Conus  vanhyningi  Rehder,  1944

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Nautilus. ivii. no. 3,  p. 105
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Pompano Beach, Florida
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17 x 10.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus mindanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-mindanus vanhyningi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Florida
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Vink   C. mindanus
A moderately heavy shell, 25 to 35 mm (up to 55 mm in specimens from Bermuda) with slightly convex sides of the body whorl and a typical outline of the spire, i.e. strongly concave whorls, while the spire itself is rather straight and producing an angle of 80 to 90deg. Shoulder angled, usually concave above, body whorl with about 10 rather deeply incised spiral lines near the base. In juvenile specimens the grooves may extend to the shoulder. Aperture widened anteriorly. Nucleus: 1.5 whorls, mamillate, early whorls less concave than later whorls, smooth. There are pustulose forms of C. mindanus which usually have a nodulous shoulder of the body whorl and  one or two penultimate whorls. Also in smooth specimens the shoulder of the body whorl may be somewhat undulate or close to coronate.
Most specimens of C. mindanus have a white, pinkish white, pale orange or pale yellow background often with a somewhat lighter band below midbody, and often with large or small clouds of reddish brown, orange or yellow. In addition there are spiral rows of small reddish brown and milk-white dashes (the milk-white quite distinct even against a 'white' background), but there spiral rows and/or clouds may also be absent. Dark reddish brown dashes may be present on the margin of the shoulder and spire whorls, a second row of more close-set reddish brown dots are often distinguished near the suture, furthermore some reddish brown patches may be found on the spire. In some pale specimens distinct rose- pink spots on the shoulder and margin of the spire whorls are the only obvious markings.
C. verrucosus form vanhyningi is now considered a pustulate form of C. mindanus. It was described as pinkish in tone with pink lip becoming orange yellow in aperture.
Discussion:-Tucker suggests that this is a synonym of C. anaglypticus, Crosse.

 

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Conus  vantwoudti   Petuch, Berschauer & Poremski,  2015

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in LACM  David Berschauer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: The Festivus, Vol. 47, p. 219 – 228, fig. 3, fig. 4 D
Ocean geography: Western Atlantic
Type Locality: Arashi Beach, Noord District, Aruba
Type Data: Holotype in LACM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 12.4 x 6.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-JASPIDICONUS
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-vantwoudti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Aruba
Habitat:-Collected in 2 m depth, on exposed hard, rocky surface
Description:-:
Shell small for genus, averaging only around 14 mm, stocky and inflated, broad across shoulder, with high, broadly pyramidal spire and rounded, convex sides; spire with distinctly sloping whorls; shoulder angled, bordered by small, rounded carina; body whorl shiny, ornamented with 20-24 faint, slightlyincised, evenly-spaced spiral sulci; sulci become stronger and better-developed toward anterior end; spire whorls smooth, ornamented with very numerous, closely-packed, radiating curved threads, which correspond to growth increments aperture proportionally wide and flaring, becoming wider toward anterior end; base shell color bright pink, overlaid with variable amounts of darker pink or purplishpink amorphous flammules; spire whorls marked with prominent large, widely-spaced, dark pink or pinkish-purple amorphous flammules; interior of aperture pink, becoming darker farther within interior; protoconch proportionally very large and prominent, shiny, composed of 2 rounded, domed whorls; protoconch color deep purple-pink; periostracum very thin, smooth, transparent
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vanvilstereni   Moolenbeek & Zandbergen,  2103

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Miscellanea Malacologica 6(3): 51-53, figs. 1 - 8
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality:
Philippines: Sulu Sea, Mindanao, Zamboanga (depth: 50‒100 m)
Type Data: Holotype in Naturalis Leiden, deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43.0 x 21.6 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-vanvilstereni
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-
This new species seems to be restricted to the Sulu Sea.
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m
Description:-
Spire whorls slightly stepped with 2‒3 spiral grooves becoming less pronounced towards the last whorl. Body whorl rather smooth with axial growth marks, rather straight, somewhat convex near the shoulder. On anterior part about 10 spiral ridges. On dorsal side of the body whorl a strong axial scar.

Early whorls (1-3 including the worn remnants of the protoconch) pink, the following top whorls white with irregular axial brown blotches and/or brown lines. Body whorls white covered with numerous chestnut brown spiral lines, ventrally on upper part nearly completely brown. Dorsally the brown stripes are more prominent. Both sides (ventral and dorsal) have somewhat darker brown axial markings. In the middle of this whorl a white band and a smaller one just above it. Below shoulder also a white band interrupted by fine brown axial lines. The upper spiral ridges on the anterior part of the body whorl a bit darker brown than the remaining ones, the lowest ones are colourless. Inside aperture white, around the siphonal canal a bit purplish.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vappereaui  Monteiro,  2009

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Antonio Monteiro

 

Published in: Visaya Sept 2009,  88
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Arue, Tahiti
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 47.7  x 26.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Fulgiconus Species:-moluccensis vappereaui subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Tahiti
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, in or on sand bottom but also reported from coral rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. moluccensis
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical or conoid-cylindrical; outline slightly convex to convex below shoulder, almost straight below; left side may be constricted near base. Columella often deflected to left at siphonal fasciole. Shoulder with 11-17 small to large pointed tubercles. Spire low in C. m. moluccensis; slightly stepped; outline straight to concave, sometimes sigmoid. Larval shell of 3 whorls, maximum diameter 0.70-0.85 mm. Postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 3-8 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture may be obsolete on last 2 ramps. Early postnuclear whorls tuberculate, sometimes domed. In typical form of C. m. moluccensis, last whorl with granulose spiral ribs at base followed adapically by wide ribbons; ribbons weaker toward shoulder and may be obsolete within adapical third.

Ground colour white, often variably suffused with cream or pink. Colour pattern of last whorl variable in C. m. moluccensis: Last whorl typically with orange to red or reddish brown axial flames and blotches, often fusing into 2-3 spiral bands, on both sides of centre and below shoulder; occasionally with traces of spirally aligned dots. In typical C. m. moluccensis, following sutural ramps sparsely maculated with radial blotches matching last whorl pattern in colour. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-60 mm
RW 0.17-0.32 g/mm (L 40-52 mm)
RD 0.51-0.61
PMD 0.81-0.88
RSH - 0.06-0.12;
C. m. vappereaui. A more slender form than the nominate species; higher spire and heavily sculptured body.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  varandinhensis  Cossignani & Fiadeiro,  2017

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MMM Cupra Marittima

 

Published in: Malacologia 94, p. 33 - 34
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality:
Varandinha, Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Type Data: Holotype in MMM, Cupra Marittima
Type Size: 10.6 x 5.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Uncertain
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-varandinhensis
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the type locality
Habitat:- Collected between 0.5 m and 1 m deep under the rocks
Description:-Source: Original description Malacologia
Small sized shell (8 to 11 mm) of pyriform profile, elongated, almost biconical, with moderately high spire, which is slightly stepped with visible sutures, almost straight but tending to concave; the color pattern of the spire is white alternating with the dark brown background color.. The aperture  is moderately wide with brown color inside, and one light stripe around midway and another at shoulder. The dark green ground color of the shell  is enlivened by an irregular series of  white spots some zigzag concentrated in upper  part and in the middle. The siphonal channel is wide and open, and almost straight.; 8-9  grooves are found in the basal area.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  variegatus   Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl. 106,  f.1

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 261,  pl. 106,  f. 1,  1a
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Kiener 1845,  pl. 106,  f. 1, 1a
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Varioconus Species:-variegatus
Synonyms:-
obtusus Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Angola
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Iconography
The shell is moderately small (normal length: 25 to 30 mm) and light, the last whorl broadly and ventricosely conical to broadly ovate, shoulder rounded. Outline convex at adapical half and straight 10 pyriform below. Spire low to moderately high. Sutural ramps straight to convex, with fine inconspicuous spiral striae. Last whorl smooth and dull, with about 10 spiral grooves at the base. Ground color of shell white to bluish white, with variably spaced spiral rows of alternating white and brown dots or dashes, from base to shoulder. Near the shoulder there are irregular axial brown blotches, eventually coalescing into a broad brown band. Aperture dark brown with a light band at center and below the shoulder.
Discussion:-

 

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Conus varius  Linnaeus,  1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in LSL Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1,  p. 715
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Banda, Moluccas, Indonesia
Type Data: Lectotype in LSL deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.5 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rolaniconus Species:-varius
Synonyms:-
annularis Röding, 1798; granulosus Röding, 1798; radula Röding, 1798; hevassii A. Adams, 1854
Geographic Range:-S. and E. Africa to Marshall Is. and Tuamotu Archipelago; absent from Red Sea, India and Sri Lanka
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 30 m; in Philippines, dredged to 240 m. On coral reef platforms and fore-reefs, in or under dead coral, on limestone bench and in sand often beneath coral rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical to conoid-cylindrical, sometimes slightly ovate in Pacific shells; outline almost straight to evenly convex. Shoulder angulate to subangulate, moderately to strongly tuberculate. Spire of moderate height, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Larval shell of 4 or more whorls, maximum diameter 0.80-0.85 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 6 spiral grooves; grooves finer and sometimes obsolete in late whorls. Specimens with heavily granulose evenly spaced ribs around entire last whorl intergrade with specimens with widely set, weak granulose ribs around basal fourth of last whorl.
Ground colour white. Last whorl often tinged with pale pink or violet, with dark brown, irregularly shaped or axial blotches within adapical and abapical third. Blotches variable in size and number, sometimes fusing into 2 spiral bands. Closely spaced spiral rows of dark brown dashes and dots extend from base to shoulder. Larval whorls white. Teleoconch sutural ramps with sparse brown dots. Aperture nearly white or pale yellow to orange behind a white marginal zone.
Shell Morphometry
L 35-61 mm
RW 0.20-0.48 g/mm
(-Indian Ocean Shells; -Pacific Shells (0.14-0.34 g/mm) (L35-54 mm))
RD 0.57-0.67
(-Indian Ocean Shells; -Pacific Shells (0.54-0.62))
PMD 0.82-0.91
(-Indian Ocean Shells; -Pacific Shells (0.73-0.91))
RSH 0.12-0.23
Discussion:-The shells of C. varius are very distinctive and cannot be confused with any Indo-Pacific congeners. The lectotype of C. varius is of the more slender conoid-cylindrical form occurring more frequently in Pacific populations, while the more conical form is commoner in Indian Ocean populations.

