Conus tabidus  Reeve,  1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZMUC Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, pl. 44, sp. 243
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in ZMUC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34.2 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Monteiroconus Species:-tabidus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-West African coast: from Senegal (Dakar area) to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands, Sao Tome and Principe
Habitat:-Found at 20-30 m on hard bottoms
Description:-Source Pin and Tack
Shell solid, dull, made of 10 whorls. Shoulder narrow, angled. Spire mamillate and not high. Early whorls slightly stepped. Sides almost straight in the upper part but always narrowing at the base. The lip is almost straight and creates a narrow aperture. 7-8 spiral cords are present at the base, 3-4 of which clearly visible to the naked eye.
The last whorl is generally entirely white, with some more or less yellowish axial areas. More rarely, particularly in juveniles, it can be entirely cream. The first whorls of the spire often show two cords more or less visible to the naked eye, which can sometimes appear also on the shoulder. The spire and the shoulder can be ornate with small creamish brown spots. The interior of the aperture is completely white. The operculum is small, its entire surface horizontally wrinkled. The periostracum is very thick. The animal is rose-whitish, with the anterior extremity of the foot slightly reddish-brown.
Source Iconography
Shell moderately small (normal length: about 40 mm), with a convex, occasionally pear-shaped profile. The spire is moderately high and with a convex profile. The entire body whorl presents some spiral grooving, especially noticeable near the anterior end. The shell is entirely white or yellowish white. There are often dots and stripes near the suture. The aperture is milky white. The periostracum is very thick.
Discussion:-The uniform coloration, grooved body whorl and general aspect of the shell separate C. tabidus Reeve, 1844 from most West African species. It may be confused only with C. ambiguus Reeve, 1844, which, however, usually has a more angulated shoulder.
For a long time C. tabidus was mistaken for C. ambiguus. But, apart from the fact that its habitat is slightly less deep, many constant differences exist between the two species:
-The shoulder of C. tabidus is very narrow, that of C. ambiguus quite large;
-C.. tabidus shows two spiral cords on each whorl, while C. ambiguus is smooth;
-C. ambiguus is most often purplish, which is never the case for C. tabidus;
-The spots of the spire and shoulder of C. ambiguus are almost always very neat, while they are indistinct in C. tabidus;
-The height of C. ambiguus can reach 60 mm, while that of C. tabidus does not exceed 40 mm;
-In C. ambiguus the profile of the lip is very rounded near the shoulder and much more enveloping that in C. tabidus.

 

----------

 

Conus tacomae   Boyer & Pelorce,  2009

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan

 

Published in: Novapex 10, 25-32
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Goree, central Senegal
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 8.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-tacomae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description. Approx translated summary.
Last whorl is ventricosely conical to ovate; shoulder rounded; outline convex at adapical half, straight or slightly concave below; spire moderately high, slightly sigmoid; sutural ramps convex with faint spiral ribs; last whorl rather smooth but marked with about ten ribs at the base;
Spire bluish grey with brown spots. Shoulder area grey blue with fleshy orange tones.two bands of cream at shoulder and midbody;about 18 spiral bands of white alternating with red ; a pattern of light olive-brown markings forming irregular bluish white flecks and triangulate spots throughout; lighter zones are clearly visible in the brown to bluish aperture, lip orange.
Discussion:-C. tacomae is closest to C. desiduosus. Apart from differences in the animal and periostracum, there are significant differences in the sculpture of the spire and the colour pattern.C tacomae has 4-5 spiral striae on whorls compared to 2-3. It has a base colour of dull bluish grey to greenish grey with some orange tones whilst C. desiduous has a base orangish colour. In the pattern the number of spiral lines is less(17-20 compared to 35-40). In C. tacomae the lines comprise flecks of alternating light and dark compared to distinct dots.

 

----------

 

Conus taeniatus  Hwass in Bruguiere,  1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 628.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China (erroneous), corrected (Wils) Sharm el Sheik, (Red Sea)
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42 x 29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-taeniatus
Synonyms:-
fernambucinus Röding, 1798; genuinus Röding, 1798
Geographic Range:-Red Sea to Oman and Strait of Hormuz, probably also Kenya
Habitat:-Intertidally, on algal turf on rocks, in sand bound by algal turf, and in sand among rocks .
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl broadly to broadly and ventricosely conical or pyriform; outline convex adapically, straight to concave below. Shoulder angulate, smooth or weakly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 2 spiral grooves in early whorls, obsolete in late whorls. Last whorl smooth with weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with numerous narrow, grey spiral bands, partially fusing into broader bands. Spiral rows of alternating black and white spots and dashes from base to shoulder. Teleoconch sutural ramps with black radial streaks between tubercles. Aperture reddish brown, external ground colour bands visible within, bluish white and opaque in larger specimens.
Shell Morphometry
L 25-50 mm
RW 0.13-0.56 g/mm
(L 25-43 mm)
RD 0.72-0.85
PMD 0.75-0.89
RSH 0.10-0.20
Discussion:-C. taeniatus appears most closely related to C. coronatus, but its shell is very distinctive in comparison to other Indo-Pacific Conus species.

 

----------

 

Conus  tagaroae  Limpalaër & Monnier, 2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Paris  Eric Monnier
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Visaya Vol. 4, no. 1, p. 17 -24, pl. 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Palawan, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN Paris deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 54.33 x 27.71 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-tagaroae
Synonyms:-
telatus f. rugosus renamed
Geographic Range:-S. Philippines
Habitat:-In 5 to 10 fathoms, on sand between corals and rocks
Description:-Original description
the protoconch has about two whorls and is therefore paucispiral. It is small, white and smooth. The first four to five teleoconch whorls are white. The spire is stepped and beaded at periphery. The sutural ramps has three to five threads overriding the superior part of the tubercles. The shape of the last whorl is conical to narrowly conid-cylindrical with convex sides. The surface has a low silky gloss. The shell is sculptured on the last whorl with about 30 shallow spiral cords separated by narrow sulci. The cords are very finely granulose. On the last whorl, the white triangles are lined with orange brown and are mostly grouped in three spiral bands placed under periphery, under the middle of the body whorl and at the base. The textile pattern is mostly visible between the spiral bands of triangles and alternates orange and brown axial irregular streaks.
Shell Morphometry
PMD (0.75 - 0.82)
RSH (0.12 - 0.21)
Discussion:-

This shell was formerly seen as the a form of Conus telatus.

 

----------

 

Conus taitensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 336, fig. 9)

Picture Link:Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 713
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tahiti
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798, pl. 336, fig. 9)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus rattus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-rattus taitensis forma
Synonyms:-
taheitensis Reeve, 1843; tahitiensis Dautzenberg, 1933
Geographic Range:-C. & W.  Pacific
Habitat:-On intertidal benches and subtidal reef platforms, to about 15 m, occupying exposed as well as sheltered sites.
Description:-Source Living Conidae  C. rattus
C. rattus f. taitensis from Marquesas, broadly conical with straight sides shoulders wide, sharply angled, the spire low/flat; body color dark brown with white restricted to small blotches at midbody and shoulder; anterior ridges weak axial threads on spire whorls heavy.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tamikoae  Shikama, 1973

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokohama Nat'l. Univ. sect. II,  no. 20,  p. 7,  pl. 1,  f. 8 & 9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: North of Senkaku Is., Japan
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 84 x 39.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus kinoshitai Kuroda, 1955
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-kinoshitai tamikoae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-China Sea; Philippines
Habitat:-Found at depths of 240-400 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. kinoshitai
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl narrowly conical, conical or ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so or straight below. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 1 mm. First 3.5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat, with 2- 4 increasing to 5-9 variably spaced spiral grooves; latest ramps usually with additional spiral striae. Basal third or sometimes half of last whorl with weak to pronounced, variably spaced spiral ribs occasionally grading to ribbons posteriorly.
Colour pale bluish to greyish violet, with scattered bluish grey streaks, dashes or spots on last whorl. Dark coloured and heavily patterned shells intergrade with light coloured and almost patternless ones. Usual pattern of last whorl with 3 interrupted or continuous reddish brown spiral bands, below shoulder and on both sides of centre; areas between variably mottled with reddish brown triangles, dots and axial lines; overlying spiral rows of brown dots and dashes vary considerably, and often contain light dashes abapically. Base and siphonal fasciole often grey. Larval whorls white to brown. In typically patterned shells, teleoconch sutural ramps crossed by reddish to blackish brown streaks and blotches; in light-coloured shells, pattern reduction matches that of last whorl. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-94 mm
RW 0.20-0.77 g/mm
RD 0.48-0.58
PMD 0.76-0.91
RSH 0.07-0.18
C. tamikoae is (often yellow) color variant
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tarava   Rabiller & Richard, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Original Description

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 5, P. 39, Pl. 6, fig. 1-5 & 8-13
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Punu Taipu
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 28.8 x 11,1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-tarava
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Tarava Sea Mounts, French Polynesia
Habitat:-Dead collected at depths of 540 down to 683 m
Description:-Source original description
A small to medium-sized, moderately solid shell. It has a narrowly conical to conical shape topped by a sigmoid sided spire of moderate to elevated height. The holotype protoconch is heavily damaged. Fortunately, a fragment specimen dredged with paratype 1(stn DW3484) has a preserved preserved well enough to assign the species to paucispiral development. This protoconch of 1,5 whorls, is smooth, brown and gently elongated. The four to five postnuclear whorls are strongly tuberculate. The spire shows a flat sutural ramp bearing some spiral grooves. five of them are particularly visible on periphery, along brownish areas. The shoulder is smooth, sharply angulated in a special way, as if the spire overhangs the body whorl. The body whorl presents straight edges from anterior end to shoulder. The spiral grooves on the entire body whorl are very thin. The basic tint of the body whorl is faded beige ornamented with irregular brownish blotches. The pale lilac aperture is straight and fragile. The anal canal is very large, pronounced, straight to the end and tangential to the suture.

Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus taslei  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten 

Picture Link: Eric Monnier  Pattern variations

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 360,  pl. 110,  f. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.3 x 18.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-taslei
Synonyms:-
luridus A. Adams, 1854
Geographic Range:-Senegal - Guinea; Canaries
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Iconography
Moderately small shell (normal length: about 35 mm), with a triangular profile, a relatively wide .angulated shoulder and a moderately high spire, with a slightly concave profile.
The background color of the shell is bluish, usually with a pattern of dark hairlines and blotches, which can even form a nearly reticulated pattern. Totally bluish specimens are known. The spire has the same pattern as the body whorl. The aperture is bluish, with a brown inner lip; there are two lighter spiral bands, one at the. top of the aperture and the other below its middle part, that cause indentations to the axial brown zone along the lip.
Discussion:-C. taslei Kiener, 1845 may look like C. aemulus Reeve, 1844, but it is a bit wider and usually smaller. C. taslei may also resemble C. hybridus Kiener, 1845, which, however is more slender. C. guinaicus may also resemble C. taslei, but can usually be distinguished by the general shape of the shell, which is squatter in specimens from Senegal.

 

----------

 

Conus  tayronae  Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski, 2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LACM

Published in: Festivus Vol. 49, Issue 3, p. 243, Fig. 2, C
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Found on coarse sand and coral rubble, in 1.5 m depth, off Tayrona National Park, Magdalena Province, Colombia
Type Data: Lectotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 16.9 x 8.0 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-tayronae
Synonyms:-
Geographic Range:- Known only from the Tayrona National Park area of northern Colombia
Habitat:- On open coarse sand and rubble sea floors in 1-2 m depths
Description:-
Shell small for genus, fusiform and distinctly biconic, with length of spire whorls being approximately same as length of body whorl; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered by large raised carina, producing distinctly canaliculated spire whorls; body whorl shiny and polished, sculpted with 10-12 deeplyincised spiral sulci around the anterior half; shell base color deep blue-purple or purple- brown, with lighter unmarked band around mid- body; pale band bordered posteriorly and anteriorly by 2 wide bands of large brown checker-like spots and faint patches; spire whorls paler blue in color, with only few very widely-spaced, small brown spots, turning pale reddish-tan on earliest whorls; aperture narrow, colored deep purple-brown within interior; protoconch pale reddish-brown in color, proportionally large and bulbous, mammilate, composed of 2 whorls.

 

 

----------

 

Conus  telatus  Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus, Suppl., pl. I, sp. 270
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 74.5 x 34.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-telatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Philippines
Habitat:-In 2-20 m; on coral reef, on sand substrate among rocks and coral blocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to conoid-cylindrical, also sometimes conical in typical ('smooth') form; outline convex to nearly straight, often more convex in strongly sculptured shells (form rugosus) than in typical shells; left side slightly concave at basal third in typical form, to strongly concave in form rugosus. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate, smooth in typical form, weakly tuberculate in form rugosus except for large adults. Spire of moderate height; outline concave to nearly straight, usually less concave in typical form. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.2 mm. In typical form, first 5-7 postnuclear whorls rather weakly tuberculate; in form rugosus, first 8-9.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave; in form rugosus, ramps with 0-1 increasing to 6-11 spiral grooves; in typical form, late ramps with 3-5 weak to obsolete spiral grooves (apex usually eroded). Last whorl with weak spiral ribs on basal third in typical form, with closely spaced and finely granulose ribs from base to shoulder in form rugosus.
Ground colour white. In typical form, last whorl with fine reticulated lines edging very small to medium-sized tents. On each side of centre, yellowish brown blotches forming a spiral band interrupted by larger tents; brown blotches interspersed with variable dark brown axial lines. Form rugosus with a similar pattern; reticulation light to dark brown, sometimes partially reduced. Larval whorls and a few adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white. Following ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white, rarely suffused with cream.
Shell Morphometry
L 48-100 mm
RW 0.15-0.40 g/mm
(L 48-78 mm)
RD 0.50-0.56
PMD (-typical form 0.78 - 0.87;-form rugosus 0.75 - 0.82)
RSH (-typical form 0.16 - 0.22;-form rugosus 0.12 - 0.21)
Discussion:-The typical form of C. telatus resembles C. victoriae and typical C. textile, while form rugosus is similar to C. aureus. C. victoriae can be distinguished by its broader last whorl (RD 0.55-0.67); C. v. victoriae is more convex in outline and C. v. nodulosus has smaller yellowish brown markings on the last whorl.
The typical form of C. telatus may be confused with C. textile. The former is generally less convex in outline and has more tuberculate postnuclear whorls (5-7 vs. 3-5), a weaker spiral sculpture on the late teleoconch sutural ramps, and finer reticulated lines.
The holotype of C. telatus is of the rather smooth variety (typical form) that seems restricted to Cuyo Is. The strongly sculptured variety (form rugosus) has a wider geographical range (Balabac northward to Calamian Group); its occurrence in Guimares Id. and in the Celebes Sea has to be verified. Although some reliable reports suggest an allopatric occurrence of both variants, we cannot unequivocally exclude co-occurrence as affirmed in other reports. Therefore, we provisionally favour the status of forms rather than that of subspecies. This form has been described as a valid species: Conus tagaroae Limpalaër & Monnier, 2013; see there.

