brown axial blotch in the upper part of the inner region. The pattern of the last whorl consists of interrupted brown axial streaks, and an interrupted spiral broad band below the shoulder, absent in certain specimens. Scattered brown dots and dashes are often present. The spire is patterned with thin brown axial flecks or streaks.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sinaiensis  Petuch & Berschauer, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 48; p. 183 – 187, fig. 1 E -G
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Northernmost Gulf of Aqaba (Gulf of Eilat), Red Sea, Israel
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 22.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-sinaiensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat), Red Sea
Habitat:- exposed on coral rubble in 1 m depth
Description:-
Shell of average size for genus, inflated, stocky, vasiform, turbinate, with distinctly rounded sides; spire proportionally low, broadly subpyramidal; shoulder and spire whorls ornamented with 10-12 large, rounded knobs; body whorl smooth and shiny, ornamented with 10-12 faintly incised grooves on anterior half of some specimens  anterior end and siphonal area ornamented with 6 proportionally large and conspicuous spiral cords; body whorl base color pale pink or salmon-pink, overlaid by 2 large wide bands of dark pinkish-rose or pinkish-tan, one around mid-body and one around anterior end, with color bands separated by wide white band around mid-body; body whorl color bands overlaid with numerous tan spiral lines and large obliquely-angled thin white flammules, arranged in zig-zag chevron pattern; anterior tip of shell white or pale yellow-white; large cords around anterior end marked with alternating white and tan spots; spire whorls and shoulder knobs white, with large reddish-tan elongated patch present between shoulder knobs; aperture proportionally narrow; interior of aperture white, with 2 large dark pinkish-tan patches that correspond to dark body whorl bands; periostracum thin, adherent, dark yellow-tan.

Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  sindon  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 43,  sp. 233
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus omaria Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-omaria sindon forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W.  Pacific
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to about 50 m, on coral reefs and in reef lagoons, in sand and rubble
Description:-
Discussion:-C. sindon has been considered to represent an individual variant of C. pennaceus with closely spaced axial lines or recognized as valid species separate from both C. omaria and C. pennaceus. An axially lineate pattern occurs in various species (C. omaria; C. pennaceus; C. madagascariensis; C. textile; C. victoriae). In colour pattern, the holotype of C. sindon is slightly closer to similar forms of C. omaria than to those of C. pennaceus with respect to shell morphology, it cannot be unequivocally assigned to either of these species. RKK provisionally place C. sindon into the synonymy of C. omaria.

 

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Conus  singletoni  Cotton,  1945

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SAMA Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Rec. S. Austral. Mus. 8, p. 263, pl. 4, f. 10
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Victoria, Western Port, W. Australia
Type Data: Holotype in SAMA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.5 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Floraconus Species:-anemone singletoni forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Australia
Habitat:-
Description: C. singletoni: A variant with a white shell

 

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Conus  sirventi  Fenaux,  1943

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Figure Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. (Monaco), no. 834,  p. 4,  f. 10
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Fenaux 1943, fig.10
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile sirventi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:
C. sirventi: A form of C. textile with a ventricosely conical last whorl and a reduced pattern. Fenaux states that it has a white shiny base colour with fawn scattered axial wavy lines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus skinneri  da Motta, 1982

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac., no. 1,  p. 8,  f. 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Nusa Tenggara, eastern coast of Bali
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-nobilis skinneri forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bali, Sumbawa Indonesia
Habitat:-In 1 to 10 m; on sand bottom with Foraminifera, where water is clear and with slight currents.
Description:-

 

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Conus skoglundae  Tenorio, Tucker, Chaney,  2012

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SBMNH Manolo Tenorio

 

Published in: The Cones of the Eastern Pacific, p. 64, pl. 278
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Bahia Los Frailes, Baja California Sur, Mexico.
Type Data: Holotype in SBMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.9 x 10.4 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-skoglundae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape region of Baja California Sur, Mexico
Habitat:-Found at depths of 45-60 m
Description:-Source Original description
The dimensions of the specimens measured ranged from 17.9 to 26.3 mm long and 7.0 to 11.9 mm in shell width. Shell shape is variable. The body whorl is moderately narrowly conical in shape. The spire is elevated but not scalariform. Color pattern is variable but rather simple. It consists of light brown markings on a white ground color. The brown coloration occurs primarily as narrow blotches in two zones. The midbody area is white except for one or two of the interrupted spiral lines. The anterior end is white. The interior of the aperture is blue-white in color.
Discussion:

 

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Conus  smirna  Bartsch & Rehder, 1943