 

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Conus vaubani   Röckel & Moolenbeek, 1995

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Bill Fenzan
Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. clxvii,  p. 587,  figs. 3, 14, 15, 56
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia (23deg 38' S. 167deg 43' E); 435 m.
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25.8 x 11.7 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-vaubani
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-New Caledonia
Habitat:-Found at depths greater than 400 metres
Description:-Source Original description
Shell small and narrowly conical (RD=0.58). Protoconch of 1.75 whorls. Spire of moderate height(RSH=0.23) consisting of 7.5 whorls.Whorls tuberculate. Postnuclear ramps straight or slightly concave with 8-9 weak spiral grooves on later whorls. Spire outline slightly sigmoid. Shoulder angulate with axial costae; Last whorl conical, attenuated near base.Siphonal canal often deflected to dorsal side.Fine spiral ribs basally gradually changing into weak obsolete striae.Ground colour white with axial streaks from base to last spire whorl. Spire with irregular brown spots.
Conus vaubani resembles C. ikedai Ninomiya, 1987, C .jeanmartini (Raybaudi, 1992), C. smirna and C. profundorum, the last two of which are sympatric with it in New Caledonia. Conus ikedai, known only from its type locality, Sagami Bay, Japan, is of similar size (L 25-30 mm), but differs in having only 5 (instead of 7-8) postnuclear whorls of which only 3 are tuberculate; its shoulder is rounded, and its periostracum is white. Conus smirna can be distinguished by its larger size (length to about 100 mm), multispiral and brown protoconch, convex spire outline, and the absence of spiral grooves on post nuclear whorls. Conus profundorum differs in having a multispiral protoconch (more than 3 whorls) and a brownish beige colour pattern with a white central band. Conus jeanmartini, from off Reunion, differs by having a higher, more stepped and more strongly nodulated spire. Later postnuclear whorls are straight to slightly concave. without regular spiral grooving.

 

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Conus vaulberti   Lorenz,  2013

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in  MNHN  Paris  Felix Lorenz

Published in: Schriften zur Malakolozool. 27: 21-24
Ocean geography: Indo Pacific
Type Locality:
South Island, Cargados Carajos, North of Mauritius, St. Brandon
Type Data:
Type Size:
46.3 mm x 20.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-Conidae SubFamily:-CYLINDER
Genus:-Cylinders Species:-textile s. sb. vaulberti
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-St. Brandon
Habitat:-
Description:-Source Original description
The St.  Brandon shells are narrow, cylindrical, lightweight, with a wide aperture and a white protoconch, and the white brown ornamentation lacks any shades of blue, yellow or red. These features are not found in the S. Madagascar shells.

Discussion:

Lorenz notes that the name Conus scriptus was introduced by Deshayes and that the shell as described is not similar to C. textile. An invalid homonym name scriptus was later introduced by Sowerby and shells similar to the Sowerby shell from S. Madagascar circulate today as C. textile fm. scriptus.

 

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Conus vautieri  Kiener,  1845

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv., pl. 100,  f. 3

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2,  p. 350,  pl. 100, f. 3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known.
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Bernardi and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 32 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Puncticulis Species:-pulicarius vautieri subsp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Marquesas
Habitat:-Intertidal to more than 75 m; in deep sand away from limestone outcrops and growing coral; mostly in sand-filled channels and large patches of sand on reef flats.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. pulicarius
Medium-sized to moderately large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical, conoid-cylindrical, or ventricosely conical, often broadly conical in C. p. pulicarius; outline convex at subshoulder area and almost straight below, often with slight convexity above base. Siphonal fasciole pronounced, may be separated from basal part by an incision. Shoulder subangulate to rounded, weakly to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, consistently low in C. p. vautieri; outline slightly concave to straight. Larval shell of about 3.5 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.7 mm. Postnuclear spire whorls strongly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave, with 1 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably spaced spiral grooves and adjacent ribs on basal fourth.
C. p. vautieri with brownish grey ground colour and reddish brown pattern; bands around last whorl underlaid with reddish brown; intermittent white dashes often pronounced also adapically; aperture white.

Shell Morphometry
L 35-75 mm
RW 0.29-1.10 g/mm
(L 35-64 mm)
RD 0.63-0.80
PMD 0.78-0.88
RSH 0.04-0.22
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus vayssetianus  Crosse,  1872

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figure J. Conchyl., pl. 16,  f.1

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 20, p. 154,  pl. 16,  f.1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: New Caledonia
Type Data: Syntype was in collection Rossiter and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 14 x 7.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name vayssetianus

 

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Conus  vayssierei Pallary,  1906

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Syntype in MHNH MNHN

 

 

Published in: Journal de Conchyliologie, 54, 78, pl.4,  fig.1
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Houmt Souk Adjim, El Kantara, Gulf of Gabes
Type Data: Syntype in MHNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size:
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus ventricosus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name vayssierei

 

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Conus veillardi  da Motta, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxii, no. 253-255,  p. 44
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Glorieuses Islands, western Indian Ocean.
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 52.4 x 25.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus gubernator Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-gubernator veillardi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Iles Glorieuse
Habitat:-Intertidal to 60 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. gubernator
Medium-sized to large, moderately solid to moderately heavy. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical in form leehmani, also narrowly conical and narrowly conoid-cylindrical to conoid-cylindrical in typical form and intermediate shells; outline slightly to sometimes strongly convex at adapical fourth to third, straight below; adapical fourth often bulbous and central area slightly concave in form leehmani and intermediate shells. Siphonal fasciole and siphonal notch ranging from indistinct to prominent. Shoulder angulate to usually carinate. Spire of low to moderate height; outline slightly convex or slightly sigmoid to concave, concave to deeply concave in form leehmani. Larval shell of 2.5-2.75 whorls (form leehmani); maximum diameter about 0.8 mm in form leehmani, 0.8-1.2 mm in typical form. First 4-8 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat in early whorls, concave to deeply concave in late whorls, with 0- 1 increasing to 5- 10 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture weak to obsolete on latest ramps. Last whorl with several shallow spiral grooves on basal fourth to third and variably broad ribbons between; fine spiral threads extending from shoulder to base, occasionally coarser on basal ribbons.
Typical form : Ground colour white, often suffused with violet and less commonly with grey or brown. Last whorl with separate or confluent tan, reddish or blackish brown axial markings. Each marking may have two different shades of brown; surface often with underlying yellowish brown to violet background pattern. Violet tints more pronounced in specimens from Mozambique, Madagascar and Aldabra Is. than in shells from more northern localities. Axial markings variable in size and shape, ranging from irregular flecks to large, often zigzag flames. Pattern elements evenly distributed across last whorl or clustered in spiral rows on both sides of centre; rows may partially fuse into solid bands. Shells lacking surface pattern elements intergrade with shells with a heavily blotched and banded last whorl. Siphonal fasciole white, occasionally tinged with yellowish brown. Larval whorls and first 1-4 postnuclear sutural ramps white to orange, or light pink. Following sutural ramps with yellowish to reddish or dark brown radial blotches, streaks or lines. Aperture white to bluish white; occasionally bright orange deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-106 mm
RW 0.27-0.95 g/mm
(L 50-93 mm)
RD 0.46-0.55
(Mozambique, Tanzania, Madagascar, Somalia; 0.48-0.57 Amirantes, Seychelles, Mascarenes, Sri Lanka; 0.55-0.64 Maldives, Laccadives)
PMD 0.78-0.90
RSH 0.04-0.15
The species originally described as C. veillardi differs from C. gubernator only in its smaller adult size. Colour pattern of the last whorl, aperture colour and sculpture of the shell agree with C. gubernator and we regard C. veillardi as a local variant. Shells of smaller adult size but otherwise not separable from typical C. gubernator are known.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus velaensis  Petuch, 1993

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Alan Kohn

Published in: La Conchiglia xxiv, no. 265, p. 14, f. 18 & 19
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: North of Cabo La Vela, Goajira Peninsula, Colombia; 35 m.
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-velaensis
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Goajira, Colombia
Habitat:-Found at depths around 35 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongated, widest just anterior of shoulder; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered with slightly undulating, carina; spire low, rising gradually to protracted early whorls; aperture narrow; body whorl shiny, polished, ornamented with 8 very widely-spaced prominent spiral cords; anterior tip encircled by 12 closely-packed spiral cords; spire whorls ornamented with 3 faint spiral threads; shell color bright orange overlaid with widely-spaced white longitudinal flammules; white flammules often in amorphous zig-zag pattern; edge of shoulder bordered by very thin white band; anterior tip of shell white; spire orange, with numerous evenly spaced small white flammules; white spire flammules of body whorl connect with thin white shoulder band along carina; interior of aperture white; protoconch and early whorls pale orange-tan; periostracum unknown.
Discussion:-Conus velaensis is a beautiful and distinctive species that combines the shell characters of several closely-related taxa. In shape, the new species is most similar to C. honkeri Petuch, 1988 but differs in being stockier and less elongated, in lacking the canaliculate spire whorls, and in having the large, prominent spiral cords on the body whorl. In having the widely spaced prominent cords, C. velaensis is also similar to C. tristensis Petuch, 1987 from the Gulfs of Venezuela and Triste but differs in being a much more elongated and narrow shell, in having fewer and less prominent body whorl cords, and in having a bright orange base color instead of pale violet as in C. tristensis.

 

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Conus  velliesii  Veldsman, 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Original Description

 

Published in: Malacologia no. 92, July 2016; p. 30-31, fig. 8 & 9
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: Off Eat London, Central East Coast Sub-Province, East Coast Province, South Africa
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 24.66 x 14.12 mm
Nomenclature: an available name

Taxonomy: A form of Sciteconus brianhayesi Korn, 2001 or valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Sciteconus Species:-velliesi
Synonyms:-

Geographic Range:-South Africa
Habitat:-Dredged on 65-120 m on sand
Description:-Source original description
Shell small, moderately light; profile conical; shoulder moderately convex, slightly round and smooth. Spire low, slightly stepped to smooth with a sharp nipple-like-protoconch with a very shallow suture suture. Thin ridges close to suture, on inner part of the spire whorl, dark brown zig-zag markings on spire. The basal third has very fine ribs around the body whorl. Moderately broad aperture with rounded convex lip. The background color is off-white to cream with alternating orange to light-brown flame-like pattern. Thin evenly-spaced broken dark-brown bands around body whorl, with white inserts. No prominent band below the shoulder, thick dark-brown broken band around the middle and a thick dark brown band at basal end of the shell.

Discussion:-C. velliesi is found in a very localized area, in the northern Transkei region of South Africa. They are a deep-water species, being dredged from about 70 to 100m deep. They are only known from a very restricted area at present.