 

----------

 

Conus temnes Iredale, 1930

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMS Mike Filmer

Picture Link:Paul Kersten

Picture Link:Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Mem. Queensl. Mus. X,  p. 80
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Capricorn Is. E Australia
Type Data: Holotype in AMS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 64 x 22.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Leptoconus Species:-ammiralis temnes forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Queensland
Habitat:-Reported from fine to coarse sand and muddy sand, ranging as deep as 50-150 m in Queensland
Description:- C. temnes refers to E Australian form from deeper water thought to be slender and higher spire.

 

----------

 

Conus tenorioi  Monnier, Monteiro & Limpalaër, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS  Eric Monnier

Published in: Xenophore Taxonomy, numéro 10, 2016; p. 14-24, fig. 1, fig. 2a, 2b, 3, 4 & 5, Pl. on p. 22
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ras Gurnut, Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea, Southerm Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48.30 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available Name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Phasmoconus Species:-tenorioi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Eritrea & Dahlak
Habitat:- in 36 to 73 m in sand
Description:- Original Description
Light weight, medium-sized shell. The adult shell has 13 whorls. Last whorl conical, elongated, with an almost straight or only very slightly convex outline. Shoulder angulate. Spire white, moderately high, stepped with a piled profile, pointed, slightly concave in the first postnuclear whorls.  Protoconch paucispiral with 1.5 to 1.75 whorls; it is rounded, white and smooth. The teleoconch sutural ramps present two spiral ridges and a very large number of rather indistinct radial growth lines and threads. The last whorl is shiny, porcellaneous, and smooth, except for 4 to 6 very shallow spiral grooves near the anterior end of the shell. The aperture is elongated and almost straight, parallel to the body whorl of the shell.

Ground color white, with about 14 spiral rows of light to darkish brown distinct roughly squarish spots that may eventually coalesce to form wider markings; such rows are more or less uniformly spread throughout the entire length of the shell but there is usually a more prominent one near the shoulder. The postnucleair sutural ramps are also white, marked with numerous radial streaks of the same colour as the markings on the body whorl. The aperture is white.
L 24-50 mm
RD 0.513 - 0.549
PMD 0.889 -  0.951
RSH 0.119 - 0.155
Discussion:-

 

----------

 

Conus tenuilineatus  Rolán & Röckel,  2001

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten  

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Iberus 19 (2), p. 58
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Baia do Binga, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26.7 x 14.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-tenuilineatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl ven tricosely conical. Outline convex at adapical third, almost straight be]ow. Aperture slightly wider at base than near shoulder; shoulder subangulate. spire of low to moderate height, outline usua1ly slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps convex, with numerous spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with some broad and weak spiral grooves at base.
Ground colour of shell white or light brown tinted with numerous wavy or straight, brown, close-set (10/cm up to 40/ cm) hairlines from spire to base, flowing together at shoulder and base, occasionally punctated and forming traces of a spiral-band at the central area. Base dark brown, aperture white. Specimens from Santa Maria and Canoco may have light bluish-white ground colour and a light violet aperture with two white bands at centre and shoulder.
Shell morphometry:
L 18-29 mm
RD 0.54-0.61
RSH 0.09-0.14
PMD 0.76-0.82
RW 0.09-0.14 g/mm
Discussion:-The specimens of C. tenuilineatus from Canoco and Santa Maria differ from the typical specimens in their slightly violet ground colour as wen as in the violet colored inside of the aperture. Those from Caota may have the axial lines less evident. We consider them local variants of the same species. The specimens from Piambo show certain similarities in shell pattern, but their taxonomical status remains doubtful, considering their living space is far from the typical specimens; we cannot exclude the possibility that they belong to an other species.

 

----------

 

Conus  tenuistriatus Sowerby ii,1858

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype 1 Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Syntype 2 in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten
Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii, p. 46, pl. 22 (208),  f. 532-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.1 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Leporiconus Species:-tenuistriatus
Synonyms:-
granulosus Sowerby ii, 1834; tenuigranulata Dautzenberg, 1937
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean (absent from Red Sea); Philippines to Papua New Guinea, French Polynesia. and Marshall Is.
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to about 25 m, from coral reef lagoon to fore-reef; on lagoon pinnacles, in caves and under coral rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to moderately large. light to moderately solid. Last whorl usually ovate or ventricosely conical, sometimes conical; narrowly ovate to narrowly conoid- cylindrical in French Polynesia : outline usually convex, left side sometimes constricted at base. Shoulder rounded to indistinct. Spire of moderate height, outline domed to almost straight. Larval shell multispiral. First 3-6 postnuclear whorls distinctly to weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to convex, with 1-2 increasing to 7-10 very weak spiral grooves or striae. Last whorl with fine, closely spaced. usually finely granulose spiral ribs from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale blue, tinged with violet in specimens from French Polynesia. Last whorl with 2 broad pale to dark brownish violet spiral bands, leaving 1 narrow ground-colour band below centre and sometimes 1 below shoulder. Base usually violet. Larval whorls and first postnuclear sutural ramps pinkish violet. Following sutural ramps with irregularly set brown radial streaks and blotches. Aperture violet, grading to white during growth.
Shell Morphometry
L 27-68 mm (-Fr. Polynesian form 27-34)
RW 0.08-0.25 g/mm
(L 31-56 mm; -Fr. Polynesian form 0.04-0.09 g/mm)
RD 0.51-0.62 (-Fr. Polynesian form 0.47-0.49)
PMD 0.72-0.86 (-Fr. Polynesian form 0.72-0.83)
RSH 0.13-0.22
Discussion:-C. glans is the most similar species; specimens are often difficult to distinguish. On the sutural ramps, C. glans has usually strong spiral grooves separated by granulose ribs rather than weak spiral grooves or striae as in C. tenuistriatus. C. glans also has a generally cylindrical last whorl (PMD 0.66-0.84) with stronger, somewhat less closely spaced spiral ribs. Other similar species are the sympatric C. granum and C. coffeae. C. granum differs in its bluish or reddish violet colour, and very weak spiral ribs on the last whorl; its pattern includes 3 (vs. 2) spiral colour bands and brown spots edging the subcentral ground-colour band adapically.
Shells from French Polynesia have a narrower last whorl and are tinged with violet instead of blue. We provisionally consider them to represent a geo-graphic race of C. tenuistriatus. Indian Ocean specimens differ only slightly from those from the W. Pacific; the former have lighter and mere brown colouration and more conical last whorls. RKK include C. tendineus var. granulosus as a synonym of C. tenuistriatus rather than of C. violaceus, because its type locality, Annaa Id., Tuamotu Archipelago, is likely correct, as it was collected by Hugh Cuming.

 

----------

 

Conus  teodorae  Rolán & Fernandez  in Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 17,  pl. 1,  f. 5, pl. 2, f. 5, pl. 4, f
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bahia Teodora, Boavista I., Cape Verde Is.; 0.5-2 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.9 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-teodorae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Low stones, in cracks, in rocky zones with some sand, to depth between 0,5 and 2 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the shell. The maximum dimension of the specimens studied varies between 17 and 25mm. The largest specimen is of 27 mm. Its silhouette is slightly variable, somewhat slender in general, with shoulder well marked. Spire variable, but in general a little high, not stepped, striated and with white color and brown that appear alternating in a irregular form. Body whorl with brown coloring, cream and white, these colors being distributed in irregular areas and dominated by the white band in the central zone of the last whorl and, at times, in another upper band. The white areas can have a form of zigzag lines or coloured clouds with inexact limits. The variability is large for the pattern although not so much for the colouring that is maintained in tones of the colors mentioned. White aperture, at times with a brown zone with little mark in the upper part. The lip can be slightly colored toward the base. Columella whitish with smooth violet tones. Periostracum fine, yellow, transparent and little brilliant.
Discussion:-Morphologically, the seashell has certain similarities with those from the island of Sal in the group cuneolus but, in these, the pattern has a more reticulate aspect and greater tendency to form bands without lines in zig-zag; there are also differences in the egg capsules with more rounded shapes and the juvenile shells are darker. Its capsule has similarities to that of C. salreiensis Rolán, 1980 and that of C. crotchii Reeve, 1849; the first species differs in, the form of the seashell, color, drawing, form of the shoulder and live together sympatrically; the second, in the pattern, the coloring of the seashell, in the larval seashell and in the aspect of the radular tooth. With the species of other islands, the seashell of C. teodorae would be perceived as distantly similar to that of C. curralensis Rolán, 1986, but that has a different egg capsule different, with axial lines, the larval seashell has the white apex and dark bands and the tooth radular lacks dentďculose splits in the apical part.

 

----------

 

Conus teramachii  Kuroda, 1956

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in THTA Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Venus Vol. xix, no. 1,  p. 8, pl. 1,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tosa, Japan; ca. 200 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in THTA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 115 x 57 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-teramachii
Synonyms:-
neotorquatus da Motta, 1985
Geographic Range:-Natal and Madagascar to Somalia, Japan to Taiwan, N. of New Zealand, Queensland, and W. Australia
Habitat:-Occurs primarily at continental slope depths at depths of 500 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical,voccasionally slightly pyriform; outline varies from almost evenly straight to convex at adapical three-fourths and concave below. Shoulder broadly carinate, may have densely set rounded tubercles in smaller adults. Spire usually of moderate height and stepped, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Postnuclear spire whorls carinate, with closely spaced rounded tubercles in first 5-10 whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with numerous spiral grooves or spiral striae; sculpture eroded on early ramps. Last whorl with prominent or sometimes weak spiral ribs on basal fourth and closely set spiral striae above.
Colour cream to orangish tan, sometimes axially streaked with darker and lighter shades. Aperture orange.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-111 mm
RW 0.13-0.50 g/mm
(L 55-105 mm)
RD 0.51-0.58
PMD 0.81-0.93
RSH 0.11-0.22
Discussion:-C. gradatulus generally has a broader last whorl (RD ca. 0.55-0.64), bears only weak to obsolete spiral striae on its sutural ramps, and lacks carinate postnuclear whorls with distinct rounded tubercles; it does not have toothed operculum and often has brown axial blotches on the last whorl.

 

----------

 

Conus terebra  Born, 1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMW Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind.,  p. 145
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known, designated (Cernohorsky) Fiji Islands
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMW deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 55.5 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-terebra
Synonyms:-
fusus Gmelin, 1791; terebellum Gmelin, 1791; albeolus Röding, 1798; coelebs Hinds, 1843; thomasi Sowerby iii, 1881
Geographic Range:-E. Africa to Marquesas, Amami Is., and Australia
Habitat:-In 0.5-20 m on coral reef or lagoon pinnacles, in fine sand with or without sea-weed and coral rubble; reported from sheltered sites beneath coral rocks and from exposed rocky areas.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, also narrowly conical in C. t. terebra; outline convex below shoulder, straight below, sometimes concave centrally. Shoulder rounded, sometimes rather indistinct from spire. Spire usually of moderate height, occasionally low; outline convex. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly convex to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 wide spiral grooves and additional striae or with numerous striae. Last whorl with variably spaced and variably fine spiral ribs from base to shoulder, weaker in large specimens of C. t. thomasi; interspaces may have spiral threads.
Ground colour white to bluish white. Last whorl with a broad spiral band on each side of centre, varying from violet-grey to yellow brown. Base may be tinged with violet or yellow. Larval shell and adjacent 1-2 sutural ramps bluish violet. Late sutural ramps irregularly tinged with brown. Aperture white, sometimes pale blue to violet; anterior edge violet in specimens with a violet base.
Discussion:-C. terebra is similar to C. virgo and C. emaciatus. C. virgo attains larger size, is heavier in similarly sized specimens and generally has a lower spire; it is distinguished by the absence of spiral colour bands from its last whorl, its smoother surface and its angulate shoulder. C. emaciatus is a smaller species, has a usually more conical last whorl (PMD 0.89-0.94), a more angulate shoulder and a more uniform colouration.
We provisionally distinguish C. terebra thomasi, from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as a subspecies based on the smoother last whorl with generally weak spiral ribs. C. t. thomasi intergrades with C. t. terebra in all shell characters. Fainzilber et al. (1992) favour the status of a form rather than that of a subspecies.