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 56,  p. 87
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Kauai, Hawaii; 257-312 fathoms.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 60.9 x 22.8 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-smirna
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S Japan; Hawaii; New Zealand
Habitat:-Found at depths of 400-500 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl slightly pyriform, outline convex adapically, slightly concave below. Shoulder indistinct from spire but with a prominent edge. Spire high, outline almost straight. Larval shell of more than 2 whorls, maximum diameter about 1.1 mm (shells from New Caledonia). First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves, obsolete in late whorls. Last whorl with spiral ribs on basal third, followed by spiral threads to shoulder.
Ground colour white. Larval whorls light brown. Last whorl with a broad pale brown spiral band on each side of centre. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 61- mm
((Holotype))
RW -
RD 0.51-
PMD 0.90-
RSH 0.27-
C.  smirna Rather narrow, spire taller, nodules heavier extending to sixth whorl; Hawaiian Is;
C. profundorum Broader spire lower nodules weak to third whorl; S Japan;
C. scopulicola is juvenile small shell with axial flammules in three bands with few rows smaller spots;
Discussion:-C. smirna is hard to separate from similarly shaped and probably related species.
C. profundorum is similar to C. smirna, which differs in its shoulder having a prominent edge, its flat late sutural ramps, and in the simple pattern of its last whorl with 2 pale spiral bands on the white ground. Shells of C. smirna from New Caledonia and shells of C. profundorum from New Caledonia can be distinguished by their shape (RD 0.49-0.53 vs. 0.62-0.63), relative spire height (RSH 0.21-0.28 vs. 0.16-0.17), and colour pattern.
Walls, [1979] figured a specimen from S.W. of Midway Id., Hawaii as representative of 'typical' Hawaiian C. smirna. A somewhat smaller, but otherwise closely corresponding shell was collected in 510 m near Oahu, Hawaii. These shells differ from the holotype of C. smirna mainly in their broader and ventricosely conical to conical last whorls, their darker brown spiral bands, pale brown aperture, and less distinct shoulder edge; they resemble the type of C. profundorum, and their assignment to C. smirna remains doubtful. Specimens collected outside the New Caledonian lagoon in 545-560 m were identified as C. smirna. They correspond with C. smirna in relative diameter and outline of the last whorl, in size and in relative spire height. They differ in their more ventricose shape (PMD 0.8 1-0.86 vs. 0.90), the absence of spiral grooves on sutural ramps, and in theaxial as well as spiral arrangement of their pattern. Their assignment to C. smirna also remains doubtful. Similar specimens from subtropical waters north of New Zealand live in 200- 1,180 m. They recall the New Caledonian shells in pattern, sculpture and shape except for their broader last whorl (RD 0.55-0.61). According to Marshall (1981), their multispiral larval shell excludes conspecificity with the similar C. scopulicola; he assigned them to C. smirna, which he considered conspecific with C. profundorum. Their relationship to the shells from the New Caledonian area as well as to C. smirna needs further research.

 

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Conus  smirnoides  Tenorio, 2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 7, p. 3-14, fig. 2 A, Pl. 2 1-5, Pl. 3 1-5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Ile des Pins, southern New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 71.8 x 26.3 mm
Nomenclature: An Available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-smirnoides
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-480-500 m
Description:-Source original description
Shell narrowly conoid-cylindrical, moderately large to large-sized. Spire high to very high, straight or slightly convex in profile, with pointed apex (when present). Sutural ramps flat or very slightly concave, with very fine, almost indistinct striae and arcuate threads becoming obsolete or absent in late sutural ramps. Protoconch o 3.0–3.5 whorls, brown, smooth, with maximum diameter of 1.1 mm. Tubercles on first 5–6 teleoconch whorls, absent thereafter.

Shoulder rounded and rather indistinct in adults, angulated in younger specimens. Sides of shell very slightly convex below shoulder, straight abapically, becoming very slightly concave

near abapical extremity. Last adult whorl smooth and shiny apart from very fine striae around basal quarter, more evident in younger specimens. Posterior notch shallow, C-shaped. No

anterior notch.

Background color white to pale yellow-brown. Last whorl with axial brown streaks forming two broad spiral bands leaving a narrow, pale spiral band slightly below midpoint. In some specimens axial brown streaks crowded and fused to form solid brown spiral bands with sparse white axial streaks.  In other specimens pattern of axial streaks of alternating brown and white or

pale yellow-brown color predominates. Another narrow, pale spiral band is present at height of shoulder. Spire variably patterned with brown radial flecks or blotches on a white or pale yellow-brown ground. Interior of aperture typically white, pale brown in some specimens. Columella white or very pale yellow-brown. Periostracum yellow-brown, smooth, translucent. Operculum

elongated, margin serrate, length about one quarter of aperture height.

 

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Conus smoesi  Petuch & Berschauer, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  David Berschauer

 

Published in: The Festivus Vol. 48, Issue 4; P. 260; Fig. 2 I - L
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: off Camocim, Ceará State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 19.9 x 11.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-smoesi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- only known from the areas offshore of Camocim, Ceara State, Brazil, but may also occur on the offshore Canopus Banks.
Habitat:- Taken in crab traps, from 20 m depth on coralline algal nodule (rhodolith) sea
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell of average size for genus, stocky, truncated, with inflated body whorl; shoulder sharply angled, subcarinate; spire elevated, subpyramidal, with scalariform stepped whorls; body whorl smooth and shiny, sculptured with 8-10 thin, low spiral threads around anterior end; body whorl color white or pale pinkish-white, overlaid with numerous large, amorphous angular brown or reddishbrown flammules, arranged in zebra or zig-zag pattern; zebra flammules interrupted by white mid-body band, which bisects them into two sections; zebra flammules are not solidlycolored, but are composed of darker tan or orange-colored, extremely fine, closely-packed longitudinal lines superimposed upon paler tan or orange base color; spire whorls white, marked with widely-spaced dark orange-brown crescent-shaped flammules; edge of spire flammules intersect with zig-zag flammules of body whorl; early whorls orange; protoconch proportionally large, domed, orange in color, composed of 2 whorls; aperture narrow, white within interior.
Discussion:-

 

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Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update  January 2018