 

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Conus  venezuelanus   Petuch, 1987

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in USNM Alan Kohn

Published in: New Carib. Moll. Faunas, p. 113,  pl. 25,  f. 18 & 19
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Golfo de Triste, off Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, 25 m.
Type Data: Holotype in USNM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x12 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-venezuelanus
Synonyms:- There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Venezuela
Habitat:-Found at depths around 25 m
Description:-Source Original description
Shell elongated, tapered, with sharp-angled shoulder; spire elevated, concave along sides; body whorl heavily sculptured with numerous fine spiral threads and sulci; spire whorls sculptured with 3 spiral cords; color white to pale salmon-pink, with 2 bands of dark yellow maculations around mid-body; spire marked with scattered small, brown, crescent-shaped flammules; interior of aperture white; periostracum thin, smooth, translucent yellow.
Discussion:-Discussion: I originally referred this species to a Pliocene fossil, C. planiliratus Sowerby. Conus venezuelanus, however, differs from C. planiliratus in having much finer sculpturing on the body whorl and by having more numerous spiral cords. The only Recent cone that bears any resemblance to C. venezuelanus is C. stimpsoni Dall, from off the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Conus venezuelanus differs from C. stimpsoni in being a consistently more slender shell, by having two bands of yellow maculations around the mid- body, by having a heavily sculptured spire, and by having numerous incised spiral sulci on the body whorl.
Tucker suggests that C. venezuelaensis is a juvenile of C. villepini. See also C. kevani.

 

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Conus  ventricosus  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Kammerer (1786, pl. 6, fig. 3)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten 

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt, p. 3397
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Kammerer (1786, pl. 6, fig. 3)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Lautoconus Species:-ventricosus
Synonyms:-
ignobilis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; jamaicensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; madurensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; mediterraneus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; humilis Salis Marschlins, 1793; jaspis Salis Marschlins, 1793; olivaceus Salis Marschlins, 1793; glaucus Röding, 1798; cinctus Bosc, 1801; rusticus Poli, 1826; glaucescens Sowerby ii, 1834; marmoratus Philippi, 1836; ater Philippi, 1836; franciscanus Philippi, 1836; cailliaudii Jay, 1846; cretheus Nardo, 1847; epaphus Nardo, 1847; amazonicus Nardo, 1847; chersoideus Nardo, 1847; herillus Nardo, 1847; adriaticus Nardo, 1847; phegeus Nardo, 1847; clodianus Nardo, 1847; thuscus Nardo, 1847; istriensis Nardo, 1847; obtusa Requien, 1848; fasciata Requien, 1848; acuta Requien, 1848; marmorata Requien, 1848; subconcolor Requien, 1848; inaequalis Reeve, 1849; grossii Maravigna, 1853; hanleyi Sowerby ii, 1857; guestieri Lorois, 1860; zealandicus Hutton, 1873; pallida Bucquoy. Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; lutea Bucquoy. Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; rubens Bucquoy. Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; carinata Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; major Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; flammulata Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; fusca Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; oblonga Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; elongata Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; caerulescens Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882; alalmus Gregorio, 1885; rufatra Gregorio, 1885; elpus Gregorio, 1885; steppus Gregorio, 1885; subviridis Gregorio, 1885; emisus Gregorio, 1885; fuscocingulatopsis Gregorio, 1885; endorus Gregorio, 1885; amigus Gregorio, 1885; pereirae Gregorio, 1885; imelus Gregorio, 1885; submediterraneus Locard, 1886; galloprovincialis Locard, 1886; trunculus Monterosato, 1899; minor Locard, 1899; lineolata Locard, 1899; alticonica Pallary, 1904; vayssierei Pallary, 1906; persistens Kobelt, 1908; scalare Dautzenberg, 1911; debilis Monterosato, 1917; arenaria Monterosato, 1917; pretunculus Monterosato, 1917; noeformis Monterosato, 1923; fuscus Barros e Cunha, 1933; interrupta Coen, 1933
Geographic Range:-Mediterranean; W. Africa
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light with a good gloss; low conical , the upper sides convex/ straight; basal ridges; shoulder rounded narrow, not very distinct; spire low/moderate, blunt, sides straight/convex; spire whorls with rude sutures; body whorl usually tan olive, greyish, yellowish brown, bluish grey covered with closely spaced rows of spiral dashes and dots of brown, these sometimes alternating with opaque white; pattern variable , usually with two broad bands of brown blotches often fused into bands; base and midbody pale, grey/white; sometimes band of whitish blotches rounded flammules above midbody; aperture modeately wide uniform; outer lip thin convex; mouth white with brownish/violet blotches; columella narrow, short
Source Iconography
The shell is small to moderately large (normal length: 25 to 35 mm), with a raised spire that may be very high in exceptional specimens. The background color of the shell is bluish or green- ish, with many fine greenish brown interrupted spiral lines and irregular wavy greenish brown markings forming vague spiral bands. Exceptional specimens may be nearly black. The aperture is light or dark violet blue, with two light spiral bands, one at the inside of the shoulder area, the other at about mid-body, and these bands interrupt a dark brown axial zone along the inner lip..
Discussion:-There is a distinct population in Senegal (Dakar area, from Yoff to Sarene Point) which was identified with the taxon C. mediterraneus Hwass, 1792 (= C. ventricosus Gmelin, 1791) by Pin & Tack, 1995. This seems to be an isolated population.
C. ventricosus Gmelin, 1791 may resemble C. hybridus Kiener, 1845, C. aemulus Reeve, 1844 or C. taslei Kiener, 1845, but it is generally more elongated than either C. aemulus or C. taslei and its pattern is often coarser than that of C. hybridus. C. guinaicus Hwass, 1792 and C. guanche Lauer, 1993 may also resemble C. ventricosus, but can usually be distinguished from all those species by the general shape of the shell, pattern and radula.

 

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Conus  venulatus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten
Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 695
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: America [erroneus}
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 43 x 28 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Trovaoconus Species:-venulatus
Synonyms:-
nivosus Lamarck, 1810; quaestor Lamarck, 1810; nivifer Sowerby ii, 1833
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde Islands; W. Africa
Habitat:-Shallow Water
Description:-Source Iconography
This is one of the largest species living in the Cape Verde Islands (normal length: 40 to 55 mm). The shell has a slightly convex profile, the spire is moderately low and slightly concave, with well-marked suture and two or three spiral grooves. The shoulder is rounded.
The shell has a white or bluish ground color, covered with irregular blotches that range from yellowish brown to dark brown and grey, sometimes violet or orange, rarely with elongated white dots. Orangish specimens are found, especially in the Maio population. The spire is white, with dark undulating blotches. Aperture generally whitish, with a darker zone in the posterior.
Discussion:-C. venulatus Hwass, 1792 can be separated from C. ateralbus Kiener, 1845, which has a black spire, with white dots, angulated shoulder and purple aperture, and also from C. trochulus Reeve, 1844, which has a lavender shell, straight sides, convex spire of the same color and purplish aperture and from C. pseudonivifer, which has a bluish- white background,  purplish aperture and a characteristic pattern.

 

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Conus verdensis Trovăo,1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Amphitrite I,  no. 1,  p. 5, pl. 1, f. 3
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Ilha de Santa Luzia, Cape Verde Is.; 12 m.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 17.1 x 11.1 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-verdensis
Synonyms:-
furnae Rolán, 1990
Geographic Range:-Santa Luzia, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found in small cavities, with seaweed, existing in cliffs, in depths to 12 meters
Description:-Source Of Sea and Shore 1979 from the Portuguese
Seashell small conical, of smooth, bright, almost straight profile, presenting some grooves in the anterior area Shoulder wide and rounded off. The color base of the seashell is brown-dark, at times almost black. Thee pattern consists of narrow irregular axial bands of white color variable in their form and in their dimensions. The anterior of the seashell usually without streaks, can have a narrow streak and also next to the shoulder. In some specimens the white streaks can extend to all the anterior part of the seashell. Spire, a little elevated and whorls of slightly convex profile, grooved by 4 to 5 resulting streaks well marked. Apex little elevated. Line of suture deeply defined and regular, Color base like of the remainder from the seashell, pattern of white flammules, spaced out. Aperture: parallel, thin lip to the columella, of almost straight profile. Interior of the lip white, at times embroidered by a dark brown strip. Periostracum very thin, yellow clear, clear and persistent.
It is found on the islands of S. Antao, S. Vicente, S. Tiago, St. Luzia and the Bay of Joao Brave -archipelago of  Cape Verde.
Discussion:-This species can be confused with Conus bulbus; Reeve. 1843. Some specimens of the species described present a similar ornamentation that could be able to cause confusion of these two species. Conus bulbus the seashell is less shiny. A narrower shoulder is more rounded off and the spire more elevated, which gives the seashell a longer profile; the spire presents a whorl profile more rounded off and convex and without striae, being the characterstic that permits an easier and quick separation of the seashells of the two species. The name verdensis derives from the name of the archipelago of which it is endemic.

 

Conus verdensis f.  furnae  Rolán, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Iberus Sup. 2,  p. 42, 1, f. 9,  pl. 2,  f. 9
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Bahia de Furna, Isla de Brava, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 21.1 x 13 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of  Conus verdensis Trovăo, 1979
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-verdensis furnae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Brava, Cape Verde Islands
Habitat:-Found on rocks with weeds, in the cracks and in the cavities
Description:-Source Original description
Morphology of the seashell. The maximum dimension is from 15 to 21 mm. Its silhouette is somewhat slender with almost straight sides and the shoulder is well formed and is somewhat angled. Spire a little elevated, sharp apex and a little concave. Spire whorls not stepped, spiral striae and of the same color that the seashell. Brown coloring with white spots. The variable pattern and can display two forms: a) the white spots are few and adopt the form of angles or tips of arrow that are situated in the middle of the last whorl; from time to time there is so few white spots that the seashell is practically monochrome; b) the white spots are more abundant, oval, rhombic, or with irregular forms, and are distributed in a band with a reticulate aspect in the middle of the last whorl. The variability is usually between the two forms. White aperture with in its interior in its upper part, in maturing small shells and in juvenile specimens, a zone slightly stained brown. Lip constantly dark. Columella white. Periostracum fine, yellow and transparent.
Discussion:-C. verdensis verdensis, in comparison  has a seashell with a pattern with white areas extended in an axial sense, more frequent spots on its spire; besides, the larval seashell has the coloring of the darker last whorl..