 

----------

 

Conus  terminus  Lamarck, 1810

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Kiener (1845, pl. 48,  fig. 1d)

 

Published in: Ann. du Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) xv,  p. 426
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ocean asiatique
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Kiener (1845, pl. 48, fig. 1d)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator terminus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. gubernator
Form C. g. terminus is slim and widest below shoulder with long cylindrical outline. It has brown markings in wavy axial patterns on white background.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  terryni  Tenorio & Poppe, 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMPM Original Description

 

Published in: Visaya Vol. I, p. 24
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Aliguay Island, Phillipines
Type Data: Holotype in NMPM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 30 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-terryni
Synonyms:-
sagarinoi Fenzan, 2005
Geographic Range:-Aliguay Is, Philippines
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Moderately small, solid and heavy shell. The profile is very characteristic conoid-cylindrical to cylindrical, with a moderate spire and a rounded shoulder. Outline of the last whorl convex at the adapical third to straight and parallel-sided. Outline of the spire straight, with a very well marked suture. The protoconch is absent in the examined specimen.
Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or slightly convex in late whorls, with several spiral grooves. Last whorl with uniformly spaced spiral ribs, becoming flat ribbons in the adapical third, close to the shoulder. The aperture is narrow and slightly wider towards the base. The lip is thick and straight. The colour of the aperture is white. The ground colour of the shell is ivory white. The last whorl is essentially patterpless at first glance, but some scattered light brown dots and bars are present, arranged in spiral bands coincident with the edge of the ribs. With magnification, a faint very fine pattern of axial light brown zig-zag hairlines can be appreciated, specially in the midbody ventral portion of the examined specimen. The spire is white, apparently patternless, but on close inspection a series of faint fine brownish irregular hairlines can be observed, specially on the late sutural ramps and extending down the shoulder where they become more diffuse and indistinct. The columella is white.
Discussion:-Described from a single specimen.
The general aspect of the shell, sculpture of the last whorl and details of the pattern still visible in the holotype despite its condition, make Conus terryni easily identifiable.

 

----------

 

Conus  tessulatus  Born, 1778

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1773, pl. 59, fig. 653)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Ind. Rer. Nat. Mus. Caes. Vind.,  p. 131
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: African Ocean, (Martini)
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1773, pl. 59, fig. 653)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lithoconus Species:-tessulatus
Synonyms:-
pavimentum Röding, 1798; edaphus Dall, 1910
Geographic Range:-S. E. Africa - Pacific Mexico & Costa Rica; Galpagos
Habitat:-Intertidal and subtidal, usually to 40 m; in Philippines, dredged to 240 m; in W. Mexico reported from 15-72 m. On coral reefs and in bays in fine to coarse sand substrate with or without vegetation, muddy sand, and gravel on sheltered flats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, sometimes ventricosely or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex at subshoulder area, straight below. Shoulder subangulate to angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter 0.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps with 1 increasing to 2-4 spiral grooves, often 2 major grooves and additional spiral striae. Last whorl with variously spaced, weak or incised, often punctate spiral grooves on abapical third.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with spiral rows of orange to reddish brown rectangular spots or bars, often alternating with white markings. Dark markings usually cluster or fuse into spiral bands on each side of centre. Base light violet. Larval whorls grey to light orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with radial markings matching bars on last whorl in size and colour. Aperture white, often suffused with violet or pink.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-82 mm
RW 0.13-0.83 g/mm
(L 30-67 mm)
RD 0.58-0.75
PMD 0.78-0.92
RSH 0.03-0.17
Discussion:-C. tessulatus resembles C. suturatus and C. eburneus. C. suturatus differs in having the first 5-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate, and in its hardly tessellated colour pattern with 3 background bands. C. eburneus differs in its smaller, dark brown spots and yellowish orange to tan background bands on the last whorl, and its white base. The colour patterns of the animals are also different.

The Panamic shell C. edaphus is considered a valid species in the Iconograhy. It differs from the typical C. tessulatus by its darker coloration of brick red to purple and its shape which is wider with a lower spire.

 

----------

 

Conus  testudinarius  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 694
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Santo Domingo, Martinique & Surinam, restricted (Kohn) to Surinam, (South America (Query)
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 75 x 41 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus ermineus Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name testudinarius

Discussion:This name is used for Western Atlantic specimens of C. ermineus.

 

----------

 

Conus  tethys  Petuch & Sargent, 2011

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 38
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Laminusa Is. Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 85.3 x 45.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus quercinus [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Viroconus Species:-quercinus tethys forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Laminusa, Sulu Sea
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original Description Summary
Shell of average size for genus, very elongated, fusiform; profile with straight sides, becoming slightly constricted at anterior end; spire smooth, proportionally low, only slightly elevated.Body whorl; ornamented with extremely numerous very faint spiral threads, giving shell distinct silky texture; spiral threads become stronger on anterior one-third of body whorl; color uniform, varying from monotone bright canary yellow to pale cream-yellow; extreme anterior tip darker yellow or yellow-tan. Spire low and subpyramidal; suture deeply impressed, producing slightly convex spire whorls. Shoulder rounded, only slightly angled, edged by broad, slightly undulating rounded keel; subsutural area sculptured with 16 fine spiral threads. Aperture proportionally narrow, becoming slightly wider at anterior end; interior of aperture and columellar fold white.

Discussion:- Although similar in general appearance, the Philippine C. tethys n. sp. differs from the Hawaiian endemic C. spiceri in having a proportionally higher spire with convex whorls, in having a much brighter yellow shell color, and in having a stockier, more truncated shell shape. The stockier C. tethys n. sp. has straight, or slightly convex, sides.

 

----------

 

Conus  tevesi  Trovăo, 1978

 

Picture Link: Paratype Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Bol. Cent. Port. Activ. Subaq. ser. IV-N-4 , p. 18
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: An unjustified rename:- unnecessary new name for C. musivus Trovao, 1975
Taxonomy: Not applicable
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name

 

----------

 

Conus  textile  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

Living Animal: David Massemin  New Caledonia

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 717
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Banda, Moluccas, Indonesia
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 67 x 33 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile
Synonyms:-
archiepiscopus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; auratus Röding, 1798; auriger Röding, 1798; gloriamaris Röding, 1798; gloriamaris Perry, 1810; panniculus Lamarck, 1810; pyramidalis Lamarck, 1810; reteaureum Perry, 1811; verriculum Reeve, 1843; textilinus Kiener, 1845; concatenatus Kiener, 1845; dilectus Gould, 1850; tigrinus Sowerby ii, 1857; scriptus Sowerby ii, 1858; corbula Sowerby ii, 1858; euetrios Sowerby iii, 1882; cholmondeleyi Melvill, 1900; eumitus Tomlin, 1926; osullivani Iredale, 1931; ponderosa Dautzenberg, 1932; loman Dautzenberg, 1937; sirventi Fenaux, 1943; neovicarius da Motta, 1982; suzannae Van Rossum, 1990; vaulberti Lorenz, 2013
Geographic Range:-Entire Indo-Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy; in similarly sized specimens, relative weight may vary by 80% between different forms and by 40% within the same form. Shells smaller in populations from the W. Indian Ocean; lightest forms also from this area. Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate or conoid-cylindrical, sometimes also cylindrical, conical or broadly ovate; outline strongly convex to nearly straight; left side straight to strongly concave near base. Aperture variably wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate to rounded, often within the same population. Spire generally of moderate height, outline usually straight to concave. Larval shell usually of 3-3.5 whorls, of 2-2.5 whorls in some forms from the W. Indian Ocean; maximum diameter 0.7-0.9 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-2 increasing to 7-15 fine spiral grooves; sculpture distinct to obsolete on latest ramps. Last whorl with variably weak spiral ribs near base, occasionally followed by spiral striae to shoulder.
Ground-colour white, sometimes suffused with blue, beige, violet, orange, or pink. Last whorl generally with a network of light to dark brown lines edging tiny to moderately large tents, sometimes also small quadrangular to round markings. Yellowish brown flecks and blotches arranged in 2-3 interrupted to solid spiral bands, on both sides of centre and often below shoulder; bands interspersed with broad, dark brown, straight to wavy axial lines. Occasionally, 1-2 additional similar but narrower spiral bands present basally. In the W. Indian Ocean, pattern varying from the typical arrangement to a delicate network with or without spiral bands or to a fine axially lineate pattern without any tentmarks. Larval whorls coloured with shades of red, sometimes white; colour slightly variable within the same population. In Hawaii, larval whorls changing colour from yellow to red during metamorphosis (Perron, 1980). First 2-4 postnuclear sutural ramps usually similar in colour to larval whorls, immaculate in first 1-2.5 whorls, with marginal brown dots in remaining whorls. Following sutural ramps matchng last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture usually white to bluish white, or rarely suffused with pink.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-150 mm
RW 0.10-1.30 g/mm
(L 35-120 mm)
RD 0.50-0.72
PMD 0.67-0.86
RSH 0.11-0.20
Discussion:-C. textile is similar to C. canonicus, C. abbas, typical C. telatus, C. victoriae, C. gloriamaris, and C. dalli. C. canonicus is separable from some C. textile variants only with difficulty. It generally has a more cylindrical last whorl with straighter sides, and its last whorl pattern is usually finer. Forms of C. textile from the W. Indian Ocean with a similarly fine reticulate pattern lack the pink aperture, while form textilinus, sometimes similar in colour pattern and aperture colour, is distinguished by its ventricosely conical last whorl. C. abbas differs in having an orange rather than red or white apex and rhomboid ground-colour markings on its last whorl. Form textilinus, more similar to C. abbas than other forms of C. textile, can also be separated by its pinkish violet aperture.

Only the typical form of C. telatus may be confused with C. textile. The former is generally less convex in outline and has more tuberculate postnuclear whorls (5-7 vs. 3-5), a weaker spiral sculpture on the late teleoconch sutural ramps, and finer reticulated lines. C. victoriae is dissimilar in size, shape and colour pattern from the sympatric typical form of C. textile. It differs in having smaller mean size, a broader, paucispiral larval shell, and finer reticulated lines. C. textile is rather uniform in shape and colour pattern between and within the populations from the Central Indian Ocean to Hawaii and French Polynesia but very variable between and within the populations from the W. Indian Ocean. The variability has led to the introduction of many nominal taxa, most of which likely refer to forms, and only a few to local races or geographical subspecies. Whether some of the forms are valid sibling species of C. textile requires much further study on the soft parts and genetic analysis. Distinguishing these variants from one another, former authors mainly emphasized differences in colour pattern that, however, did not prove to be constant. Data on ecology, zoogeography and morphology of soft parts of the western populations are largely lacking, precluding any strong taxonomic hypothesis.
The nominal taxa: -
C. archiepiscopus : Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, with a fine reticulate pattern and distinct spiral colour bands. Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with blue. Known from different localities within the W. Indian Ocean. We consider it a form of C. textile very similar to form euetrios (see below). In Madagascar it intergrades with sympatric conoid-cylindrical variants of C. textile. Shells similar in shape and colour pattern sometimes occur in Melanesia. C. communis is a synonym .
C. auriger : Last whorl ovate, with a rather widely meshed pattern and a few yellowish brown blotches arranged in a spiral row on each side of centre. RKK consider C. auriger a form of C. textile hardly separable from form verriculum and intergrading with form ponderosa (see below). Richard (1990) regards C. auriger as a valid species and C. verriculum as a synonym.
C. cholmondeleyi : Last whorl conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical, rarely ovate; shoulder usually subangulate to rounded. Ground-colour white to brownish beige or pale violet, streaked or suffused with blue on the last whorl. Pattern consisting of 2-3 obsolete to distinct spiral colour bands and variably fine, dark brown axial lines, usually undulating but often partially reticulated. Known from Kenya to Madagascar and Natal.
C. eumitus is a synonym. C. eumitus of authors refers to a more solid variant from Natal and Mozambique with an angulate to subangulate shoulder, a more conical and often broader last whorl, and 3 prominent spiral colour bands; the aperture may be suffused with pink. Lauer (1987) named the latter variant C. cholmondeleyi form fascifer; he emphasized differences in colouration and pattern but disregarded morphological differences. In Zanzibar, Mozambique, and Natal, C. cholmondeleyi intergrades with sympatric typically patterned forms of C. textile. We therefore consider C. cholmondeleyi a form of C. textile rather than a valid sibling species.
C. communis: A synonym of C. t. form archiepiscopus.
C. concatenatus : Likely a form of C. textile with a very reduced reticulate pattern.
C. corbula : A form of C. textile similar to form archiepiscopus. -
C. textile f. euetrios var. cyanosus: See C. textile var. euetrios.
C. textile dahlakensis: Last whorl conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical, with a rather typical C. textile pattern. Originally described as a local race from the Dahlak Archipelago, Red Sea. Shells matching these specimens from Dahlak Archipelago also occur from the Gulf of Aqaba. RKK consider it a form of C. textile intergrading with typical C. textile and form neovicarius (see below).
C. textile var. euetrios: Last whorl ventricosely conical to ovate, rather narrow (RD 0.53-0.61); spire comparatively high (RSH 0.14-0.20). Ground-colour white, suffused with brownish beige, violet and/or blue. Colour pattern (may be faded in the holotype) close to that of C. t. suzannae and C. t. form archiepiscopus. Shells from Reunion with a blue ground have been referred to as C. t. form euetrios var. cyanosus (Lauer, 1987). Form euetrios is reported from various localities in the W. Indian Ocean. Exact data on its distribution are missing on account of confusion with form archiepiscopus. The holotype of var. euetrios has a slightly narrower last whorl than the lectotype of C. archiepiscopus.
C. eumitus See C. cholmondeleyi.
C. cholmondeleyi f. fascifer: See C. cholmondeleyi.
C. t. neovicarius: Shell rather solid with a usually ventricosely conical last whorl and a rather typical C. textile pattern. Known from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. A form of C. textile intergrading with typical C. textile and form dahlakensis in different localities of its geographical range.
C. textile var. ponderosa: Form tres courte, obese et lourde (Dautzenberg). A synonym of form auriger or form verriculum.
C. pyramidalis: Last whorl rather narrow (RD 0.60 or less) and conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical, with a rather widely meshed pattern; spire comparatively high (RSH 0.13-0.19). Known from Kenya and Madagascar. A form of C. textile intergrading with more typically patterned sympatric variants that may also have cylindrical or ovate last whorls. The lectotype mayhave an aberrantly high spire.
C. scriptus Lighter than other forms of C. textile (see Shell Morphometry). Last whorl ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical, sometimes approaching ovate or cylindrical (RD 0.55-0.63; PMD 0.74-0.77). Larval shell of about 2 white whorls; spire comparatively high (RSH 0.13-0.18). Spiral colour bands reduced to rows of spots and flecks. Known from St. Brandon, Indian Ocean; RKK consider it a local race of C. textile.
C. sirventi: A form of C. textile with a ventricosely conical last whorl and a reduced pattern.

C. suzannae : Smaller than other forms of C. textile (see Shell Morphometry). Last whorl rather narrow, conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical (RD 0.52-0.60; PMD 0.75-0.80); spire rather high (RSH 0.13-0.19). Ground colour white to yellowish orange, often suffused with violet. Pattern consisting of reddish brown reticulated lines and 2-3 overlying weak and interrupted spiral colour bands; within bands, lines often not reticulated but axially undulating and sparsely fusing into broad axial lines. Spiral banding may be emphasized by pale violet background shades underlying only the strongly reticulated spiral zones. Known from Malindi and Robinson Id., Kenya. We consider C. suzannae a local race of C. textile most similar in colour pattern to C. t. form euetrios (see below), also resembling forms archiepiscopus and cholmondeleyi.
C. textilinus : This taxon seems to refer to the local form of C. textile from the Marquesas. Shells of this population have ventricosely conical last whorls (RD 0.57-0.65; PMD 0.76-0.84) with narrowly reticulated spiral zones alternating with bands of yellowish brown blotches and intermittent groups of larger white tents. The aperture is pinkish violet, distinguishing them from typical C. textile that is otherwise not unequivocally separable. Its radular tooth morphology matches that of typical C. textile. Because shells matching those from the Marquesas Is. are known from Tahiti, Tuamotu Archipelago, W. Samoa, Vanuatu, and some W. Indian Ocean localities, C. textilinus must either be regarded as a valid species (Richard, 1990) or a form of C. textile. RKK consider the conchological differences not to justify separation at the species level.

C. textile s. sp. vaulberti : The St Brandon shells are narrow, cylindrical, lightweight, with a wide aperture and a white protoconch, and the white brown ornamentation lacks any shades of blue, yellow or red. These features are not found in the S. Madagascar shells.
C. verriculum: Shell rather solid, with a ventricosely conical or ovate to broadly ovate last whorl (RD 0.59-0.72 vs. 0.50-0.67 in other forms of C. textile; PMD 0.73- 0.78). Larval shell of about 2 pinkish red whorls, maximum diameter 0.7 mm. Colour pattern of rather typical C. textile arrangement. Known from Mauritius, Mozambique, Madagascar and Sri Lanka. The original figures of C. verriculum are slightly stouter than the lectotype of form auriger. RKK consider C. verriculum a form of C. textile intergrading with forms auriger and ponderosa.
We consider the following nominal species-group taxa mere synonyms rather than forms of C. textile: - C. auratus - C. dilectus (juvenile specimen) - C. gloriamaris (Röding) - C. gloriamaris Perry – C.. t. osullivani - C. panniculus - C. reteaureum - C. tigrinus (often erroneously synonymized with C. canonicus).

 

For pictures of the forms and subspecies of C. textile highlighted in bold above see the alphabetic entry for that name.

 

----------

 

Conus  textilinus  Kiener, 1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 333, pl. 103, f. 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.5 x 21.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile textilinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. textile
C. textilinus : This taxon seems to refer to the local form of C. textile from the Marquesas. Shells of this population have ventricosely conical last whorls (RD 0.57-0.65; PMD 0.76-0.84) with narrowly reticulated spiral zones alternating with bands of yellowish brown blotches and intermittent groups of larger white tents. The aperture is pinkish violet, distinguishing them from typical C. textile that is otherwise not unequivocally separable. Its radular tooth morphology matches that of typical C. textile. Because shells matching those from the Marquesas Is. are known from Tahiti, Tuamotu Archipelago, W. Samoa, Vanuatu, and some W. Indian Ocean localities, C. textilinus must either be regarded as a valid species (Richard, 1990) or a form of C. textile. RKK consider the conchological differences not to justify separation at the species level.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus thailandis  da Motta, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Natural Study (Thai). 2, no. 1, seq. 7, p. 7, figs.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Raya Is., Phuket, Thailand; 80-120 ft.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 68 x 41 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus crocatus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-crocatus thailandis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Andaman Sea; Thailand; Vietnam
Habitat:-Reported from 20-40 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. crocatus
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy; typical form to moderately large and solid, form magister larger than other forms. Last whorl conoid-cylindrical to conical or ventricosely conical in typical form, conical in form magister, and conical or ventricosely conical to broadly conical or broadly and ventricosely conical in form thailandis; outline convex at adapical fourth to third, straight below. Shoulder rounded to subangulate, to angulate in form thailandis. Spire of low to moderate height, usually low in form magister; outline straight in typical form, concave in other forms. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 1-2 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly concave to convex, with 1-2 spiral grooves in earliest whorls increasing to numerous weak spiral striae in following whorls. Last whorl with closely spaced fine spiral ribs basally.
Colour yellowish to orangish or reddish brown, with sparse to numerous white tents and flecks on last whorl and teleoconch spire; white markings evenly distributed or concentrated in spiral bands, sometimes fused into large blotches and flames. Last whorl with very fine, variably spaced, prominent to obsolete, darker brown spiral lines, sometimes articulated with very small white markings. Base dark violet-brown. Apex pinkish white to pinkish orange. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L -(-typical form 40-82 mm; -form thailandis 50-84 mm; -form magister 70-110 mm)
RW -(-typical form 0.15-0.45 g/mm, L 40-64 mm; -form thailandis 0.44-1.12 g/mm, L 50-84 mm)
RD - (-typical form 0.51-0.64; -form thailandis 0.56-0.72; -form magister 0.55-0.64)
PMD 0.81-0.91
RSH 0.07-0.12
Discussion:-The conchological differences between typical C. crocatus and C. thailandis do not justify separation at the species level. Subadult shells of the latter may nearly match typical C. crocatus in shape, and intermediate specimens are known from New Britain, Solomon Is., Reunion, Seychelles, Madagascar, and St. Brandon. We therefore consider C. thailandis to represent the local form of C. crocatus from the W. Thailand area. Specimens described as C. magister correspond closely to typical C. crocatus in the colour pattern of the animal and to form thailandis in shell characters. RKK consider C. magister to represent a large local form of C. crocatus from the Noumea area, New Caledonia.

 

----------

 

Conus  thalassiarchus  Sowerby ii, 1834

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Conch Ill  (1834, pt. 56,  fig. 80)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 56/57, f. 80 & 85
Ocean geography:Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Luzon, Philippines.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Sowerby (1834, pt. 56,  fig. 80)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-thalassiarchus
Synonyms:-
castrensis Gould, 1842; mariei Jousseaume, 1899
Geographic Range:-S Philippines
Habitat:-Intertidal 2 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical, sometimes narrowly conical; outline variably convex at adapical fourth, straight below, sometimes concave centrally. Shoulder angulate, anal notch very deep. Spire of low to moderate height; outline almost straight with gradually rising whorls, to deeply concave, with a conoid apex projecting from an otherwise nearly flat spire. Larval shell of about 2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with a few weak to obsolete spiral grooves on middle ramps. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to pinkish cream, sometimes suffused with blue in specimens with dark patterns. Last whorl with a generally reticulate but highly variable pattern of yellowish to blackish brown. Colour pattern variants can be grouped into 2 main types: Type I: Brown to blackish brown lines and triangular spots form an irregular coarse to fine and variably complete network, varying from heavily developed to isolated lines and spots. Spiral rows of similarly coloured dots and dashes may be present but vary in number and arrangement. Pattern elements may be concentrated in 2 spiral bands, above and below centre. Base white with overlying network, to solid bluish or blackish brown. Type II : Shells with complete orange or yellowish brown network intergrade with shells with scattered axial lines and few to numerous spiral rows of dots. Pattern often concentrated in spiral bands; variably numerous yellow to light brown spiral lines and bands may also be present. In some specimens, reticulate pattern replaced by streaks, clouds and patches, either forming a coarse meshwork or fusing into confluent spiral zones. Base yellowish brown to dark bluish brown.; shell intermediates between these two types exist. Larval whorls white to brown. Postnuclear sutural ramps with scattered to numerous radial lines, streaks or blotches. Aperture white to bluish white or cream, varying within a population.
Shell Morphometry
L 45-115 mm
RW 0.20-0.95 g/mm
(L 45-105 mm)
RD 0.47-0.63
PMD 0.87-0.97
RSH 0.02-0.15
Discussion:-C. thalassiarchus resembles C. thomae and some shells of C. amadis. C. thomae can be distinguished by its less deep anal notch, coarser spire pattern of large blotches, and by the primarily spiral arrangement of its last whorl pattern that has only sparse reticulated lines and no axial lines. Its last whorl is often narrower (RD 0.49-0.54). Its spire consistently has gradually rising whorls, a straight outline, and it may be stepped, while the spire of C. thalassiarchus predominantly has a projecting apex and a concave outline and is not stepped. The periostracum is distinctly thinner and more translucent in C. thomae. C. amadis has a generally broader and more ventricose last whorl, its spire is higher and has gradually rising whorls, and its sutural ramps bear distinct spiral grooves. C. thalassiarchus exhibits a considerable variation in colour pattern that can be to some extent associated with the geographical occurrence: Shells of pattern Type I are known from the north-eastern parts of the range (Sorsogon to northern Cebu) and in Palawan (S.W. Philippines), while those of Type II occur from the north-western part (Coron) through Cuyo Is. to Cebu and further south to Zarnboanga and the Sulu Archipelago (S.E. Philippines). In particular, streaked and clouded yellowish to orangish brown shells occur in the south-eastern part of Philippines. C. castrensis is based on a dark-patterned shell without spiral bands (Type I); the holotype of C. mariei represents Type II, with reticulated white spiral bands, below shoulder and at centre, and solid yellowish brown bands above and below centre. The forms described by Wils as well as form ikatt fall within the range of the general pattern type associated with their localities.
The type specimens of C depriesti(nomen nudum) match the figure of the type of C thalassiarchus. C castrensis is white with scattered pattern of wavy axial lines in dark brown.

 

----------

 

Conus theodorei   Petuch,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMCI Bill Fenzan

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Ruthenica x, no. 2,  p. 85,  figs. 1T-1U
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off E. Samphire Cay, N. E. Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas
Type Data: Holotype in FMCI deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 23 x 12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species; According to Filmer a synonym colour form of Conus cardinalis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-theodorei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Bahamas
Habitat:-Under coral rubble on living reef, 15 m depth
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small for subgenus, with straight sides and sharply-angled shoulder; shoulder subcarinated, ornamented with 13-15 proportionally large, rounded knobs; shoulder knobs project outward from shoulder angle; spire proportionally low and flattened, projecting only on earliest whorls; protoconch proportionally large, protracted, mammillate, composed of 2 whorls; body whorl smooth and polished, ornamented with 8-10 large, widely spaced, pustulated spiral cords; anterior tip encircled with 6 closely-packed spiral cords; body whorl colored bright pink, overlaid with 2 wide, broken bands of deep orange-red, which in turn, are overlaid with scattered, randomly-arranged dark brown flammules and hairlines; pustulated spiral cords colored with small, evenly-spaced brown dots; spire whorls pink, with scattered, small, amorphous orange-brown flammules; protoconch dark pink; interior of aperture deep rose-pink; periostracum thin, smooth, transparent, pale yellow in color.
Discussion:-With its straight sides, sharply-angled shoulder, and strong, prominent shoulder coronations, C. theodorei most closely resembles C. ortneri Petuch, 1998.from the New Providence Island area. The new species differs from C. ortneri, however. in having fewer and proportionally larger shoulder knobs ( 13-15 on C. theodorei, 16-18 on C. ortneri), in being a more heavily-sculptured shell with large, pustulated spiral cords, and in havfng more elevated, protracted early whorls. The principal difference between the two species is seen in the shell color and color pattern: in C. ortneri, the shell is a uniform (and constant) orange or orange-red color with scattered small white patches and flammules; in C. theodorei, the shell is a distinctive bright pink overlaid with two wide bands of deep orange-red patches and numerous thin, dark brown flammules, hairlines, and dots.
Tucker assigns C. theodorei to the Magellanicus complex.

 

----------

 

Conus therriaulti   Petuch,  2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH   D. Sargent

 

Published in: Biogeography and Biodiversity of Western Atlantic Mollusks; p. 215-216; p. 74, fig. 5.6, F
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Campeche Bank, off Progresso, Yucatan State, Mexico
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species or a synonym of Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lindaconus Species:-therriaulti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Yucatan, Mexico
Habitat:-From 35 m depth
Description:-Source Original description
Stocky shell, broad across shoulder, distinctly pyriform; shoulder angled, bordered by large rounded carina; spire high and protracted, with spire whorls slightly canaliculated; shell smooth and silky, with numerous very low, fine threadlike cords around anterior end; base color pure white, overlaid with 12-15 rows of small, rounded dark purple-brown, orange-brown (as on holotype), or yellow-orange dots; some specimens pure white, without spots; spire whorls white with large, evenly-spaced dark brown rounded or oval spots; aperture narrow, white on interior.
Discussion:-.