 

 

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Conus  verriculum  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Conch. Icon., pl. 38,  sp. 208

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. 1,  pl. 38,  sp. 208
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ceylon
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Conch. Icon., pl. 38,  sp. 208
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-textile verriculum forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 50 m; on coral reef from the reef crest to deeper water inside the lagoon and sometimes also on flats of mainland coasts.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. textile
C. verriculum
: Shell rather solid, with a ventricosely conical or ovate to broadly ovate last whorl (RD 0.59-0.72 vs. 0.50-0.67 in other forms of C. textile; PMD 0.73- 0.78). Larval shell of about 2 pinkish red whorls, maximum diameter 0.7 mm. Colour pattern of rather typical C. textile arrangement. Known from Mauritius, Mozambique, Madagascar and Sri Lanka. The original figures of C. verriculum are slightly stouter than the lectotype of form auriger. RKK consider C. verriculum a form of C. textile intergrading with forms auriger and ponderosa.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  verrucosus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Rep Fig. (Kohn) Tableau Enc. (1798, pl. 333, fig. 4)
Picture Link: Rep Fig. (Clench) Martini 1773, pl. 55, f. 612
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1, p. 708
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Senegal & Mozambique, (both erroneous), corrected (Clench) Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo, (Dominican Republic).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Tableau (1798, pl. 333, fig. 4)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus jaspideus Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Jaspidiconus Species:-jaspideus verrucosus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Panama - Brazil; Bahamas
Habitat:-No Data
Description:-Source Vink   C. jaspideus
A moderately heavy shell, 20 to 30 mm, biconical, with straight to slightly concave-sided, rather high, stepped spire (at least 1/3 of total length) and straight-sided body whorl. Shoulder angulate, body whorl with heavy granules placed on broad spiral ridges between incised lines. In some specimens also granules on the shoulder and on the margin of some earlier whorls. The shoulder may also be somewhat undulate. Tops of the whorls rather flat without spiral grooves and with only thin curved axial growth lines. Spire whorls with carinate margins. Nucleus: 2 whorls, mamillate. Colour white to very pale light brown with reddish brown clouds. A band below mid-body is white. The granules are whitish quite distinct against a reddish brown background. In some specimens small brown dashes can be distinguished between the white granules. Spire white with axial flammules.
Form verrucosus Hwass; Large beads or granules on body ridges and whorl margins
Common W. Florida, N. Carib.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vexillum  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Rumphius (1705, pl. 31, fig. 5)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten 

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt, p. 3397
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Rumphius (1705, pl. 31, fig. 5)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-vexillum
Synonyms:-
sumatrensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792; canonicus Roding, 1798; princeps Holten, 1802; sulphuratus Kiener, 1845; robillardi Bernardi, 1858
Geographic Range:-Indo-W. Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to 70 m: juveniles on intertidal benches. larger individuals on subtidal reefs from the infralittoral fringe to about 30 m and to 50-70 m
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, solid to heavy; C. v. vexillum larger but lighter than C. v. sumatrensis. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical to broadly or broadly and ventricosely conical; outline convex adapically, almost straight below. Shoulder angulate to rounded. Spire of low to moderate height, often higher in C. v. vexillum; outline straight to slightly convex. Larval shell of 3.5-5.5 whorls, maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 0.25-2.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 2-3 increasing to about 10 often punctate spiral grooves. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base.
C. v. vexillum: Ground colour white. Last whorl brown except for a variably broad white spiral band at centre, and another at shoulder, often interrupted and sometimes absent. Overlying wavy dark brown streaks and closely spaced coarse to fine lines extend from base to shoulder. Base dark brown. Larval whorls yellow. Early postnuclear sutural ramps yellow or olive. Late sutural ramps with greyish to blackish brown radial blotches on white ground. Aperture white. C. v. sumatrensis: Last whorl with blackish brown axial streaks and flames, and with fine less densely spaced axial lines, frequently consisting of close-set minute dots and often variably reduced. Spiral colour zones lighter brown than in C. v. vexillum, sometimes reduced; white bands always distinct. Base white to tan, variably covered with minute brown dots. Small juveniles (10 mm or less) of C. v. vexillum yellow or olive. During growth, colour changes to brown. White ground appears gradually in adults. Small specimens with spirally arrayed, minute brown dots on spire and at base, sometimes over entire last whorl. During growth, dots become arranged into axial rows, clustered at base and so closely spaced as to produce solid lines. Center of last whorl transitionally with 1-2 spiral rows of brown spots. Larger subadults often with dark brown axial streaks, similar to C. v. sumatrensis adults. Juveniles of C. v. sumatrensis also yellow; axial streaks and flames are retained in adults.
Shell Morphometry
L 65-183 mm
RW 0.42-1.26 g/mm
((L 65-134))
RD 0.58-0.72
PMD 0.82-0.89
RSH 0.07-0.17
Discussion:-No Data

 

 

Conus  vexillum f.  sumatrensis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Chemnitz (1788, pl. 144A, fig. b)
Picture Link: Possible type MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 655
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: locality Sumatra, (Indonesia), (erroneous), corrected (Wils) to Hurghada, Egypt.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Chemnitz (1788, pl. 144A, fig. b)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus vexillum Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Rhizoconus Species:-vexillum sumatrensis forma
Synonyms:-
leopardus Dillwyn, 1817
Geographic Range:-Red Sea; E. Africa; W Indian Ocean
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description: C. v. sumatrensis: Last whorl with blackish brown axial streaks and flames, and with fine less densely spaced axial lines, frequently consisting of close-set minute dots and often variably reduced. Spiral colour zones lighter brown than in C. v. vexillum, sometimes reduced; white bands always distinct. Base white to tan, variably covered with minute brown dots.

 

 

Conus vexillum f.  sulphuratus Kiener,1845

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Figure Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv.

 

Published in: Spec. Gen. Icon. des Coq. Viv. 2, p. 130, pl. 66, f. 3. and pl. 78,  f. 4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not Known
Type Data: Syntype was in collection Boivin and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 28mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus vexillum Gmelin, 1791
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name sulphuratus

Description: Small juveniles (10 mm or less) of  C. v. vexillum yellow or olive

 

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Conus vezoi   Korn,  Niederhöfer  &  Blöcher, 2000

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in SMNS Bill Fenzan
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. ser. A (Biol.,  no, p. 20,  pl. 2, f. 1-9
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Maromitiliky, SW Madagascar
Type Data: Holotype in SMNS deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus pennaceus Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-pennaceus vezoi forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Madagascar
Habitat:-From the infralittoral fringe to about 50 m; most frequently on subtidal coral reef flats in 0.5-5 m of water, in coral rubble, sand and muddy sand, often under rocks and amongst or under living corals.
Description:- C. p. vezoi is a whitish blue shell largely overlaid with brown usually leaving a few tent shaped areas. Brown areas may be encircled with brown dots/dashes interspersed with tiny ground colour markings. Apex red to purple. It occurs in both conoid and conoid-cylindrical forms.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vezzaroi  Cossignani 2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: MMN Cupra Maritima Cossignani

 

Published in: Malacologia 93, p. 28
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Isola Aliguay, Filipinne Meridionale
Type Data: MMN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 53.75 x 27.90 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Possibly a form of Conus quasimagus Bozzetti, 2016
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:-vezzaroi
Synonyms:-

Habitat:-At No data 45 m
Description:-Original description translated from Italian
Medium-sized, maximum height 54 mm, solid, conical shape, last whorl with an almost straight profile, angled shoulder. Protoconch domed crushed with two turns, teleoconch made up of almost 6 laps straights with 5 spirals furrows, clear sutures, a slot positioned between the sutural margin and shoulder along spirally the teleoconch,  narrow opening. Brownish orange color, the last whorl presents a clearer band of yellow whitish color. Inside of the aperture white. Operculum and soft parts unknown.

Discussion:- The new species should be compared with several varieties of magus, especially C. m. raphanus.

 

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Conus vicdani  Lan, 1978

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MHNG Alan Kohn

Published in: Bull. Malac. R. O. C. 5,  p. 66, 2nd plate 1
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Balut Is., Davao, Philippines
Type Data: Holotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 78 x 43 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus sugimotonis Kuroda, 1928
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-sugimotonis vicdani forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines, China Sea
Habitat:-Deep water in depths of 100-350 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. sugimotonis
Moderately large to large, usually solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical or slightly pyriform; outline convex at adapical fourth to half, straight or slightly concave below. Shoulder angulate. Spire low; outline concave to sigmoid, often with early whorls projecting from an otherwise flat or slightly domed spire. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 1 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 5-8 spiral grooves, sometimes with additional spiral striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with weak to distinct spiral ribs and ribbons at base.
Ground colour white. Last whorl immaculate or variably shaded with yellow or tan; shells from Philippines may have additional brown axial streaks spirally aligned just above centre; shells from Queensland may additionally be suffused or banded with very pale violet. Larval whorls white or beige. In Japanese and Philippine shells, early teleoconch sutural ramps may be tinged with yellow. Outer margins of sutural ramps sometimes with a varying number of brown dots, persisting at edge of shoulder in some specimens. Aperture white, sometimes bluish white.
Shell Morphometry
L 60-103 mm
RW 0.30-0.85 g/mm
RD 0.54-0.62
PMD 0.80-0.94
RSH 0.02-0.11
Form vicdani has brown spots on spire whorls.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus victor Broderip,1842

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1842, p. 54
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 32 x 16 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Eugeniconus Species:-nobilis victor subsp.
Synonyms:-
vincoomnes Lichtenstein, 1794
Geographic Range:-Islands of Bali- Flores Strait Area
Habitat:-In 1 to 10 m; on sand bottom with Foraminifera, where water is clear and with slight currents.
Description:-Source Living Conidae    C. nobilis
Moderately small to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; specimens of C. n. victor smaller than those of other subspecies. Last whorl conical, occasionally narrowly conical or approaching conoid-cylindrical; outline slightly convex at adapical fourth, straight below. Shoulder carinate. Spire low, outline variably concave to slightly sigmoid; apex may project from an otherwise almost flat spire. Larval shell of about 2 whorls; maximum diameter about 0.7-0.8 mm. Later postnuclear whorls carinate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, slightly concave in later whorls, with pronounced axial threads; 5 increasing to 10-14 equidistant and evenly fine spiral grooves on later ramps. Last whorl with variably spaced weak spiral grooves on basal third, separating ribs near anterior end and ribbons above.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with a variable yellowish to dark brown pattern of reticulations and spiral bands; variation associated with geographic distribution. Forms with an almost regular network and rather sparse brown spots to blotches intergrade with forms with sparsely interrupted to continuous brown spiral bands separating 3-4 zones where white tents concentrate, at base, centre and below shoulder. Brown areas with prominent spiral rows of alternating darker brown and white, mainly axial dashes and dots. White markings range from very small tents to small blotches and are consistently edged with darker brown toward the outer lip. Base pale violet. Larval shell pale pink, darker pink posteriorly. Early teleoconch sutural ramps pink to orange. Late sutural ramps with yellowish to dark brown radial streaks and blotches coalescing with last whorl pattern and containing fine darker radial lines. Aperture white, suffused with pale violet or pale brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 30-71 mm
(-C. n. victor 25-49 mm; -C. n. friedae 34-53 mm)
RW 0.10-0.51 g/mm
RD 0.47-0.57
PMD 0.84-0.92
(-C. n. friedae 0.84-0.86 mm)
RSH 0.01-0.12
C. n. victor is a somewhat smaller form from Komodo Id. to Lomblen Id., Flores and N. Timor Sea; its colour pattern is light to orangish brown and includes a rather solid broad spiral band above and below centre with pronounced continuous spiral rows of alternating darker brown and white markings