 

----------

 

Conus  thevenardensis  da Motta,  1987

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xix,  no. 222-223,  p. 29
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Thevenard Island, West Australia (21deg 27' S. 115deg 00' E).
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.7 x 29.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-thevenardensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Thevenard Id.
Habitat:-Found in the infralittoral fringe to 3 m, on muddy sand bottoms of coral reef.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
C. n. reductaspiralis twice as heavy as C. n. nielsenae. Last whorl usually conical, generally broader than in C. n. nielsenae, particularly in form thevenardensis; outline almost evenly straight or grading to convex at adapical fourth to third. Shoulder sharply angulate to carinate, less so in large specimens. Spire of low to moderate height in typical form, usually low in form thevenardensis; outline slightly to deeply concave. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 1-2 increasing to 3-5 weak spiral grooves in early whorls and an obsolete spiral striation in late whorls. Basal fourth of last whorl with a few spiral ribs anteriorly and very few spiral ribbons above.
Ground colour white. Last whorl immaculate white or more often variably overlaid with yellow to brown and sometimes additionally with violet. Latter shells with closely spaced brown spiral lines extending from shoulder to basal fifth; base light to dark brown, usually darker than adjacent area. Spiral lines often variably reduced, sometimes absent. Larval whorls white to cream, sometimes pale violet. Postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white to heavily maculated with light to dark brown radial markings; early ramps sometimes immaculate pinkish orange to violet. Aperture white, sometimes violet.
Shell Morphometry
L -27- 51 mm, rarely to 61 mm;
RW - 0.06- 0.50 g/mm
RD - 0.56- 0.70;-f. thevenardensis 0.63- 0.71
PMD -0.85- 0.91
RSH -0.05- 0.20;-f. thevenardensis 0.04- 0.14;
Shells of form thevenardensis are all white.
Discussion:-RKK recognised C. thevenardensis as form of C. nielsenae. Filmer believes it to be a species

 

----------

 

Conus  thomae  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1788, pl. 138,  fig. 1331)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt,  p. 3394
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1788,  pl. 138,  fig. 1331)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Strategoconus Species:-thomae
Synonyms:-
omaicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; jousseaumei Couturier, 1891
Geographic Range:-Moluccas; S.  Philippines
Habitat:-Fould at depths of 150-250 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, outline almost evenly straight or convex below shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline nearly straight; late whorls often stepped. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9- 1 mm. About first 5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 2-3 very weak spiral grooves in early whorls. Last whorl with obsolete spiral ribs at base
Ground colour white. Last whorl usually with 3 broad, solid or interrupted brown spiral bands, below shoulder, above centre and within basal third, and with numerous spiral rows of similarly coloured dots, spots and dashes from base to shoulder. Pattern may produce zones with a fine to coarse brown network; brown dashes sometimes alternate with white dots; brown blotches rarely axially instead of spirally arranged. Larval whorls light brown. Early postnuclear sutural ramps brown; late ramps white, with brown radial streaks and blotches that extend across outer margins. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-97 mm
RW 0.25-0.60 g/mm
(L 55-85 mm)
RD 0.49-0.54
PMD 0.86-0.94
RSH 0.09-0.15
C. t. jousseaumei lower spired, yellow, the orange lines crowded and covering shell, lighter at midbody;
Discussion:-C. thomae can only be confused with C. thalassiarchus; for the distinctions, see the Discussion of the latter species. Although the holotype is lost, C. jousseaumei is generally considered as an exceptional variant of C. thomae. According to the original figure and description, it differs in its undulate later postnuclear whorls and its yellowish orange colour, with closely spaced darker spiral lines and a paler central band on the last whorl.

 

----------

 

Conus  thomasi  Sowerby iii, 1881

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 635,  pl. 56, f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Red Sea
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 72 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus terebra Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-terebra thomasi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; Gulf of Aden
Habitat:-In 0.5-20 m on coral reef or lagoon pinnacles, in fine sand with or without sea-weed and coral rubble; reported from sheltered sites beneath coral rocks and from exposed rocky areas.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. terebra
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, also narrowly conical in C. t. terebra; outline convex below shoulder, straight below, sometimes concave centrally. Shoulder rounded, sometimes rather indistinct from spire. Spire usually of moderate height, occasionally low; outline convex. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps slightly convex to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 3-4 wide spiral grooves and additional striae or with numerous striae. Last whorl with variably spaced and variably fine spiral ribs from base to shoulder, weaker in large specimens of C. t. thomasi; interspaces may have spiral threads.
Ground colour white to bluish white. Last whorl with a broad spiral band on each side of centre, varying from violet-grey to yellow brown. Base may be tinged with violet or yellow. Larval shell and adjacent 1-2 sutural ramps bluish violet. Late sutural ramps irregularly tinged with brown. Aperture white, sometimes pale blue to violet; anterior edge violet in specimens with a violet base.
C. t. thomasi narrower and sharply angled shoulder straight sides spire, weaker posterior ridges and violet mouth
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tiaratus  Sowerby ii, 1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 25,  f. 10
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Galapagos Islands
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 34 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Miliariconus Species:-tiaratus
Synonyms:-
roosevelti Bartsch & Rehder, 1939
Geographic Range:-W Mexico - Ecuador; Galapagos
Habitat:-Found among sand and rocks intertidally to 20 m.
Description:-Source Walls
Heavy, thick, with a good gloss; low conical, the upper sides convex, then concave at middle; narrow widely spaced ridges basally to third or complete body, sometimes basally granulose; shoulder broad, sharply angled, with heavy erect coronations; spire low to moderately tall, the sides convex/straight, blunt; all whorls with heavy coronations, often eroded; body whorl variable from pale brown to bluish, greyish, pinkish, whitish but covered with spiral rows of large brownish/reddish dashes alternating with white dots and dashes, rows widely spaced; midbody and shoulder area weakly marked; sometimes solid bands around midbody; base pale; spire whitish, sparsely marked with dark spots between coronations; aperture narrow, widening; outer lip thick, convex; mouth whitish blue, with pale bands;columella short, narrow, thick with low ridge;
C. roosevelti is small specimen with heavy ridges and lavender to pink aperture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tigrinus  Sowerby ii, 1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype 1 Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Syntype 2 Mike Filmer

Published in: Thes. Conch. iii, p. 41,  pl. 23 (209), f. 569, f. 579
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Madagascar
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size:45.1 x 21.7mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name tigrinus

 

----------

 

Conus  tiki  Moolenbeek,  Zandbergen,  Bouchet, 2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 6, 31
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Eiao, Marquesas
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 14.9 x 6.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-tiki
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-Found at depths of 150-250 m.
Description:-Source original description Summary
Height 14.9 mm, width 6.8 mm, aperture height 10.9 mm. Shell moderately small, light to moderately solid. Protoconch of 3 smooth, glossy whorls. Spire of moderate height, slightly concave, stepped. Nodulation on post nuclear whorls gradually develops but remains small until  the body whorl (with 22 small nodules). Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with rather strong, arcuate radial, slightly opisthocline threads. Just below sutures on spire, one or two spiral grooves. Shoulder carinate. Outline body whorl sigmoid, with about 12-13 spiral grooves on the ventral side. Colour: White; on spire with irregular brown spots, on body whorl about 12-13 rows of brown spots towards the anterior part less numerous. In some specimens the dots just below the shoulder and on the middle of the body whorl are somewhat larger and look like blotches.

Discussion:- Conus tiki resembles young specimens of C. stupa (Kuroda, 1956) and C. stupella (Kuroda, 1956). However these species have spirals on the sutural ramps. The same spiral grooves are present on C. tuberculosus Tomlin, 1937. More close seems to be C. eugrammatus  Bartsch & Rehder, 1943, which is more slender, with spiral grooving over the entire body whorl and lacking coronation on the last whorl. Conus boholensis Petuch, 1977 differs by being more slender and having also having grooves on the entire last whorl.

----------

 

Conus  timorensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 731
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East Indies
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-timorensis
Synonyms:-
vespertinus Sowerby i, 1825; euschemon Tomlin, 1937
Geographic Range:-Mauritius, St. Brandon, Timor, Tagala Is., and Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal; at St. Brandon, in 3-8 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl usually conoid-cylindrical to narrowly conoid-cylindrical; outline convex at adapical third, straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire of low to moderate height, with slightly convex to slightly concave outline. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.7-0.9 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave; late ramps with 3-4 spiral grooves grading into many striae. Last whorl with a few weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white to pale pink. Last whorl with variably confluent pinkish orange to light violet clouds and spiral rows of broad, similarly coloured dashes alternating with white dashes. Apex white. Late sutural ramps blotched with white and pinkish orange. Aperture white to pale pink.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-50 mm
RW 0.07-0.22 g/mm
((L 30-45))
RD 0.48-0.55
PMD 0.75-0.86
RSH 0.06-0.17
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tinianus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 713
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Tinian, (Marianas Islands), (erroneous), corrected (Kilburn) Algoa Bay, (Cape Province, South Africa).
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Ketyconus Species:-tinianus
Synonyms:-
aurora Lamarck, 1810; rosaceus Dillwyn, 1817; tenuis Sowerby ii, 1833; loveni Krauss, 1848; kieneri Crosse, 1858; secutor Crosse, 1865; fulvus Sowerby iii, 1889; alfredensis Bartsch, 1915; lavendulus Bartsch, 1915; kraussi Turton, 1932; approximata Turton, 1932;
Geographic Range:-Cape Agulhas, RSA - Mozambique
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell light, thin and moderately small (usually about 50 mm long), dull, with convex sides, smooth except for weak spiral ridges near the anterior end. Shoulder rounded or roundly angled, very finely striated shoulder slope. Spire moderately high, with a slightly concave profile, although the individual whorls are convex, often stepped. The body whorl is purplish brown, orangish or red in form aurora, often (but not always) covered with irregular dark brown blotches that may occasionally form broad irregular bands. The spire is of the same color as the body whorl. Aperture violet in most brownish specimen, but light orange or pink in orangish or red specimens. The animal is orange, densely mottled with tiny white dots.
Discussion:-C. tinianus may be compared with C. ardisiaceus Kiener, 1845, from Oman, which, however, has a broader more ovate shell and a coarser spiral sculpture on the sutural ramps. C. anemone Lamarck, 1810, from Australia, often has a larger shell, with a coarser sculpture; C. papilliferus Sowerby I, 1834, from Eastem Australia, on the other hand, is smaller, with a broader and more angulate shoulder.
In South African waters, the closest species is C. mozambicus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792, from which it is readily separated by the finely striated shoulder slope. The name aurora corresponds to a form of C. tinianus, which is applied to orange specimens with a pattern reduced or even absent.

 

----------

 

Conus  tirardi  Röckel  &  Moolenbeek, 1996

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paratype Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Vita Marina xliv,  p. 47-51,  figs. 1-4.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia (22deg 22' S. 166deg 17' E); 19 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.7 x 13.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-tirardi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia, Pitcairns
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small and light(L=29.7mm,diameter=13.5mm, aperture=26.2mm) conical and narrow(RD=0.51). Outline slightly convex adapically, almost straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, RSH 0.12; outline convex. Protoconch eroded. of more than 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9 mm. About 7 postnuclear whorls, separated by deep sutures. First 2-3 whorls slightly tuberculate, following whorls rounded or subcarinated. Sutural ramps slightly convex, with fine axial striae. Last whorl smooth, with 7-8 strong spiral cords on basal part of columelIa. Aperture narrow, uniform in width.
Colour light beige, with 3 white spiral bands on last whorl; one above basal part of columella, just above centre and one just below shoulder, all consisting of white spiral lines and blotches, irregularly scattered with a few fine brown spots. Base purple with white spiral cords and irregular fine brown spots.
Discussion:-Conus tirardi n.sp. resembles C. otohimeae Kuroda & Ito. 1961 as well as juveniles of C. swainsoni . C. otohimeae differs from C. tirardi in its broader last whorl (RD 0.50-0.64). its generally higher spire (RSH 0.12-0.20) and more triangular shape. The colour pattern of C. otohimeae differs by having a white base and numerous irregularly coloured spiral lines and bands. Juveniles of C. swainsoni often resemble C. tirardi n.sp. in their colour pattern -last whorl white except base -but can be distinguished by the presence of 3 strong spiral grooves on the spire whorls and the more violet than purple colour at the base.

 

----------

 

Conus tisii Lan,1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Paratype 1 154 x 75 mm Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Michel Jolivet

 

Published in: Bull. Malac. R. O. C. 5,  p. 63,  pl. 1 and insert plate
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Tiao-yu-tai Is., northwest of Taiwan; ca. 120 m.
Type Data: Holotype in TMGS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 113 x 60 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-tisii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines; Taiwan
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100-400 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight (right side) or concave (left side) below. Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline sigmoid, first postnuclear whorls domed. Larval shell of 2-2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1- 1.2 mm. First 5-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2 increasing to 7-9 spiral grooves. Last whorl with numerous closely set spiral ribs at base, followed by spiral striae to shoulder.
Ground colour white to pale violet. Last whorl with 2 darker violet spiral bands bearing brown axial blotches, on basal third and just above centre; adult specimens also with irregular brown spots and axial streaks. Shoulder edge with brown spots, occasionally also present in preceding whorls. Aperture white to light purple.
Shell Morphometry
L 98-154 mm
RW 0.42-1.30 g/mm
(L 98-150 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH 0.09-0.17
Discussion:-C. tisii most closely resembles C. pergrandis. It differs from the latter in its more conical last whorl (PMD in C. pergrandis 0.77-0.82), generally lower (RSH in C. pergrandis 0.16-0.18) and domed spire, and in its light purple ground colour. The pronounced spiral sculpture on the last whorl of subadult C. pergrandis is absent in subadult C. tisii.

 

----------

 

Conus tmetus Tomlin,1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Mal. Soc. Lond. xxii,  part 4,  p. 206
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Ireland (C. sulciferus Adams, 1854).
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued(C. sulciferus)
Type Size: 23 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. sulciferus A. Adams, 1854
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus ochroleucus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-ochroleucus tmetus subsp.
Synonyms:-
sulciferus A. Adams, 1854
Geographic Range:-Papua New Guniea - Fiji; Indonesia; India
Habitat:-In 6-60 m; on muddy bottom and on rocky substrate with patches of rubble and coarse sand.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. ochroleucus
C. o. ochroleucus moderately large to large, C. o. tmetus medium sized to moderately large; moderately solid to solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical; outline convex near shoulder, almost straight below. Aperture somewhat wider at base than near shoulder; siphonal fasciole usually prominent and siphonal notch curved to dorsal side in larger specimens. Shoulder angulate (C. o. ochroleucus) or subangulate (C. o. tmetus). Spire of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8-0.9 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps variably concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves; additional spiral striae on last 2 ramps. Abapical half of last whorl with pronounced narrow to wide spiral grooves, either separating regularly spaced ribbons or ribbons and ribs in varying sequence.
Ground colour cream in C. o. ochroleucus. Last whorl with spiral bands and axial streaks of yellowish brown to brown often leaving only a narrow ground-colour band of varying prominence near centre. Larval whorls light brown, adjacent 3-4 sutural ramps solid brown. Later sutural ramps with tan axial markings often producing regularly alternating dark and light spots at outer margins of middle ramps. Aperture yellowish tan to light orange. In C. o. tmetus, last whorl light to dark brown except for yellowish to orangish brown basally; a pale central or subcentral spiral band sometimes present. Larval whorls and a few adjacent sutural ramps brown. Later sutural ramps pale grey or cream, with dark brown curved streaks and marginal spots; dark markings more numerous, larger and confluent on last 2 ramps. Aperture dark orange or yellow.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-88 mm (C. o. ochroleucus; 45-74 mm C. o. tmetus)
RW 0.15-0.40 g/mm (C. o. ochroleucus: L 55-83 mm; 45-74 mm C. o. tmetus: L 55-68 mm)
RD 0.47-0.54
PMD 0.78-0.85
RSH 0.12-0.19
The type of C. tmetus is a dark brown variety considered a subspecies.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tonisii  Petuch & Myers, 2014

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MZSP  Petuch & Myers

 

Published in: Xenophora Taxonomy 4, p. 33 & 34, with pic., fig. 2 G & H
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Abrolhos Platform, off Prado, Bahia State, Brazil
Type Data: Holotype in MZSP deposited and catalogued
Type Size : 26 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Poremskiconus  Species:-tonisii
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Restricted to the reefs off Prado, Bahia State, Brazil
Habitat:-In carbonate sand and coral rubble, 25 m depth
Description:-Source: Original description
Shell large for genus, elongated, tapering toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled,

edged by small raised carina; spire flattened, with only earliest whorls projecting;

body whorl smooth and polished, ornamented with 10 very thin raised spiral cords around anterior end; shell color varying from uniform deep reddish-brown (as on holotype) to uniform

blackish-brown (as on specimens illustrated by Coltro, 2011:89); spire of holotype

light reddish-tan marked with large, widelyspaced triangular and crescent-shaped brown flammules; aperture narrow, with interior being dark purple-brown color; early whorls pale orange-white color; protoconch proportionally very large, mammillate, projecting and excerted, composed of 2 ˝ whorls, pale cream-white in color, projecting, mammillate, composed of 2 large rounded whorls.
Discussion:-The species is compared with Conus cargilei

 

 

----------

 

Conus tornatus Sowerby ii,1833

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Illus. pt. 29, f. 25
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Panama
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Globiconus Species:-tornatus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W Mexico – N. Peru
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light in weight, with a good gloss; biconical, the sides nearly straight; body whorl with broad flat ribs anteriorly, seperated by narrow spiral grooves containing fine axial threads; rest of body with widely spaced spiral grooves or rounded ridges , commonly with widely spaced spiral rows or large granules; shoulder broad, carinate, sometimes projecting; spire tall, sharply pointed, the sides straight, the whorls often stepped, often with projecting margins, the margins carinate; body whorl white to straw often with bluish tones and usually with heavy irregular axial flammules of deep brown to black; body whorl covered with spiral rows of squarish brown to blackish spots, the spots seldom fused or irregular; shoulder and spire with large oval or axially elongate dark brown blotches;earlier whorls with small regular dark brown spots at margins; early whorls white; aperture moderately narrow, widened anteriorly; outer lip thin, straight; mouth bluish white; columella short narrow.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  torquatus  Martens, 1901

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in ZMB Bill Fenzan ZMB


Published in: Sitzber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 15
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: East Africa
Type Data: Syntype in ZMB deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 65 x 28 mm figure
Nomenclature: A homonym:- an available name, an invalid name, a homonym of C. torquatus Rödingr, 1798, (p. 38 & p. 45), renamed C. neotorquatus da Motta, 1991.
Taxonomy: Renamed
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name torquatus

 

----------

 

Conus  tortuganus  Petuch  &  Sargent,  2011

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM Bill Fenzan LACM

Published in: Visaya 3 (3), 43
Ocean geography:West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Dry Tortugas
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 27.9 x 13.9 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus antoni Cargile, 2011
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name tortuganus

 

----------

 

Conus  tosaensis  Shikama, 1970

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in KPMY Mike Filmer

Published in: Sci. Rep. Yokohama Nat'l. Univ. sect. I,  no. 16,  p. 25,  pl. 1,  f. 2 & 23
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Tosashimizu, Kochi Pref., Japan
Type Data: Holotype in KPMY deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29.5 x 15.2 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus articulatus Sowerby iii, 1873
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Conasprella Species:-articulatus tosaensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Wakayama Japan
Habitat:-Sand rubble 30-60 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. articulatus
The holotype of C. tosaensis was collected dead and most probably represents a very large specimen of C. articulatus.

 

----------

Conus  tostesi  Petuch, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MOFU Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. xcix, no. 1,  p. 11,  f. 9 & 10
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Cabo Frio, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; trawled in 100 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MOFU deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 35 x 18 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus clerii Reeve, 1844
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lamniconus Species:-clerii tostesi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brazil
Habitat:-Found at depths of 15-100 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongate, thin fragile; spire protracted, slightly scalariform; body whorl shiny, with anterior one-third covered with numerous fine spiral threads; shoulder produced but slightly rounded; color pale violet to darker violet with three wide bands of reddish-brown, one just below shoulder, one around mid-body, and one around anterior end; banded color pattern overlaid by 10-14 rows of brown dots; anterior tip darker violet on some specimens; spire white with numerous crescent-shaped flammules; protoconch large, mamillate; periostracum thin, smooth translucent yellow.
Conus tostesi, is closest to the sympatric C. clerii Reeve, 1844, but differs in being a much smaller, more elongate shell, by having a higher, scalariform spire, by being of a violet color instead of white, and by having a much larger, mamillate protoconch.
This new Brazilian species actually shows a closer affinity to some of the rare Paolinian-Sub-magellanic species such as C. carcellesi Martins, 1945 and C. platenesis Frenguelli, 1946 from the Mar del Plata, (Frenguelli 1946). Conus tostesi differs from both of these species, however, by having a three-banded color pattern, finer body sculpture, and by lacking spiral grooves on the spire.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  traceyi  Tucker & Stahlschmidt, 2010

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in ZSIC

 

Published in: Miscellana Malacologica 4 (3)
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Coromandel coast, India
Type Data: Holotype in ZSIC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 36.3 x 14.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Pseudoconorbis Species:-traceyi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-India
Habitat:-Trawled in deep water
Description:-Source Original description.Summary
The holotype is 36.3 mm long and 14.8 mm It is wide, narrowly conical with an elevated scalariform spire. Colour pattem consists of brown markings over white. These are linear and associated with ridges on the body The spire is carinate and carina may be colored brown. There are two to three spirals on each sutural rarnp. The teleoconch is ornamented by deep, pronounced spjral grooves. On the posterior half of the shell the interspaces between adjacent grooves are slightly more widely spaced than they are on the anterior half of the body whorl. The sides of the body whorl are only slightly convex and the shoulder is angular .The aperture is narrow with a deep sinus, and the lip is thin, straight and is produced medially.

Discussion:-Found in same area as C. cormandelicus, on C. traceyi the spiral grooves cover anterior third of shell before fading and there are no pustules on ribbons between adjacent grooves.

 

----------

 

Conus  traillii  A. Adams, 1855

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854,  p. 121
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Malacca, (Malaysia), (Trail)
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 7 x 4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Lilliconus Species:-traillii
Synonyms:-
micarius Hedley, 1912; wallacei Lorenz & Morrison, 2005
Geographic Range:-Malaysia
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-A tiny shell with a pattern similar to C. biraghi with very convex outline to body whorls and domed convex stepped spire with deep sutures.
Discussion:-RKK assign as nomen dubiuum and question whether it is a cone.

 

----------

 

Conus  transkeiensis  Korn, 1998

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMC Mike Filmer

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxx,  no. 289,  p. 39,  f. 6,  10-14
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Northern Transkei, South Africa
Type Data: Holotype in NMC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 22 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus pictus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-pictus transkeiensis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-South Africa, Transkei
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100-200 meters
Description:-Source Original description La Conchiglia Oct-Dec 1998
C. pictus transkeiensis comes from northern Transkei (Algoa-Natal Overlap). Mbotyi is located about 200 km south of Durban (i.e. just south of Port Edward). Not distinguishable from the nominal subspecies by shell size, relative weight, or spire height. Last whorl more conical in shape and with straighter outline. First teleoconch sutural ramps with o or 2-4 weak spiral grooves; following ramps with axial threads but without spiral sculpture. Larval shell of 1.25 - 1.50 whorls, maximum diameter 1.75 - 1.90 mm. Spire concave to straight to sigmoid in outline, sometimes flat with projecting protoconch.
Ground color white to light violet. Last whorl with widely spaced spiral rows of brown dots and axial zigzag streaks on basal and adapical thirds. Axial streaks sometimes extending onto shoulder, overlaid by a light brown spiral band on both sides of mid-body. Spiral bands and axial streaks may be variably reduced. Spire with brown radial streaks. Larval shell white to faint lilac. Aperture violet. Periostracum variably thin, colorless to olive, variably translucent, thicker on spire; shoulder fringed. In shells with thicker periostracum, fine closely set rows of tufts encircling the last whorl.
The nominal subspecies of C. pictus differs from C. pictus transkeiensis in its brown spiral sub-shoulder band, its less conical last whorl with less straight sides, and its white rather than violet aperture. The striking similarities in color pattern and shape strongly suggest a conspecific status.

 

----------

 

Conus  tranthami  Petuch, 1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in FMNH Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten


Published in: La Conchiglia xxvii, no. 275,  p. 37,  f. 3 & 4
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Pickles Reef, off Plantation Key Florida, U. S. A.; 3 m.
Type Data: Holotype in FMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21 x 10 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Gradiconus Species:-anabathrum tranthami forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida Keys
Habitat:-In sand pockets scattered among coral rubble areas on the reef platform. In shallow water (2-10m depth).
Description:-Source Original description Summary
Shell small when compared to average Conus floridanus floridanus Gabb, 1868 (C. anabathrum), distinctly pyriform, broad across shoulder, tapering abruptly to anterior end; shoulder sharply-angled, carinated; spire elevated, scalariform; protoconch projecting. Aculeiform; composed of two and one half whorls; body whorl smooth and polished; anterior tip encircled with 6-8 deeply incised spiral sulci; color varying from white (as in the holotype) to pink, to pale salmon orange, overlaid with scattered large yellow or pale tan flammules; interior of aperture pale violet in fresh specimens; periostracum thin, translucent, smooth.
Discussion:-This new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies in being a much smaller. stockier less elongated and distinctly pyriform shell with a much more elongated, projecting protoconch. The new subspecies also differs in color, lacking the rows of prominent dots and dashes that are so characteristic of the nominate subspecies.

 

----------

 

Conus  traversianus  Smith, 1875

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMWC Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: J. Conchol. I,  p. 107, text-fig.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Smith 1891 refers to specimens from Red Sea and Amboina
Type Data: Holotype in NMWC deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 41 x 17 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Asprella Species:-traversianus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Aden; Somalia
Habitat:-Subtidal
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light to moderately light. Last whorl narrowly conical, outline nearly straight. Shoulder angulate to broadly carinate, occasionally undulate in small adults. Spire usually of moderate height, outline concave. Larval shell of about 2 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8- 1 mm. First 2.5-4 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with closely spaced axial threads and 1-2 increasing to 3-4 spiral grooves; latest ramps may also have spiral striae. Last whorl with rather regularly spaced, axially striate spiral grooves from base to centre or shoulder, separated by ribs basally and by ribbons above.
Ground colour pale grey, sometimes suffused with violet or pinkish violet. Last whorl with orange or brown axial clouds, clustering on each side of centre and below shoulder. Spiral rows of alternating white and orange to brown dots and dashes extend from base to subshoulder area. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with orange to brown radial markings that cross the outer margins. Aperture pale pinkish orange.
Shell Morphometry
L 26-43 mm
RW 0.04-0.10 g/mm
RD 0.45-0.48
PMD 0.88-0.96
RSH 0.10-0.20
Discussion:-C. traversianus is similar to C. stocki, C. lizarum, and C. dictator. C. dictator is almost twice as heavy, tends to have a broader, more ventricose last whorl (RD 0.47-0.60; PMD 0.83-0.93) as well as a higher spire (RSH 0.17-0.26), has more distinctly tuberculate postnuclear whorls (4-7), and the spiral rows on its last whorl lack intermittent white markings.
C. stocki differs from C. traversianus in its brown anterior end of the last whorl, aperture and larval whorls. C. traversianus also differs in its narrower, less ventricose last whorl (RD 0.45-0.48; PMD 0.88-0.96), lighter colouration, and less speckled pattern.