Discussion:-No Data

 

----------

 

Conus victoriae  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Conch. Icon. pl. 37, sp. 202 a
Picture Link: Conch. Icon. pl. 37, sp. 202 b

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus,  pl. 37, sp. 202
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Mouth of Victoria R., New Holland.
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Deshayes and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 40 x 19 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Cylinder Species:-victoriae
Synonyms:-
nodulosus Sowerby ii, 1864; complanatus Sowerby ii, 1866
Geographic Range:-Northern Territory; Western Australia
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 10 m; on mud and sand bottoms of coral reef, beneath and among rocks and in rock pools, exposed or buried in sand .
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; in C. v. victoriae, relative weight of similarly sized shells may vary by 50%. Last whorl ventricosely conical, also ovate or conoid-cylindrical in C. v. victoriae; outline convex, often less so to nearly straight below adapical third; left side concave to nearly straight at basal third. Shoulder angulate to sometimes subangulate. Spire of low to moderate height, outline usually concave to straight. Larval shell of 1.75-2 whorls, maximum diameter 1-1.1 mm. First 3.5-6.5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1 increasing to 6-12 variably fine, weak to obsolete spiral grooves. Last whorl with variably spaced, distinct to obsolete spiral ribs basally; spiral sculpture generally less prominent in C. v. nodulosus.
C. v. victoriae: Ground colour white, often suffused with light blue and/or overlaid with yellowish or orangish brown. Colour pattern extremely variable: Last whorl in typical form with a network of fine light to blackish brown lines edging very small to medium-sized tents. Yellowish or orangish to blackish brown blotches arranged in 2-3 or more interrupted to continuous spiral bands and interspersed with coarse darker axial lines. Shells with typical pattern intergrade with shells with an axial pattern of bands and streaks to closely spaced fine wavy axial lines; pattern varies from completely white shells to shells heavily patterned on a brown or blue ground. Larval whorls and often also earliest postnuclear sutural ramps immaculate white. Following sutural ramps matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture white to pink, pinkish violet, bluish violet or blue. Larval shell white. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture bright pink, occasionally white. Periostracum matching that of C. v. victoriae.
Shell Morphometry
L - (C. v. victoriae 37 - 94 mm, usually to 65 mm;)
RW 0.13-0.42 g/mm (L 37-63 mm)
RD - (-C. v. victoriae 0.55 - 0.67;)
PMD (-C. v. victoriae 0.68 - 0.83;)
RSH (-C. v. victoriae 0.09 - 0.22;)
Discussion:-C. canonicus has a multispiral (2.75 whorls), narrower (0.8-0.9 mm), and pale pink larval shell; its last whorl is generally straighter in outline and often of conoid-cylindrical shape, while conoid-cylindrical last whorls are rarely seen in C. v. victoriae and absent in C. v. nodulosus.
The conchological differences between C. victoriae and C. nodulosus do not justify separation at the species level. Shells with intermediate colour patterns are known from both the southern and the northern part of the species range (Korn, 1993). We therefore consider these taxa to represent geographic subspecies of the same species.
C. complanatus refers to an individual variant of C. v. victoriae with a rather broad last whorl, a finely reticulate pattern, and a rather low spire.

 

 

Conus victoriae ssp. nodulosus   Sowerby ii,  1864

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Descr. Three New Shells
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Swan River, Australia
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Subspecies of Conus victoriae Reeve, 1843; according to Kohn a valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE

Genus:-Cylinder Species:-victoriae nodulosus ssp.
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Western Australia
Habitat:-On intertidal and shallow-subtidal reef flats, often beneath rocks.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. victoriae

Nodulosus: ground colour white, sometimes suffused with pink and rarely shaded with blue. Colour pattern rather uniform: Last whorl with a network of fine yellow to brown lines forming very small to medium-sized tents. Yellow to yellowish brown, rarely dark brown flecks, spots, and spiral dashes arranged in 2-3 or more spiral rows and interspersed with coarse brown axial dots or dashes. Larval shell white. Teleoconch spire matching last whorl in colour pattern. Aperture bright pink, occasionally white. Periostracum matching that of C. v. victoriae.
C. v.  nodulosus: bluish axial flammules absent; orange blotches reduced; major series present; pattern often loose with orange blotches absent, shell appears off pink; mouth bright pink; Western Australia Freemantle to Shark Bay.
Ground color white sometimes fused pink; color pattern uniform with network of fine yellow to brown lines forming v small to medium tents; yellow to brownish flecks spots dashes arranged in 2-3 spiral rows and interspersed with coarse brown axial dots; apex white; aperture bright pink/white
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vicweei  Old, 1973

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in AMNH Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Veliger xvi,  no. 1,  p. 58, f. 1-3 & 5
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Northwest of Sumatra, Indonesia; 50-60 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in AMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 66 x 31 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Textilia Species:-vicweei
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Andaman Sea from Burma to Strait of Malacca
Habitat:-Found at depths of 70-200 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl usually narrowly ovate; outline convex, grading to straight at adapical fourth and below centre. Aperture wider at base than near shoulder. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave, straight or slightly sigmoid. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 0-1 increasing to 6-11 spiral grooves. Last whorl with a few weak spiral grooves at base.
Last whorl brown or violet brown, with variably numerous white to cream arrow- or zigzag-shaped lines, concentrated in spiral bands within adapical and abapical thirds and at base. Pattern may be reduced along outer lip and on ventral side. Apex white. Following sutural ramps with light brown radial blotches, confluent in latest whorls. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 65-91 mm
RW 0.20-0.53 g/mm
RD 0.46-0.51
PMD 0.71-0.85
RSH 0.05-0.10
Discussion:-C. vicweei is similar to C. cervus in colour and shape, but C. cervus lacks white zigzag lines and C. vicweei lacks spiral rows of alternating brown and white markings.

 

----------

 

Conus vidua Reeve,1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype 1 in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Syntype 2 in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I, Conus,  pl. 8,  sp. 45
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Capul, Philippines
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 72 x 41 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus bandanus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Conus Species:-bandanus vidua forma
Synonyms:-
cuyoensis Lorenz & Barbier, 2012
Geographic Range:-Southern and central Philippines
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to 90 m ; mostly encountered in 5-20 m. On coral reef, in reef lagoons; in sand, on weedy sand, rocks, and rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae   C. bandanus
Moderately small to large, moderately light to heavy. Forms equestris and vidua smaller than other forms; form nigrescens moderately small to medium-sized and moderately light to moderately solid. Last whorl conical to ventricosely conical; outline nearly straight, variably convex adapically. Shoulder angulate, moderately to strongly tuberculate. Spire of low to moderate height, consistently low in forms vidua, nigrescens and equesIris; outline straight to moderately concave. Larval shell of about 2.25 whorls. Postnuclear spire whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps concave in late whorls, with 2-4 weak spiral grooves and additional spiral striae; spiral sculpture often obsolete. Last whorl with weak spiral grooves on basal third to three-fourths.
Ground colour white to pale violet or pale pink. Last whorl with a blackish brown network of lines, triangular areas and rhomboid blotches clustered in a spiral band on either side of central area; bands often with an orange to brown background. Base may be tinged with bluish grey. Apex white to light purple; larval whorls light yellow in Hawaiian shells. Postnuclear sutural ramps with a blackish brown network of lines and streaks. Aperture white, occasionally tinged with violet, pink or yellow; base of aperture may be brown.
Shell Morphometry
L 50- 150 mm
-form vidua 45 -80 mm
-form nigrescens 25 -65 mm
-form equestris 45 -60 mm
RW 0.08 -1.90 g/mm (L 25-123 mm)
RD 0.53 -0.66
RD -form vidua 0.57- 0.63
RD -form nigrescens 0.58- 0.66
PMD 0.82- 0.94
RSH 0.03- 0.20
-form vidua 0.03 -0.10
-form nigrescens 0.07 -0.11
-form equestris 0.07 -0.10
In form vidua, last whorl with a broad blackish brown or occasionally bright orange spiral band above centre and another at basal third, both interspersed with small white to brownish white tents. Lower band often extends to base. White zones below shoulder and below centre with a variably incomplete network of fine zigzag lines and small spots; pattern ranging from obsolete wavy lines to continuous lines edging coalescent tents. Base tinged with bluish grey. Anterior end of aperture violet-brown or orange-brown; rest of aperture white, suffused with blue or orange.
Discussion:-Orange colour specimens, possibly heat treated circulate under the name mozoii

 

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Conus  vikingorum  Petuch, 1993

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in CMNH Alan Kohn
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xxiv,  no. 265,  p. 15,  f. 20 & 21
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Off Puerto Colombia, Colombia; 35 m.
Type Data: Holotype in CMNH deposited and catalogued
Type Size :37 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus daucus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-daucus vikingorum forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Colombia
Habitat:-Founds at depths around 35 m.
Description:-Source Original description
Shell slightly elongated, relatively wide across shoulder; shoulder sharply-angled, bordered with rounded carina; spire flat, with only earliest whorls protracted; spire whorls shallowly but distinctly canaliculate; aperture narrow; body whorl smooth and polished; anterior tip encircled with 12-15 thin, low spiral cords; shell base color variable, ranging from pale orange and salmon-orange (as in holotype) to pale violet and magenta-violet; shell encircled with narrow, clear white midbody band; two darker colored, wide bands border white mid-body band (in holotype, wide bands are orange); area below shoulder and anterior tip lighter coloured (in holotype. pale salmon-orange); base color and bands overlaid with scattered thin pale brown longitudinal flammules; spire white with evenly-spaced, large, prominent reddish-brown flammules; edges of spire flammules extend onto rounded shoulder carina; protoconch and early whorls base-colored (in holotype. pale salmon-orange); interior of aperture pale orange-white; periostracum unknown.
Discussion:-Conus vikingorum is most similar to Conus boui da Motta. 1988 from Martinique, but differs in being a more slender shell with a less rounded, much more angled shoulder. Although both species are variable in base color, ranging from orange to violet. C. boui is a much more strongly-patterned species having more numerous and more prominent brown longitudinal flammules. The new species is also similar to the sympatric C. goajira, but differs in being a much more elongated shell with straighter sides, in lacking the pyriform shape of C. goajira, in having a distinctly flatter and channeled spirei and in having the large, prominent spire flammules. As in the case of C. goajira, C. vikingorum has frequently been misidentified as C. riosi Petuch. 1986, a much larger, heavier and differently patterned shell from Brazil.

 

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Conus  villepinii  Fischer & Bernardi,  1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype J. Conchyl.,  pl. 10,  f. 12

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 5,  p. 292,  pl. 10, f. 12
Ocean geography: West Atlantic and Caribbean
Type Locality: Marie Galante, S. of Guadeloupe I., Lesser Antilles.
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Conasprelloides Species:-villepinii
Synonyms:-
fosteri Clench & Aguayo, 1942
Geographic Range:-Florida, USA , Caribbean
Habitat:-Deep water, dredged from 100 to 150 m
Description:-Source Vink
A light shell, 40 to 70 mm (rarely up to 90 mm), with the sides of the body whorl rather straight, tapering to a narrow base where the aperture slightly flares out. The aperture forms a fairly deep sinus at its upper end. Spire rather straight-sided but suddenly more concave near the apex, where the early whorls form a cone with a sharp angle. Shoulder sharply angled, body whorl with weak, straight spiral ridges near the base, sometimes continuing to the shoulder (ridges more pronounced in Brazilian specimens). Nucleus elevated: 3 whorls; first 4 to 6 post nuclear whorls distinctly nodulose, with sides as large as or even larger than the tops. Tops of the spire whorls slightly concave with about 4 to 6 spiral ridges. Colour white to cream with two spiral bands of reddish brown maculations or axial flammules, often extended to the shoulder or base. Spire with curved reddish brown blotches.
Discussion:-C. villepinii could be confused with C. sanderi (which may have the same pattern, but is smaller and relatively heavier, with more numerous but smaller nodules on the first 2 to 4 post nuclear whorls only), C. cancellatus (which is less slender with more wavy spiral grooves on the body whorl, a different colour pattern -never axial flammules and with the sides of the early whorls smaller than the tops), and C. clerii (which is normally less elongated with a different colour pattern and only the first 3 to 4 postnuclear whorls nodulose).

Specimens from Brazil are in fact Conus capricorni Van Mol, Tursch & Kempf, 1967

 

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Conus  vimineus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I,  Conus, Suppl.,  pl.,  vii,  sp. 269
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Cagayan, Philippines.
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 29 x 10.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONILITHINAE
Genus:-Viminiconus Species:-vimineus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-S. Red Sea, Seychelles, S. India, Sri Lanka, W. Thailand, and Philippines.
Habitat:-Subtidal to 50 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly conical, outline convex adapically, almost straight below. Columella deflected dorsally. Shoulder subangulate, often indistinct, with a moderately deep exhalent notch. Spire usually of moderate height, slightly stepped; outline slightly sigmoid to slightly concave. Larval shell of 4-4.5 whorls, maximum diameter 1.1 - 1.2 mm. Suture wide and deep in larval shell and early postnuclear whorls. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with radial threads and 3 wide spiral grooves that may increase to 4-5 grooves in late whorls. Entire last whorl with deep, axially striate spiral grooves separating regularly spaced ribs near base and variably arranged ribs and narrow ribbons above; elevations smooth or finely granulose.
Ground colour beige. Last whorl with spiral rows of rectangular light brown spots on ribs, fusing into flecks and axial streaks that usually cluster in 3 spiral bands, below shoulder, above centre, and near base. Colour pattern more pronounced in Indian Ocean shells than in those from Philippines. Larval whorls grey to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps sparsely marked with brown radial streaks. Aperture brown to brownish violet deep within.
Shell Morphometry
L 32-43 mm
RW 0.02-0.05 g/mm
RD 0.37-0.44
PMD 0.81-0.88
(Indian Ocean shells; 0.76 - 0.84 Philippine shells)
RSH 0.15-0.25
Discussion:-C. vimineus has a broader larval shell (1.1-1.2 mm) than C. longurionis with 4.0-4.5 whorls separated by deep and wide sutures; its spire is generally lower (RSH 0.15-0.25) and has a slightly concave to sigmoid rather than straight outline; the early teleoconch sutural ramps have 3 spiral grooves, and the spire whorls lack tubercles

 

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Conus  vinctus  A. Adams, 1854

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

 

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854,  p. 118
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Australia
Type Data: Holotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 40 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Reestablished as a valid species by Monnier, Limpalaër & Robin in Xenophora Taxonomy 1, 2013
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Pionoconus Species:- vinctus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Australia
Habitat:-Shallow water
Description:-Source Living Xenophora Taxonomy 1
shell medium sized to moderately large. The last whorl varies from ventricosely conical to conoid cylindrical with a low to moderately high spire of straight outline. Protoconch is paucispiral with around 10 whorls. The first teleoconch whorls are weakly tuberculate or undulate and distinctly stepped. The sutural ramps have 3 increasing to 6 0r 7 spiral threads on the last whorls. They are crossed by growth lines that give them a somewhat finely cancellate aspect. The last whorl has a very pale grey background that is coated on the major part with large amorphous patches of brown or olive brown. They leave a narrow band at shoulder and another one at the middle of the last whorl. The base is white. There are 15 to 25 distant spiral lines on the last whorl. These are only present in the darker patches with almost continuous lines or long dashes of brown colour separated by white dots or dashes. The white dots are small and limited to the spiral lines.

The shells are smooth but some are spirally ridged on the last whorl at the position of the dark brown lines and sometimes weakly beaded. Above the base there are 5 or 6 strongly raised spiral ribs. The shells are quite light in weight.
Discussion:-Seen as a form of Conus monachus L., 1758 or Conus achatinus Gmelin, 1791 for years.

 

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Conus  viola  Cernohorsky,  1977

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

 

Published in: Nautilus 91,  p. 36,  f. 1-3
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Matnog, Island of Luzon, Philippines (C. violaceus Reeve, 1844)
Type Data: Lectotype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued (C. violaceus)
Type Size: 41 x 15 mm
Nomenclature: an available name, a new replacement name (nomen novum) for C. violaceus Reeve, 1844.
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-viola
Synonyms:-
violaceus Reeve, 1844; blatteus Shikama, 1979
Geographic Range:-Philippines to Melanesia (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is.); W. Thailand.
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, associated with corals and in coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately small to medium-sized, light. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly ovate, narrowly cylindrical or narrowly conical; outline mostly straight with nearly parallel sides adapically, variably concave to straight (left side) or straight to slightly convex below (right side). Shoulder subangulate to rounded. Spire of moderate height; outline of teleoconch spire whorls domed. Larval shell projecting, of about 3 whorls; maximum diameter 0.8-0.9 mm. First 1-3.5 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Early teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with 1-2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves; late ramps flat to slightly convex, steeper and stepped, with spiral striae; last ramp may be slightly concave. Last whorl with a few weak to obsolete spiral ribs at base. Form blatteus of similar size. Last whorl similar in shape and outline, may be broader. Spire sometimes higher, outline convex to domed. Larval shell projecting, of 3-3.75 whorls; maximum diameter 1- 1.1 mm. First 0.5- 1.25 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly convex, with 2 increasing to 4-9 spiral grooves; latest ramps steep and strongly stepped in large specimens. Last whorl with weak spiral ribs at base grading to variably spaced threads above.
Ground colour grey, violet or pinkish to purplish red. Last whorl with reddish brown axial clouds and blotches forming 2-3 spiral bands within basal third, near centre, and sometimes just below shoulder. Dotted or dashed brown spiral lines from base to shoulder, often reduced. Larval whorls and adjacent 0.5-2.5 sutural ramps orangish to purple red. Following sutural ramps with scattered brown radial streaks and blotches with spots at inner margins. Aperture matching last whorl in colour
Discussion:-A number of similar and sympatric species are often confused with C. viola eg C. austroviola and C. corallinus.C. luteus has a more conical last whorl (PMD 0.76-0.94) and a white aperture; its late sutural ramps are not stepped and steep. C. blatteus is tentatively assigned to C. viola, because we have only seen a few specimens from Taiwan and Philippines corresponding with the holotype from off Taiwan. They do not allow unequivocal separation at species level.

 

 

Conus  viola f. blatteus  Shikama, 1979

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NSMT Mike Filmer

Published in: Sci. Rep Yokosuka City Mus. no. 26,  p. 1, pl. 1, f. 1-2.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Off Taiwan
Type Data: Holotype in NSMT deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 33.6 x 14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym form of Conus viola Cernohorsky, 1977
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-viola blatteus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Taiwan to Philippines
Habitat:-In 20-240 m, associated with corals and in coral rubble
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Form blatteus: Ground colour reddish purple. Last whorl with 3 spiral rows of brown blotches, below shoulder, at centre and within basal third. Dotted to dashed brown spiral lines from base to shoulder, often reduced. Larval shell pale yellow to beige. Postnuclear sutural ramps grading from grey to purple, maculated with reddish brown radial blotches. Aperture matching last whorl in colour.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  violaceus  Gmelin, 1791

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1777,  pl. 2,  fig. 18)
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Martini (1777, pl. 2,  fig.19)
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Syst. Nat. 13th ed. Vol. 1, pt,  p. 3391
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: None
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Martini (1777,  pl., 2 figs. 18 & 19)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Hermes Species:-violaceus
Synonyms:-
tendineus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Geographic Range:-E. African coast and W. Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mascarenes, Seychelles); absent from Red Sea
Habitat:-In shallow water, often exposed to surface water currents; on coral rubble, among seaweed and in crevices or caves with algal encrustation.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to large, usually moderately solid. Last whorl narrowly conoid-cylindrical to narrowly cylindrical; outline convex at adapical third and straight below to almost uniformly straight and parallel-sided. Shoulder indistinct. Spire of moderate height; outline convex to domed, sutures narrowly channeled. Larval shell multispiral, maximum diameter about 0.6 mm. First 3-5 postnuclear whorls tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps straight to slightly convex, last ramp may be slightly concave. Early ramps with 1-2 increasing to 2-4 spiral grooves; late ramps with additional striae or only with striae. Last whorl with well-separated narrow spiral ribs from base to shoulder; intermittent grooves axially and spirally striate.
Ground colour white. Last whorl with brown or violet brown axial streaks and 2 spiral bands, above centre and within basal third. Base violet. Larval shell violet, sometimes brown. Early teleoconch sutural ramps white, violet or brown. Late sutural ramps largely brown to violet-brown or flecked with white. Aperture white.
Shell Morphometry
L 50-93 mm
RW 0.14-0.30 g/mm
(L 50-77 mm)
RD 0.41-0.47
PMD 0.71-0.83
RSH 0.14-0.22
Discussion:-C. violaceus can hardly be mistaken for any other Conus species. C. tenuistriatus is sometimes similar but differs in its broader last whorl (RD 0.47-0.62) with more closely spaced and usually granulose spiral ribs, its pink rather than dark violet larval shell and its generally violet aperture.