 

 

 

Conus  trencarti  Nolf  & Verstraeten, 2008

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Original Description

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Neptunea 7 (4)
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Dakar, Senegal
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26.3mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-trencarti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Senegal
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-

Last whorl is ventricosely conical to ovate; shoulder rounded; outline convex at adapical half, straight or slightly concave below; spire moderately high, slightly sigmoid; sutural ramps convex with faint spiral ribs; last whorl rather smooth but marked with about ten ribs at the base; ground colour white with a pattern of light olive-brown markings forming irregular white flecks and triangulate spots throughout, mainly organised as three reticulated bands on the last whorl, one at the shoulder, a second on the higher part and a third one at about mid body; lighter zones are clearly visible in the brown to bluish aperture.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tribblei  Walls, 1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in DMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Pariah no. 1,  p. 2, pl.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: China Sea Off Taiwan
Type Data: Holotype in DMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 62.3 x29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-tribblei
Synonyms:-
suluensis Shikama, 1979; queenslandis da Motta, 1984
Geographic Range:-Taiwan; Vietnam; Philippines; Solomons
Habitat:-Deep Water
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, usually solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl narrowly conical to conical, occasionally ventricosely conical; outline slightly convex at adapical fourth or sometimes two-thirds, straight below, often with a slightly concave central area. Shoulder angulate to broadly carinate. Spire low, outline concave; early whorls usually projecting from an otherwise rather flat spire. Larval shell of 3-3.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. First 3-6 postnuclear whorls tuberculate; late whorls usually carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps tlat to slightly concave, with 2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves, often weaker in latest whorls. Shells with variably spaced and strongly granulose spiral ribs from base to subshoulder area intergrade with shells with variably prominent, smooth or granulose ribs at base.
Ground colour white, often suffused with cream in C. t. queenslandis. Last whorl with tan to brown axial streaks and blotches on adapical two-thirds and a continuous or interrupted spiral band of the same colour on each side of centre. Anterior colour band often weaker or even absent. C. t. queenslandis with cream to orangish brown colour bands and without axial streaks and blotches. Coarse dashed or dotted brown spiral lines may be present but vary in number and arrangement. Base white or sometimes pale yellow. Larval whorls light brown, lighter in C. t. queenslandis. Teleoconch sutural ramps with variably numerous brown radial markings; in C. t. queenslandis ramps sometimes tinged with violet, and radial markings rather sparse and lighter in colour, often with an orange shade. Aperture white, often shaded with cream or violet in specimens from Queensland and New Caledonia.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-138 mm
RW 0.30-1.01 g/mm
(L 60-111 mm)
RD 0.47-0.61
PMD 0.82-0.96
RSH 0.04-0.13
C. t. queenlandis:- New Caledonia Queensland; Ground color cream with crean to orange brown bands and without axial streaks; spire whorls tinged violet with sparse lighter radial markings often shaded orange.
Discussion:-C. tribblei differs from C. sugimontis in the variable brown spiral bands on its last whorl, the brown radial markings on its sutural ramps, its carinate late whorls, and its generally narrower last whorl (RD 0.47-0.61) with an almost straight rather than slightly sigmoid outline. The spiral sculpture is weaker on the late sutural ramps of C. tribblei but stronger on its last whorl.
C. tribblei has a similar colour pattern to C. sieboldii but differs in its more solid shell in specimens of same size (RW 0.30-1.01), the strong spiral grooves on its sutural ramps, and in its lower spire (RSH 0.04-0.13) that is not stepped.

 

 

Conus  tribblei  f. queenslandis   da Motta,  1984

 

Pictures
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xvi, no. 178-9,  p. 25, f. 3a-b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled between Lord Howe & Lady Musgrave Is., Queensland, Australia; ca. 150 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 121.6 x 58.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus tribblei Walls, 1977
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-tribblei queenslandis subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Queensland; New Caledonia
Habitat:-100-300 m
Description:-Source Original description la Conchiglia
Shell obconical, large and heavy, consisting of fourteen spiral whorls, the first three or four post-embryonic whorls bearing rows of minute tubercules, and those following, are sculptured with pronounced spiral striae crossed with growth lines and carinated at the edge, lapping over the preceding at the suture; tops of the last four whorls sloping concavely. The shoulders are angulate and sharply keeled, with sides which are flat and tapering down its attenuated length. The body whorl is smooth, but longitudinal growth striae are conspicuously etched, with three or four transverse sulci barely visible at the base. Ground color is pale tan to creamy-white, the body whorl having two broad bands of a tawny colour above and below its mid-section without ornamentation of any other kind. Spire is sprinkled with occasional tawny smudges instead of any distinct maculations. Aperture is porcelain creamy-white, narrow and straight with a trenchant outer lip.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  trigonus  Reeve, 1848

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  Suppl.,  pl. iii, sp. 286
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-trigonus
Synonyms:-
adami Wils, 1988
Geographic Range:-N & W Australia
Habitat:-Deep water 80-150 m.Intertidal to about 150 m; typical form to about 60 m, on muddy sand in intertidal habitats and on sand mixed with coral rubble in subtidal habitats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid: form adami lighter than typical form. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical third to two-thirds, straight below. Basal part of columella with waist and weak plait posteriorly. Shoulder angulate; in form adami, shoulder carinate and outwardly curved. Spire low, particularly so in form adami; outline slightly concave to slightly convex or apex protruding from an otherwise flat spire. Larval shell of about 1.5 whorls, maximum diameter 1.6- 1.8 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls smooth, with a broadly carinate inner margin in form adami. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 5-12 spiral grooves that are separated by narrow but pronounced ribs. Last whorl usually with a few weak or strong ribs or ribbons at base; additional ribs may be present below shoulder and in some specimens these are followed by ribbons to base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2 continuous or interrupted yellowish to dark brown spiral bands, usually leaving ground-colour zones of varying width below shoulder, at centre and at base. Dotted orcoarse solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder, usually sparse or absent within white zones. Posterior white bands may be interspersed with brown axial markings. White shells intergrade with largely brown shells. In form adami, dark areas variably reduced, central ground-colour band often edged with brown flecks adapically. Larval whorls white or brownish orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial markings, ranging from completely white to nearly solid brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-92 mm RW 0.18-0.50 g/mm(L 40-75 mm)
RD 0.65-0.76 (-form adami 0.65-0.79)
PMD 0.80-0.93(- form adami 0.90-0.97)
RSH 0.03-0.12 (- form adami 000-0.05)
Discussion:-C. trigonus somewhat resembles C. capitaneus and C. namocanus in outline and pattern of the shell. C. capitaneus differs in its yellow apex, narrower (0.9 mm) and multispiral larval shell, dark brown base and in the presence of brown flecks at either side of the central ground colour band. C. namocanus can be distinguished by its consistently solid and usually finer spiral lines on the last whorl, purple or bluish violet aperture, weaker spiral sculpture on the late sutural ramps, and by the absence of a contrastingly white base. The olive tones often seen in C. namocanus and C. capitaneus and the tubercles of their first postnuclear whorl are absent in C. trigonus. C. adami refers to a deep-subtidal form of C. trigonus. All characters mentioned above intergrade between the typical form and form adami; intermediate shells occur at various localities.

 

 

Conus  trigonus  f.  adami  Wils, 1988

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in IRSN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Gloria Maris xxvii,  p. 83,  illus. figs. 1-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cape York, Northern Australia
Type Data: Holotype in IRSN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 71.7 x 49.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus trigonus Reeve, 1848
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-trigonus adami forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Arafura Sea; Gulf of Carpentaria
Habitat:-Deep water 80-150m.Intertidal to about 150 m; typical form to about 60 m, on muddy sand in intertidal habitats and on sand mixed with coral rubble in subtidal habitats.; form adami in 80-150 m in the Gulf of Carpentaria and in the Arafura Sea.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to solid: form adami lighter than typical form. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline variably convex at adapical third to two-thirds, straight below. Basal part of columella with waist and weak plait posteriorly. Shoulder angulate; in form adami, shoulder carinate and outwardly curved. Spire low, particularly so in form adami; outline slightly concave to slightly convex or apex protruding from an otherwise flat spire. Larval shell of about 1.5 whorls, maximum diameter 1.6- 1.8 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls smooth, with a broadly carinate inner margin in form adami. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat or slightly concave, with 2-3 increasing to 5-12 spiral grooves that are separated by narrow but pronounced ribs. Last whorl usually with a few weak or strong ribs or ribbons at base; additional ribs may be present below shoulder and in some specimens these are followed by ribbons to base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with 2 continuous or interrupted yellowish to dark brown spiral bands, usually leaving ground-colour zones of varying width below shoulder, at centre and at base. Dotted or coarse solid brown spiral lines extend from base to shoulder, usually sparse or absent within white zones. Posterior white bands may be interspersed with brown axial markings. White shells intergrade with largely brown shells. In form adami, dark areas variably reduced, central ground-colour band often edged with brown flecks adapically. Larval whorls white or brownish orange. Teleoconch sutural ramps with brown radial markings, ranging from completely white to nearly solid brown. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
RD 0.65-0.76
(-form adami 0.65-0.79)
PMD 0.80-0.93
(- form adami 0.90-0.97)
RSH 0.03-0.12
(- form adami 000-0.05)
Discussion:- All characters of trigonus intergrade between the typical form and form adami; intermediate shells occur at various localities.

 

----------

 

 

Conus  trinitarius  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 603
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Trinidad, altered (Vink & von Cosel) to Los Testigos Iles, Venezuela
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus mappa [Lightfoot], 1786
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Tenorioconus Species:-mappa trinitarius subsp.
Synonyms:-
caracanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792;
Geographic Range:-Eastern part of the coast of Venezuela
Habitat:-Found on silty sand or silt at depths of 10 to 20 m. Occasionally in more shallow water
Description:-Source Vink
C. mappa trinitarius differs from typical C. mappa in having the maculations and patches not darker outlined and not uniformly coloured, but e.g. light brown with dark brown or yellowish with brown. In the same population the colour of the patches is quite variable from specimen to specimen, from black or orange to light greenish yellow. Also an albino specimen was found (M. Mailly, personal communication 1984). Some specimens have dark brown markings axially connecting some of the ochreous to orange brown patches and partially outlining a few patches. The dark outlined white dots in the spiral lines are very close-set (e.g. in the holotype) or re- placed by short dark brown and white streaks.
Vink & Cosel
Shell whitish, with light yellowish green to black maculations and patches often not uniformly colored and not consistently darker outlined. White dots in spiral lines very close-set or replaced by white streaks. Lighter brown or orange patches sometimes axially connected by darker brown markings. Aperture bluish white to pale violet. Internal restrictions variable from very strong to very weak. Spire low to moderately high, in deep water specimens very high.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tristensis  Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Mike Filmer

 

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas,  p. 113,  pl. 16,  f. 9, 10 & 11
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Golfo de Triste, off Tucacas, Carabobo State, Venezuela; 35 m.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 37 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus cancellatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-cancellatus tristensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Caribbean, Venezuela
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Original description
Shell stocky with compressed body, wide across shoulder and tapering rapidly toward anterior end; shoulder sharply angled, slightly carinated; spire low, flattened; body whorl sculptured with 18 prominent, raised spiral cords; spiral cords pustulated; spire whorls sculptured with six incised spiral sulci; shell color pure white with small, scattered pale orange- brown flammules; spire whorls with regularly-spaced, amorphous brown flammules; early whorls pale orange; periostracum thick, with rows of erect hairs that correspond to raised, pustulated cords on body whorl.
Discussion:-Petuch states that the cords on the body whorl are pustulated, giving a rough texture to the shell Conus tristensis resembles no other living Caribbean species. This is not apparent from the type specimen which has a similar structure to C. cancellatus with the spiral ridges separated more widely.

 

----------

 

Conus  trochulus  Reeve, 1844

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 45,  sp. 246
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Trovaoconus Species:-trochulus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Boavista, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Iconography
Shell moderately large (normal length: about 35 mm) elongated, .with straight profile and a short, convex spire, with well-marked suture. Both the last whorl and the spire are uniformly lavender. The aperture is of a deeper purplish shade.
Discussion:-C. trochulus Reeve, 1844 can be separated from C. ateralbus Kiener, 1845 which normally has a black last whorl and spire, with white dots and an angulated shoulder, and also from C. venulatus Hwass, 1792, which has a white or light bluish ground color on the last whorl and spire, slightly convex profile, slightly concave spire and whitish aperture. On the other hand, its more elongated shell and uniform violet color distinguish it from C. pseudonivifer, whereas C. atlanticoselvagem Afonso & Tenorio, 2004, has a shell of a more pinkish background, usually patterned with golden brown blotches, a patterned and domed spire, and a different aperture color.

 

----------

 

Conus  troendlei  Moolenbeek,  Zandbergen,  Bouchet, 2008

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Vita Malacologica 6, 30
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Nuku Hiva, Marquesas
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.2 x 10.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Stellaconus Species:-troendlei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-Found at depths of 100-120 m.
Description:-Source original description Summary
Height 17.2 mm, width 10.6 mm, aperture height 14.2 mm. Shell small and solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical. Shoulder carinate, spire low, straight and more concave towards the pc. Post nuclear whorls slightly tuberculate. Sutural ramps with 2-3 small spiral grooves which become less prominent towards the last whorl. Anterior part on ventral side with 8 grooves, 4 on dorsal side. Spire white with irregular brown markings. Some of these brown spots continue a bit just below the shoulder. Body whorl yellow-brown (caramel) with a band of light blotches just below the middle. The colour pattern is very variable, ranging from orange-yellow to brown with sometimes heavy radial brown markings.

Discussion:- It differs from C. capitanellus by its peculiar pyriform shape, having less spiral grooving on the spire and hardly visible coronation on the spire whorls.

 

----------

 

Conus  tropicensis  Coomans  &  Filmer, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Beaufortia 35,  p. 11
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: East side of North West Cape, Exmouth Gulf, West Australia, (in sand, near reef)
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 44.3 x 26.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Calamiconus Species:-lischkeanus tropicensis forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Australia, Oman
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 200 m; reported from bare limestone pavement or sand, sometimes among weed or coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. lischkeanus
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; heavier variants known from W. Australia and Somalia. Last whorl conical to broadly conical, sometimes ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical in Indian Ocean shells; outline variably convex adapically, straight below. Shoulder angulate, occasionally approaching subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to concave or slightly sigmoid. Larval shell of about 3.75 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, sometimes concave in late whorls, with 1 increasing to 2-6 spiral grooves; on latest ramps, grooves usually obsolete in Pacific shells, distinct to obsolete in Indian Ocean shells. Last whorl either almost smooth or with weak to distinct, sometimes paired spiral ribs on basal third; in small adults, ribs occasionally from base beyond centre and slightly granulose.
Ground colour white, often variably suffused with light to darker rose or violet in E. African shells. Last whorl generally with a variably broad brown to orange-brown spiral band above and below centre, leaving ground-colour bands at shoulder, at or just below centre, and at base. In Indian Ocean shells, colour bands often yellowish to light brown and covering the entire last whorl; some shells from E. Africa with dark brown to dark red-brown spiral bands, and with central ground-colour band either edged by darker brown spots or crossed by axial markings. Closely spaced, dotted and dashed darker brown spiral lines may occur over the entire geographical range of the species. Larval whorls white to light brown in the Pacific, brownish violet in W. Australia, and pale yellow to orange in the W. Indian Ocean. Postnuclear sutural ramps variably maculated with brown radial streaks and blotches, sometimes immaculate in Indian Ocean shells. Aperture usually white in Pacific shells, violet in W. Australian shells, and white to violet in shells from the w. Indian Ocean. Length 30mm-75mm
Shell Morphometry
L 30-75 mm
RW 0.12-0.53 g/mm
(L 30-60 mm; -heavier variants 0.25-0.67 g/mm (L 30-54 mm); (W. Australia; Somalia))
RD 0.61-0.73
PMD 0.82-0.95
RSH 0.07-0.25
C. tropicensis differs from C. lischkeanus by its heavier shell and stouter shape, lower spire, more rounded shoulders, and less obvious bands.The colouring is weaker and the aperture is violet.
Discussion:-Coomans and Filmer (1985) recognized 3 geographic subspecies of C. lischkeanus , from the Kermadec Is., W. Australia, and the W. Indian Ocean. However, within these regions, rather straight-sided and usually multicoloured shells with comparatively higher spires occur sympatrically with heavier, low-spired, rather convex-sided and often uniformly coloured shells as well as intermediate specimens. The morphological differences indicated by Coomans and Filmer (1985) are now known to be either slight or not consistently associated with geographic distribution. We thus abandon separation of this species into geographic subspecies.

 

----------

 

Conus  trovaoi  Röckel  &  Rolán, 2000

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Argonauta xiii, no. 2,  p. 37,  f. 87-91
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Limagens, Angola
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 38.5 x 20.8 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-trovaoi
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-1-3 m, buried in sand under large rocks or half buried near them in quiet zones without wave movement.
Description:-Source Original description
Moderately small to medium sized, moderately solid. Last whorl ventricosely conical to broadly and ventricosely conical. Outline convex at ad apical third, almost straight below. Left side concave near base. Aperture wider at base than near shouder. Shoulder rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to sigmoid. Teleoconch sutural ramps straight to convex, with fine spiral striae. Last whorl smooth, with some weak spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour light green to grey or pale yellow, with two light narrow spiral bands at centre and at shoulder. Specimens may have dark brown irregular flecks and streaks. Aperture dark violet with two light spiral bands at centre and shoulder and a white collabral band. Periostracum yellowish green, thin and transparent.
Shell morphometry:
L 25-44 mm
RD 0.67-0.71
RSH 0.09-0.16
PMD 0.73-0.81
RW 0.13-0.25 g/mm
Discussion:-As C. trovaoi n. sp. looks like an olive (colour and shape), collectors were inclined to call this species C. olivaceus, a name for a species described by Kiener,1845. The latter species is known only by its figure, which shows a shell of similar size and colour-pattern, but with a subangulate to angulate shoulder -different from the rounded shoulder of C. trovaoi. Therefore the new species cannot be identified with C. olivaceus.

C. trovaoi is similar to C. neoguttatus in size and differs slightly in its somewhat more conical shape (PMD 073-0.81 vs. 0.72-0.78). The colour pattern is obviously different: Greenish instead of white ground colour, absence of any spital lines and small dots, and dark violet coloured aperture.

 

----------

 

Conus tsara  Korn,  Niederhöfer  &  Blöcher,  2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Original Description

 

Published in: Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. ser. A (Biol.), no,  p. 4,  pl. 1,  f. 1-9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Taolanaro, SE Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus pennaceus Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus tsara forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-From the infralittoral fringe to about 50 m; most frequently on subtidal coral reef flats in 0.5-5 m of water, in coral rubble, sand and muddy sand, often under rocks and amongst or under living corals.
Description:-
C pennaceus f. tsara is white to bluish white extensively covered with broad brown areas leaving scattered mainly small blue white tents. Brown areas encircled with brown dots and dashes; apex pinkish.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tuberculosus  Tomlin, 1937

 

Pictures:
Picture Link:

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond.  22 (4), p. 206
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Miyata Zone, Koshiba Zone, Miura Peninsula, Japan.(C. tuberculatus Yokoyama,1920)
Type Data: There is no known specimen
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. tuberculatus Yokoyama 1920
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-tuberculosus
Synonyms:-
tuberculatus Yokoyama, 1920
Geographic Range:-Sagami Bay, Japan
Habitat:-From 40-300 m in sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae

Described as fossil but living specimens have been found.
Small, light. Last whorl conical; outline slightly convex, left side concave near base. Shoulder angulate and weakly tuberculate. Spire of moderate height to high, outline slightly concave. Larval shell of about 1.75 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.9 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-6 spiral grooves. Last whorl with fine spiral ribs near base.
Ground colour light brown. Last whorl with yellowish brown blotches, irregularly arranged or tending to form 2 interrupted spiral bands; usually also with spiral rows of brown dots or dashes. Spire matches pattern of last whorl. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 14-19 mm
RW -0.05 g/mm
RD 0.56-0.67
PMD 0.85-0.88
RSH 0.15-0.27
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  tulipa  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 717
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 56.5 x 27 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Gastridium Species:-tulipa
Synonyms:-
purpureus Röding, 1798; nebulosa Swainson, 1840; borbonicus H. Adams, 1868;
Geographic Range:-Mozambique to Somalia, to Marshall Is. and French Polynesia.
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 10 m; usually reported from coral reefs.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid. Last whorl ovate to cylindrical; outline convex or almost straight and parallel-sided centrally; left side straight to distinctly concave at basal third. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder subangulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave or straight. Larval shell of about 4 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 4-7 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps usually somewhat concave, with 1 increasing to 4-9 spiral grooves; latest whorls usually with additional spiral striae, first 3 whorls with a prominent subsutural ridge. Last whorl with a few weak, variably spaced spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour bluish grey, suffused with blue or pink. Last whorl with confluent reddish brown flames and blotches often fusing into an interrupted spiral band on each side of centre. Spiral rows of alternating brown and white dots and dashes from base to shoulder. Larval whorls red, with a brown sutural line. Early postnuclear sutural ramps pink to violet, with regularly spaced brown dots at outer margins, sometimes also at inner margins; usually only first ramp dotted at both margins. Late sutural ramps sparsely maculated with dark reddish brown flecks and radial blotches. Aperture bluish white, translucent toward outer lip.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-95 mm
RW 0.16-0.25 g/mm
(L 50-80 mm)
RD 0.50-0.57
PMD 0.61-0.72
RSH 0.09-0.11
Discussion:-C. tulipa is easily distinguished from C. geographus, C. eldredi, and C. fragilissimus by its nontuberculate late postnuclear whorls and pale blue ground colour.

 

----------

 

Conus  turritinus  da Motta, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 4,  p. 1,  pl. 1,  f. 1a-b
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Trawled off eastern coast of Malayan Peninsula, S. China Sea.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 57 x 24 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Calibanus Species:-furvus turritinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E. Malaya
Habitat:-From infralittoral fringe to about 60 m; on sand
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. furvus
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical, ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline almost straight to moderately convex. Shoulder usually angulate, smooth to tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, occasionally stepped; outline straight to concave. Larval shell of about 2.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-1.0 mm.First 4-9 Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-7 spiral grooves, sometimes fine and weak on all ramps. Last whorl variable in sculpture; shells with weak and smooth spiral ribs on basal fourth intergrade with shells with granulose ribs from base to shoulder. Surface sculpture uniform in some forms, highly variable in others.
Ground colour white to tan. Pattern of last whorl ranges from uniformly white to blackish brown spiral banding. Spiral colour bands vary from yellow to blackish brown; a spiral ground-colour band usually at or just below centre, another sometimes within apical third, and another rarely on basal third. Spiral rows of brown dots extend from base to shoulder but vary considerably in number and arrangement, sometimes fusing into solid spiral or axial lines, occasionally restricted to spiral ribs or completely absent. Base and siphonal fasciole sometimes coloured like adjacent part of last whorl, more often contrasting yellow to pink or brown to purple. Larval shell white, pink or brown; adjacent postnuclear sutural ramps usually of same colour. Late sutural ramps white to brown, immaculate or with radial lines and streaks in various shades of brown; occasionally spire pattern reduced to variably set dots between shoulder tubercles. Aperture white, brownish or bluish white, often darker brown to violet-brown at anterior end.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-71 mm
RW 0.10-0.40 g/mm
RD 0.50-0.69
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.03-0.23
C. f. turritinus: Last whorl conoid-cylindrical; spire often stepped. Larval shell white. Last whorl yellowish brown, with a white spiral band at centre and without spiral rows of dots; base of the same colour as rest of last whorl.
Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus  turschi  da Motta, 1985

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Publ. Ocas. Soc. Port. Malac. no. 5,  p. 3, pl. 1,  f. 1. 2, pl. 2, f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Andaman Sea off Kantang, Thailand; 35-70 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 82.5 x 35 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus consors Sowerby ii, 1833
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-consors turschi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-W. Thailand to the Solomon Is., Vanuatu and Queensland.
Habitat:-Type specimens of form turschi from 35-75 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. consors
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to heavy. Last whorl narrowly conical or narrowly conoid-cylindrical to ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, straight below and sometimes slightly concave at centre. Siphonal fasciole varies from weak to prominent. Shoulder sharply angulate to almost rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Adults of 50-90 mm with about 9-11 postnuclear whorls, the first 4-8 tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to concave, with 2 increasing to 5-8 spiral grooves; occasionally latest ramps with 10-12 variably fine spiral grooves. Last whorl with spiral grooves at base, separating broad ribbons or strong ribs.
Ground colour white to pale brown; in subadult specimens of form poehlianus, white ground suffused with pale brownish violet. Last whorl with 1-2 spiral bands above and 1 band below centre; band nearest shoulder often interrupted or absent, or both adapical bands may fuse. Colour of bands ranges from yellowish brown to violet or dark brown. Dotted, dashed or solid brown spiral lines from base to shoulder, varying in number and arrangement. Form turschi often with additional straight to wavy blackish brown axial streaks or blotches. Larval shell brown. Early postnuclear sutural ramps with regularly set brown dots at outer margin; later ramps with brown radial markings of varying number and prominence. Aperture white.
Form turschi is based on a ventricosely conical variant with a distinctive colour pattern.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-118 mm
RW 0.20-1.10 g/mm
(L 50-95 mm)
RD 0.44-0.63
PMD 0.77-0.88
RSH 0.08-0.20
Discussion:-Form turschi is based on a ventricosely conical variant with a distinctive colour pattern; it ranges from W. Thailand to the Solomon Is., Vanuatu and Queensland.

 

----------

 

Conus  tuticorinensis  Röckel  &  Korn, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSF Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Arch. Moll. 119 (4-6), p. 279
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Near Tuticorin, SE India
Type Data: Holotype in NMSF deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 26.1 x 16.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Quasiconus Species:-tuticorinensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-India;Sri Lanka
Habitat:-Found at around 50 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Small to moderately small, moderately solid. Last whorl broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, less so toward base. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline straight to slightly concave. Larval shell of 1.5-1.75 whorls, maximum diameter 1.3-1.7 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1 increasing to 3 distinct major spiral grooves and additional minor grooves; sutures narrow and deep. Last whorl with flat spiral ribbons from base to shoulder.
Ground colour white, suffused with pale violet on last whorl. Last whorl with an orange-brown brick-wall pattern of about 12 spiral lines and irregular axial lines: similarly coloured irregular flecks spirally aligned below shoulder and on each side of centre. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with orange-brown radial markings. Aperture reddish violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 23-30 mm
RW 0.12-0.18 g/mm
RD 0.73-0.76
PMD 0.82-0.92
RSH 0.09-0.12
Discussion:-C. tuticorinensis is closely related to C. melvilli. The latter species differs in its wider sutures and the absence of spiral grooves from its sutural ramps. In addition, C. melvilli has a dark violet aperture, a less angulate shoulder, and tends to have a narrower last whorl.

 

----------

 

Conus  typhon  Kilburn, 1975

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Durban Mus. Novit.,  p. 213,  f. 1,  pl. I,  f. a-d
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Off Ilha Chiloane, Mozambique; 6-8 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 46.2 x 25.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-typhon
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-N Transkei, RSA – E. Africa
Habitat:-In 12-120 m. Populations with moderately small to medium-sized shells in 12-70 m on mud bottom; a population with moderately large to large shells was recently discovered in about 120 m off Quissico, S. Mozambique
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. typhon
Moderately small to large, moderately solid to solid; deep-subtidal shells may have twice the maximum size of upper-subtidal shells. Last whorl conical to slightly pyriform; outline variably convex at adapical third, straight to slightly concave below. Shoulder carinate, angulate in larger specimens. Spire low, outline usually deeply concave. Larval shell of 1.75-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1-1.2 mm.Teleoconch sutural ramps nearly flat, with 1-2 increasing to 3-5 weak spiral grooves in early whorls and an obsolete spiral striation in late whorls. Basal fourth of last whorl with a few spiral ribs anteriorly and very few spiral ribbons above.
Ground colour white, sometimes largely suffused with yellow or violet on last whorl. Last whorl with 2 variably broad, light brown or violet spiral bands leaving ground colour zones at base, at centre and sometimes also below shoulder. Closely spaced brown spiral lines extending from base to shoulder, usually reduced at anterior end, sometimes completely absent. Base generally lighter than adjacent area. Immaculate white shells intergrade with heavily patterned shells. Larval whorls white or pale grey to brownish violet. Postnuclear sutural ramps variably suffused with light brown and violet, particularly in early whorls, immaculate or with sparse to numerous brown radial markings. Aperture white, sometimes with a pale violet band on each side of centre.
Shell Morphometry
L - 30- 91 mm
RW -0.14- 0.41 g/mm L 60-47 mm
RD - 0.58- 0.65
PMD - 0.85- 0.94
RSH - 0.05- 0.12
Discussion:-Comment Iconography: C. typhon has been treated in RKK as a geographic subspecies of Australian C. nielsenae Marsh, 1962, based upon the similarities existing between the shell and radula of both taxa. Indeed, a relationship seems to exist, but this is a common feature in the malacofaunas of South Africa and Western Australia, and does not necessarily mean conspecificity from our point of view. The base of C. typhon is white instead of tan in many C. nielsenae. There are also differences in the spiral striation, which is weaker or even absent in C. nielsenae.

 

----------

 

Copyright Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update August 2017