 

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Conus  viperinus  Lauer, 1986

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: La Conchiglia xviii,  no. 212-213,  p. 28,  figs. 1-4
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Bohol Island, Philippines; 5-15 m; corrected to Sulu Archipelago (Lauer, 1990)
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 48 x 25 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus omaria Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-CONINAE
Genus:-Darioconus Species:-omaria viperinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Philippines
Habitat:-Shallow subtidal to about 50 m, on coral reefs and in reef lagoons, in sand and rubble.
Description:-Source La Conchiglia Original Description
The shell of C. viperinus is of an olive-conical shape, moderately elongated, smooth except for very fine spiral striae which change into light cordlets at the base of the body whorl and slight growth lines. The shell is solid and heavy and has a natural satin-like gloss.
The spire is made up of ten whorls, those of the protoconch are scarsely visible. The protoconch is mammillate and nearly flat on the top part, with an apex looking like a minute nipple. The five following whorls are strongly convex or swollen, except for the upper side of the last two, which show a large spiral channel-like depression, especially visible on the body whorl. On the whole, the spire is low and forms a wide obtuse angle with the convex sides. The whorls of the spire are finely engraved with very dense dextrogyre striae. The penultimate whorl is visibly detached from the body whorl by a sort of step.
The shoulder, subangulated, rounds out into a wide curve, which continues to the base like a parabola, without any interruption, apart from a slight swelling towards the last third of the whorl. The aperture starts from a rather deep posterior channel and is relatively wide, becoming more so towards the base, while the siphonal canal is narrow. The solid thick external lip has an obtuse edge; the columella is just visible under a weak plica of the internal lip.
Ornamentation and colour: The whole shell, except for the first five whorls, is covered by dense reticulation in golden yellow to orange tones. These very fine reticulations, sometimes like scales, sometimes like little dots lined up along thin short spiral threads, join together to form large dark yellow blotches tinged with orange. These, in turn, are covered by more or less interrupted alignments of scales and irregular triangles arranged in checks forming three indistinct spiral bands, completed by casual axial 'alignments'. The apex is of a beautiful carmine-pink colour. The aperture is whitish towards the edge of the lip but of an intense pinkish orange towards the inside. In the shell of the holotype slight pigmentation problems were caused by natural growth scars.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  virgatus  Reeve, 1849

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Syntype in NHMUK Mike Filmer

Picture Link: Paul Kersten
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon.. I,  Conus,  Emendns.,  p. 1
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Solango, Ecuador
Type Data: Syntype in NHMUK deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 56 x 21 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Dauciconus Species:-virgatus
Synonyms:-
lorenzianus Reeve, 1843; cumingii Reeve, 1849; signae Bartsch, 1937
Geographic Range:-Baja California, Mexico – N. Peru
Habitat:-Intertidal on sand/mud and up to 150 m.
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light in weight, with a good gloss; low conical, the upper sides convex then tapering to narrow base, whorl rather elongate;basal ridges extending weakly; shoulder sharply angled, broad ; spire low/moderate, the sides concave, sharply pointed, whorl with slightly projecting margins;body whorl whitish or cream heavily suffused with pale orange or salmon occasionally yellowish;base white or pale; usually numerous wavy irregular axial flammules of pale brown, with strong tendency to break into dashes in midbody and shoulder bands; spiral dashes sometimes present in flammules; pattern may be reduced significantly; spire and shoulder covered with curved brownish blotches and lines forming darker dashes at margins; early whorl tan; aperture moderately narrow, widening; outer lip thin, sharp,straight/concave; mouth white; columella indistinct;
C. signae is pale form with reduced markings
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  virginiae   Tenorio & Castelin,  2016

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN  Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: European Journal of Taxonomy; p. 21 – 25; fig. 9 A-D
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Coral Sea, Plateau des Chesterfield, New Caledonia
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 42.5 x 19.4 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONILITHIDAE SubFamily:-CONOLITHINAE
Genus:-Profundiconus Species:-virginiae
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:- Only known from the Chesterfield Ridge, New Caledonia
Habitat:-Found at depths of 519 – 522 m
Description:-Original Description
Shell moderately small to medium sized. Maximum length: 42.5 mm. Shell profile ventricosely conical, with a spire moderate to high. Spire profile sigmoid. Multispiral protoconch with 3–3.5 whorls, white, glossy and translucent. Early 4–5 teleoconch whorls stepped, ridged with small nodules, which tend to disappear after the fifth whorl. Sutural ramp flat to slightly concave, with 3 to 6 fine spiral cords becoming obsolete in late spire whorls. Shoulder subangulate, forming a characteristic ridge covered with axial costae on the last whorl. Early teleoconch whorls are creamy white with a brown spiral band on the periphery, extending over the row of nodules. On later whorls, this brown band is interrupted by white areas. Spire creamy white with sparse small brown blotches present in the areas near the suture. Last whorl smooth or with very fine striae, and with spiral ribs on basal third. Ground colour creamy white overlaid with orange-brown to purplish brown irregular blotches or axially arranged flammules, interrupted by a ground-colour band at the midbody. Columella white. Aperture creamy white. Anal notch shallow.

Discussion:-

 

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Conus  virgo  Linnaeus, 1758

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Representation of Lectotype Rumphius (1705,  pl. 31,  fig. E)

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Systema Naturae 10th ed., 1, p. 713
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: locality not known, (1767 'Africano Oceano'), designated (Wils) Ambon, (Indonesia).
Type Data: A representative type figure has been recorded as: Rumphius (1705, pl. 31, fig. E)
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Virgiconus Species:-virgo
Synonyms:-
alba Spalowsky, 1795
Geographic Range:-Indo-W. Pacific
Habitat:-In 0.5- 15 m; in sand and rubble on reef flats, sometimes amongst weed and beneath dead coral rocks
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Moderately large to large, solid to heavy. Last whorl conical; outline slightly convex at adapical fourth, straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, outline slightly concave to slightly convex. Teleoconch sutural ramps almost flat to slightly concave; late ramps with 3 increasing to 5-6 spiral grooves, either paralleled by additional striae or replaced by numerous striae in latest whorls. Last whorl with weak to obsolete spiral ribs near base; widely spaced fine ribs and wrinkled threads between may extend to centre or beyond.
Colour white to yellow or orange; occasionally with darker orange collabral lines marking growth cessations. Base dark blue-violet. Larval whorls bright purple (eroded in adults). Aperture white, blue-violet at base.
Shell Morphometry
L 55-151 mm
RW 0.50-1.34
(L 55-134 mm)
RD 0.54-0.61
PMD 0.86-0.92
RSH 0.03-0.10
Discussion:-C. virgo can be distinguished from C. coelinae by the blue violet basal parts of its shell, purplish larval whorls, and its coarser spiral sculpture on the sutural ramps

 

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Conus  visagenus  Kilburn, 1974

 

Pictures:.
Picture Link: Holotype in NMSA Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Durban Mus. Novit. X, part 6,  p. 81, pl. 1,  f. I-IV,  text f. 1
Ocean geography: South Africa
Type Locality: East of Durban, Natl. South Africa; 180 fathoms
Type Data: Holotype in NMSA deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 31.2 x 23.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Plicaustraconus Species:-visagenus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Natal, South Africa
Habitat:-Found at 180-200 meters
Description:-Source Iconography
Small to medium broadly conical shell (normal size between 20 and 40 mm). The spire is very low, almost flat, with a prominent protoconch. The late sutural ramps are flat to concave, heavily striated. The last whorl, with straight or slightly concave sides, exhibits most often a characteristic rounded ridge around the shoulder. Background color white or pale cream. Pattern consisting of broad brown or orange-brown spiral bands located at the mid-body and above the basal region, leaving light-colored regions in between. Irregular white axial streaks are often present on these brown bands. The last whorl is variably overlaid with interrupted spiral lines of alternating brown and white dots and dashes. Sometimes the pattern is reduced to irregular brown blotches arranged in form of two spiral bands. Pure white, patternless specimens are known. Spire with fine brown radial flecks, often leaving distinct brown spots alternating with white on the ridge around the shoulder. Aperture and columella white.
Discussion:-The flat spire and the straight sides of the last whorl along with the rather large relative diameter confer to the shells of this species a very characteristic squat, triangular profile which resembles the shape of Conus angasi f. advertex, Conus trigonus, or most notably C. wallangra. It may also resemble C. pictus transkeiensis.

 

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Conus  visseri  Delsaerdt, 1990

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN Alan Kohn

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Published in: Gloria Maris xxix,  no. 1,  p. 1.,  f. 1 & 2
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Ka Lhim Beach in the Patong Bay, Phuket Island, Thailand.
Type Data: Holotype in NATURALIS, LEIDEN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 8.7 x 5.3 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Incertae cedis:- a juvenile of uncertain status (incertae cedis), probably a synonym of C. coffeae Gmelin, 1791 or maybe not a Cone.
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name visseri

 

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Conus vittatus Hwass in Bruguiere,1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 704
Ocean geography: Eastern Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean [erroneous]
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 23 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Purpuriconus Species:-vittatus
Synonyms:-
reevei Kiener, 1845
Geographic Range:-Sea of Cortez, W Mexico - Ecuador
Habitat:-Offshore
Description:-Source Walls
Moderately light in weight with a good gloss; low conical, rather cylindrical sides gently convex; crowded ridges basally exteding as broadly spaced narrow ridges to shoulder; shoulder roundly angled; spire low/moderate sharp, the sides straight/convex; body whorl tan, reddish even yellow usually with white midbody band and weaker bands or series of blotches at shoulder and base; midbody band with dark brown indistinct squarish spots posteriorly usually with irregular axial flammules extending to anterior edge; entire whorl covered with brown dots/dashes on spiral ridges; base yellowish or deep salmon; spire white with curved dark brown blotches; aperture narrow, widening; outer lip thin, sharp conex/straight; mouth white with pinkish, pale violet tones often narrow salmon blotch anteriorly;
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vitulinus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer
Picture Link: Paul Kersten

 

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 648
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Indian Ocean
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 50 x 29 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus planorbis Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Vituliconus Species:-planorbis vitulinus forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Indo-W. Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 60 m; on reef rock beneath dead coral, sand bottom with algae, and on coral and rubble.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid; form vitulinus slightly heavier than typical form but its relative weight may vary by 50% among specimens of similar size. Last whorl conical or ventricosely conical; outline convex at adapical fourth, almost straight below. Shoulder angulate. Spire low, usually lower in form vitulinus; outline slightly concave, sigmoid or convex. Larval shell of about 3 whorls, maximum diameter about 0.8 mm. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, often concave in late whorls, with 1 increasing to 5-7 spiral grooves; spiral sculpture occasionally weak on last 2 ramps. Last whorl with variably raised and granulose spiral ribs on basal third or fourth, sometimes weakly ribbed above; ribs variably spaced but usually more closely set toward base.
Ground colour white, sometimes suffused with cream to tan on last whorl, but rarely so on sutural ramps. In typical form, last whorl with a broad yellowish to dark brown spiral band on each side of centre, sometimes blending with adjacent areas but usually leaving a ground colour band at centre and below shoulder; subshoulder band may be very narrow and interspersed with brown axial markings. In form vitulinus, last whorl with a broad tan to dark brown band on each side of centre, either solid or reduced and split into axial streaks and flames. Dark brown axial streaks or flames cross brown and intervening ground-colour bands; the latter spiral bands vary in width and are sparsely to heavily interspersed with dark brown axial markings. Both colour forms intergrade in numerous geographic localities. In both forms as well as intermediates, overlying dotted, dashed or solid brown to dark brown spiral lines may extend from base to shoulder, varying from few to numerous and from closely to widely spaced. Base and siphonal fasciole violet, often obscured by overlying dark brown. Apex cream. Late sutural ramps with variably numerous brown radial markings, often extending to subshoulder area in form vitulinus and intermediates. Aperture white, violet to brown at base.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-82 mm
RW 0.25-0.60 g/mm
(Typical form (L 40-60 mm); form vitulinus 0.30-0.82 g/mm (L 40-62 mm))
RD 0.55-0.65
PMD 0.80-0.92
RSH 0.08-0.13
(vitulinus  (0.03-0.11))
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  voluminalis  Reeve, 1843

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Figure Conch. Icon.,  pl. 37, sp. 206

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture : Manuel Tenorio

 

Published in: Conch. Icon. I, Conus,  pl. 37,  sp. 206
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype was in collection Belcher and currently assumed to be lost
Type Size: 37 x 20 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-voluminalis
Synonyms:-
voluminalis Hinds, 1844; macarae Bernardi, 1857; filicinctus Schepman, 1913; clandestinatous Shikama, 1979
Geographic Range:-Maldives to W. Australia; Ryukyu Is. and Taiwan to Solomon Is. and Papua New Guinea
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m.
Description:-Source Living Conidae
Medium-sized to moderately large, moderately solid to solid. Last whorl conical; outline almost straight, slightly convex adapically in small specimens. Shoulder angulate to broadly carinate, often outwardly curved producing a concave outline at subshoulder area. Spire of low to moderate height, outline concave to slightly sigmoid; apex may project from an otherwise almost flat spire. Larval shell of 2-2.25 whorls, maximum diameter 0.9-1 mm. First 4-6 postnuclear whorls weakly tuberculate. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat to slightly concave, with 1-2 increasing to 4-5 spiral grooves, obsolete in late whorls. Last whorl with a few spiral ribs at base.
Ground colour white, yellow, orange or pale violet. Last whorl with a broad, continuous to sometimes interrupted, yellow or orange to brown spiral band on each side of centre, sometimes extending to shoulder and base. Long light to dark brown axial streaks may extend from shoulder ramp to base; most are interrupted centrally, producing blotches at both edges or only at the upper edge of the central area. Dotted to continuous spiral lines may cover entire last whorl, but vary in number and arrangement. Shells with no axial streaks or spiral lines occur. Larval whorls white to beige. Early teleoconch sutural ramps immaculate, often light pink; late ramps either of immaculate ground colour or more frequently with orange to dark brown radial markings. Aperture white, yellow, orange or violet.
Shell Morphometry
L 40-72 mm
RW 0.14-0.34 g/mm
(L 40-63 mm)
RD 0.51-0.65
PMD 0.88-0.98
RSH 0.04-0.17
Discussion:-C. voluminalis resembles C. recluzianus, C. sukhadwalai, C. shikamai, C. bayani, and C. capreolus. C. capreolus is of lighter weight (RW 0.19-0.22), has a generally higher spire (RSH 0.13-0.19) with carinate late whorls, and its last whorl pattern lacks all the spiral elements that characterize C. voluminalis. C. bayani is best distinguished by its taller, narrower and pure white conoid early postnuclear whorls. In addition, its larval shell is brown, its early teleoconch whorls are more strongly tuberculate, and its shoulder is generally more sharply carinate. In C. bayani, the last whorl colour pattern is of predominantly brown markings, rather than the predominantly yellow to orange spiral bands of C. voluminalis. The periostracum of C. bayani is untufted. C. sukhadwalai has usually a lower spire (RSH 0.01-0.07), a more convex last whorl and a light orange larval shell; its early postnuclear whorls are smooth and the spiral sculpture of its late sutural ramps is more prominent. C. shikamai differs in its undulate to tuberculate shoulder, multispiral brown larval shell (3-3.5 vs. 2-2.25 whorls) and fewer tuberculate spire whorls; its last whorl is generally narrower (RD 0.49-0.53) and its spire somewhat lower (RSH 0.04-0.08). C. recluzianus can be separated by its undulate to prominently tuberculate shoulder, brown multispiral larval she11 (3-3.25 whorls), very small number of tuberculate early postnuclear whorls (1.5 vs. 4-6), and by the distinct spiral grooves on its later sutural ramps; its spire is generally lower (RSH 0.02- 0.10). The whereabouts of the type(s) of C. voluminalis are unknown. However, specimens from W. Thailand, closely resemble the original figure in Reeve. The original descriptions of C. voluminalis and C. macarae as well as the holotype of C. macarae correspond to the description of C. voluminalis given above, although the spiral grooves on sutural ramps, mentioned by Reeve for C. voluminalis, are obsolete on late ramps. RKK therefore agree with Walls, [I979] in synonymizing C. macarae with C. voluminalis. C. filicinctus is known from a worn and chipped subadult type specimen. Its shape and sculpture, with carinate shoulder, sutural ramps lacking conspicuous spiral striation, and first 5 postnuclear whorls probably tuberculate, as well as its colour pattern, fall within the range of variation observed in subadult C. voluminalis. The original description of C. clandestinatous agrees in all aspects with the description of C. voluminalis given above. Shikama (1979) distinguished it from C. voluminalis avus Pilsbry, described as a fossil subspecies, as having 'distinct brown spiral lines, 2 orange colour bands and by brown axial lines on shoulder surface,' but these are all characteristic features of C. voluminalis

 

 

Conus  voluminalis f. macarae   Bernardi,  1857

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNHN Mike Filmer

 

Published in: J. Conchyl. 6,  p. 56, pl. 2, f. 2.
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Not known
Type Data: Holotype in MNHN deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 39 x 19.5 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym colour form of Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1843
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Kioconus Species:-voluminalis macarae forma
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-E.  Indian Ocean; W. Pacific
Habitat:-Intertidal to about 100 m
Description:-
C.  macarae refers to specimens with weak orange colour plain pattern which have very weak spiral lines.
Discussion:-No Data

 

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Conus  vulcanus  Tenorio, M. J. and Afonso, M. L., 2004

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Holotype in MNCM Manolo Tenorio

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Picture Link: Paul Kersten

Radula Picture: Tenorio & Rolán

 

Published in: Visaya 1 (2),  p. 25
Ocean geography: East Atlantic and West Africa
Type Locality: Porto Ferreira, East coast of Boavista, Cape Verde Is.
Type Data: Holotype in MNCM deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 25 x14 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: A valid species
Current Group Names:-
Family:-CONIDAE SubFamily:-PUNCTICULIINAE
Genus:-Africonus Species:-vulcanus
Synonyms:-
There are no junior synonyms
Geographic Range:-Cape Verde
Habitat:-Found at 1-2 m under rocks
Description:-Source Original Description
Shell small to moderately small. The profile is conical or ventricosely conical, with a low to moderate spire and a rounded shoulder. Outline of the last whorl straight or most often convex, rather concave abapically resulting in a slightly pyriform shape. The spire is almost always eroded, outline concave in those specimens in which it is preserved. Teleoconch sutural ramps flat, with spiral grooves. Suture well-marked. Last whorl smooth, with variably spaced fine spiral ribs present in the basal quarter. Aperture narrow, wider towards the base. The shell has a very dark brown color, almost black in occasions, which appears lighter ventrally. Very fine characteristic dark brown, equally spaced spiral lines are usually visible, especially on the ventral side and in young specimens. There is a white spiral band around the middle portion of the last whorl which is covered by a dark brown reticulated pattern. The region between the shoulder and the midbody band displays often a fine reticulated pattern of white dots, although in many occasions it appears solid dark brown.
The basal third is usually void of any reticulated pattern, being dark brown. On the shoulder there is often present a fine spiral band of a lighter brown color. Just above the shoulder and in the late sutural ramps of the spire, the reticulated pattern is replaced by irregular dark brown blotches on white. The upper part of the spire appears white due to erosion in most cases. The colour of the aperture is white in the larger specimens. In smaller specimens, the aperture is stained with purple-brown, with the inner lip white, and two white bands, one near the shoulder and another below the midbody. The aperture is white within. The columella is white.
Discussion:-C. vulcanus resembles at first glance a very dark form of  C. delanoyae Trovăo, 1979. In fact, shells of C. vulcanus might have been circulating as C. cf. delanoyae. Despite the similarities between the shells of C. vulcanus and the shells of certain forms of C. delanoyae, i. e. dark specimens from Baia de Santo Antao, Derrubado, there are a number of features that allow their separation. Shells of C. vulcanus are very dark brown, almost black occasionally, with a reticulated pattem most often reduced to the spiral band in the midbody of the last whorl. The fine spiral lines present, specially visible on the ventral side, as well as the lighter band around the shoulder are quite distinctive.

 

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Conus  vulpinus  Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792

 

Pictures:
Picture Link: Lectotype in MHNG Mike Filmer

Published in: Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. des Vers. Vol. 1,  p. 648
Ocean geography: Indo-Pacific
Type Locality: Guinea [erroneous] probably New Guinea
Type Data: Lectotype in MHNG deposited and catalogued
Type Size: 51 x 26 mm
Nomenclature: An available name
Taxonomy: Synonym of Conus planorbis Born, 1778
Current Group Names:-
Not appropriate for the name vulpinus.

 

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Copyright  Paul Kersten. Rights to all images remains with the originator. Every effort has been made by the editor to respect copyright and image rights and to seek the appropriate approvals. The source of any text quoted from original descriptions or other publications is acknowledged. Acknowledgements and References can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. Should you have any queries or material which would improve the content of the website, you may contact the author at the E mail address on home page.


Last update March 2017